1)[line 1]SHECHAKIM- worn out [garments as valid for the Avodah as long as they are not torn]

2)[line 1]"[ , ;] ""[U'VA AHARON...] V'HINICHAM SHAM"- "[And Aharon shall come to the Ohel Mo'ed, and remove his linen garments which he wore when he came to the Kodesh ha'Kodashim,] and he shall leave them there" (Vayikra 16:23).

3)[line 2] SHE'TE'UNIN GEZIZAH- that they must be hidden away; i.e., they must be buried, and never used again

4)[line 4] B'HA KA MI'PALGI- this is what the Machlokes [of Rebbi Yehudah, who derives that all Bigdei Kehunah are necessary for the Terumas ha'Deshen from the word "Yilbash," and Rebbi Dosa] is dependent upon

5)[line 9] TERUMAS MA'ASER

(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify an amount that must be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.

(b)Once Terumah is separated from the produce, the first tithe must be separated. One tenth of the remaining produce is given to a Levi; this is known as Ma'aser Rishon. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26). This is called Terumas Ma'aser.

(c)Our Gemara suggests that perhaps one hundredth (alt. in RASHI, one tenth) of the ash on the Mizbe'ach must be removed during the Terumas ha'Deshen since the word "va'Haremosem," which is similar to the word "v'Herim" written in reference to the Terumas ha'Deshen, is written regarding Terumas Ma'aser.

6)[line 10] TERUMAS MIDYAN

(a)Before Bnei Yisrael crossed the Yarden (the Jordan River) on their way into Eretz Yisrael, HaSh-m commanded them to wage war against the Midyanim. 12,000 soldiers from Bnei were successful in the battle. HaSh-m commanded that the spoils be divided among the soldiers, the Kohanim, the Leviyim and the rest of the nation (Bamidbar 31:1-47).

(b)The captives and animals were divided equally between the soldiers who fought in the battle and the rest of the nation. HaSh-m further instructed the soldiers to donate 1/500 of their portion to the Kohanim as a "Terumah to HaSh-m," and Bnei Yisrael to donate 1/50 of their portion to the Leviyim. Our Sugya suggests that since the word "va'Haremosem" appears, 1/500 of the ash must removed when performing the Terumas ha'Deshen (RASHI, RITVA). Other Rishonim understand that the Gemara is suggesting that 1/50 need be taken (RABEINU CHANANEL, RABEINU ELYAKIM).

7a)[line 11] ""NE'EMAR KAN, "V'HERIM"- regarding the Terumas ha'Deshen it is written "v'Herim [Es ha'Deshen]" (Vayikra 6:3)


(a)Korbenos Minchah are offerings that contain flour. In all private Menachos, a Kometz (a handful) of the offering is burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The Torah describes this with the words, "v'Herim Mimenu b'Kumtzo" (Vayikra 6:8). The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim in the Azarah, since the Korban Minchah is in the category of Korbanos known as Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Zevachim 104:29).

(b)A Kometz is defined as that which can be held between the middle three fingers and the palm. The Kohen places his hand in the mixture and removes one handful. He then wipes away the excess extending beyond his three middle fingers using his thumb and pinky until only the Kometz remains.

(c)Kemitzah is only performed when a Minchah is offered by a non-Kohen. A Minchah offered by a Kohen is entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.

(d)A Kometz of Levonah (frankincense or oliban, a gum resin that comes from trees found in present-day Arabia and India) is placed on top of most Menachos and is later offered upon the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. (For many other details regarding the offering of and the various types of Menachos, see Background to Menachos 2:1)

8)[line 12] AF KAN B'KUMTZO- so, too, the minimal of ash that must be removed from the Mizbe'ach during the Terumas ha'Deshen is one Kometz. Clearly, the Kohen is not required to use his bare hand to remove burning embers from the Mizbe'ach (RASHI)! Rather, the procedure is performed with a utensil.

9)[line 13]ZAR- a non-Kohen


(a)The Dam ha'Nefesh (lifeblood) that exits the body of every Korban (sacrifice) following its slaughter is collected in a bowl (Kabalas ha'Dam). It is then applied to the Mizbe'ach. Depending upon the Korban, there are three possible ways that the blood is applied:

1.In the case of a Korban Chatas, it is applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The Kohen accomplishes this by dipping his finger into the bowl and then applying it to each corner.

2.The blood of Korbenos Olah (see Background to Kidushin 55:3), Asham, Shelamim (see Background to Kidushin 55:4), and Todah (see Background to Kidushin 51:7) is applied in a manner known as "Shtayim she'Hen Arba" - "two that are four." This means that the blood is applied twice, but to four sides of the Mizbe'ach. First the Kohen walks to the northeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and applies the blood to the eastern and northern sides of the Mizbe'ach with a single swipe, and then he walks west and then south until he reaches the southwestern corner, at which point he applies the blood to the western and southern sides with a single swipe. This blood is applied below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line that horizontally divides the Mizbe'ach in half), whereas that of a Chatas is applied to the Keranos above the Chut ha'Sikra.

3.The blood of a Korban Pesach (see Background to Sukah 42:39), Bechor (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 28:41), or Ma'aser Behemah (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 18:15) is applied only once to the Mizbe'ach. This is accomplished through dashing it from the bowl within which it was collected against any side of the Mizbe'ach below the Chut ha'Sikra, with the exception of the southeastern corner.

(b)It is through this service that atonement is gained for he who offers the Korban (Vayikra 17:11). This is stated clearly in the Torah: "Ki ha'Dam Hu, ba'Nefesh Yechaper" - "for it is the blood that will atone for the soul" (Vayikra 17:11).

11)[line 14]HAKTARAH- burning [of limbs of Korbanos atop the Mizbe'ach]

12)[line 14] NISUCH HA'MAYIM

(a)A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai teaches us that on Sukos in the Beis ha'Mikdash there is a Mitzvah of Nisuch ha'Mayim (lit. pouring of the water). Three Lugim (approx. 1.5 liter) of water are drawn from the Shilo'ach spring, which is located to the south of the Temple Mount. This water is then brought to the Azarah amidst a joyous procession, in fulfillment of the Pasuk, "u'She'avtem Mayim b'Sason..." ("and you shall draw water with rejoicing..." - Yeshayah 12:3). The Kohen who is chosen to pour the water ascends the Mizbe'ach and pours the water from a golden flask into one of the Sefalim (silver libation pipes located in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). The Nisuch ha'Mayim takes place each day of Sukos at the time of the morning Tamid sacrifice amidst much rejoicing.

13)[line 15] NISUCH HA'YAYIN - the wine libation (NESACHIM)

(a)Nesachim are wine libations offered along with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether these Korbanos are offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). All Nesachim are offered along with a meal offering known as a Minchas Nesachim.

(b)The amount of wine necessary for the libation, as well as the amount of flour and oil mixed together for the Minchas Nesachim, varies depending upon what kind of animal is being offered:

1.Bulls or cows - 1/2 Hin (6 Lugin) of wine and of oil, 3 Esronim of flour.

2.Rams (i.e. male sheep over 1 years old) - 1/3 Hin (4 Lugin) of wine and of oil, 2 Esronim of flour.

3.Other animals (i.e. male sheep under 1 year old, all female sheep, and goats) - 1/4 Hin (3 Lugin) of wine and of oil, 1 Isaron of flour.

(c)1 Isaron is approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. 1 Log is approximately 0.3, 0.345 or 0.6 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

14)[line 17]" , , ; , ""V'ATAH U'VANECHA ITCHA..."- "And you (Aharon) and your children with you should guard your status as Kohanim pertaining to any matter of the Mizbe'ach and to the Kodesh Kodashim and you shall serve; I have determined your priesthood as a service of giving, and the non-Kohen who draws near [to perform the Avodah] shall die" (Bamidbar 18:7).

15a)[line 20] AVODAS MATANAH- a priestly service that entails placing something upon one of the Mizbachos or Klei Kodesh (sanctified utensils used in the Avodah)

b)[line 21] AVODAS SILUK- a priestly service that entails removing something from one of the Mizbachos or Klei Kodesh

c)[line 21] AVODAH TAMAH- a "finished" service; one that requires no other component in order to be complete

16)[line 23] RABI RACHMANA- the Torah includes [Avodas Siluk as long as it is Avodah Tamah]

17a)[line 24] SHEVA HAZA'OS SHE'BIFNIM- the sprinkling of [at least] seven drops of blood toward the Paroches from the Par Kohen Mashi'ach, the bull offered by a Kohen Gadol who sins unintentionally (Vayikra 4:3-12), the Par He'elem Davar, the bull offered by the Sanhedrin if their mistaken ruling caused most of Klal Yisrael to sin unintentionally (Vayikra 4:13-21; see Background to Shabbos 93:3), and the Par v'Se'ir of Yom ha'Kipurim, the bull offered by the Kohen Gadol and the goat offered on behalf of Klal Yisrael on Yom Kipur (Vayikra 16:14-16; see Background to 18:20).

b)[line 24]VESHEB'METZORA- the sprinkling of oil from the Log Shemen of the Metzora (see Background to Nidah 70:4)


(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Klal u'Frat Ein b'Chlal Ela Mah sheb'Frat.

(b)This rule states that when the Torah records a Halachah using a generalization, and then follows that generalization with a specific case or instance wherein that Halachah applies, then the latter expression is accepted as primary, and the Halachah is applicable only in that specific case or instance.


19)[line 7]"" "V'AVADETEM", HADAR ARVEI KERA- the extra "Vav" in the word "v'Avadetem" "mixes" the verse [teaching us that a Zar receives the (heavenly) death penalty only for an Avodah Tamah performed anywhere in the Beis ha'Mikdash]

20)[line 9]""; """MI'BEIS;" "ULEMI'BEIS"- [the Torah could have written] "mi'Beis" (see above entry #14); [the implication of] "ulemi'Beis" [is that if a Zar performs Avodas Siluk in the Heichal he is not liable for Misah b'Yedei Shamayim]


(a)The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) refers to the 12 loaves arranged in two stacks (Sedarim) - six loaves to a stack - on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. The loaves are one Tefach thick and may not be Chametz. Fresh loaves are arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there through the following Shabbos. The loaves are eaten by Kohanim after their removal. (Vayikra 24:5-9).

(b)A Kometz (that which can be held between one's middle three fingers and his palm) of Levonah (frankincense) is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). The Levonah is offered upon the Mizbe'ach when the loaves are removed. Only after this stage may the Lechem ha'Panim be eaten by the Kohanim.

(c)The Avodah referred to here is that of placing the Lechem ha'Panim on the Shulchan.

b)[line 11] SIDUR BAZICHIN- placing the Kometz of Levonah in the bowls

22)[line 11] SILUK V'HAKTARAH- the removal and burning of the Kometz of Levonah

23)[line 12] SIDER ES HA'MENORAH- cleaned out the lamps of the Menorah in the morning

24)[line 16]V'ARCHU- and they arranged

25)[line 17] HATZASAS ALISA- kindling the small pieces of wood [in order to light the Ma'arachah]

26)[line 18] UV'KLI SHARES- while wearing the Bigdei Kehunah

27)[line 20] SHE'SIDER ES HA'MA'ARACHAH- who arranged the firewood atop the Mizbe'ach

28)[line 21] SHNEI GEZIREI ETZIM- placed two square Amah blocks of wood, each as thick as the block used to level a heaping Se'ah, on top of the wood arrangement in order to increase the flames (Zevachim 62b; RAMBAM Temidin u'Musafin 6:1)

29)[line 22]EVARIM- [burning] the limbs [of the Korban Tamid]

30a)[line 25] AVODAH TAMA HI- [the arranging of the firewood] is a complete Avodah

b)[line 25] LAV AVODAH TAMA HI- [the arranging of the firewood] is not a complete Avodah [until the limbs of the Tamid are burned upon them]

31a)[line 28] BEIN LI'FNIM- as well as [that blood which is sprinkled toward the Paroches] in the Heichal

b)[line 28] BEIN LIFNAI V'LI'FNIM- as well as [that blood which is sprinkled between the poles of the Aron] in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim on Yom ha'Kipurim]

32)[line 29] CHATAS HA'OF

(a)The offering of a Chatas ha'Of consists of three procedures:

1.MELIKAH - Standing on the floor near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen holds the bird in his right hand and pierces its neck from the back with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut through one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus).

2.HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles the blood of the bird on the Mizbe'ach (directly from its neck) below the Chut ha'Sikra (a red line which ran from halfway up one end of the Mizbe'ach to the other, dividing it in half).

3.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach, squeezing its blood onto the Mizbe'ach.

(b)After this process is complete, the Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim.

33)[line 29]MEMATZEI- see previous entry, a:3

34)[line 30] OLAS HA'OF

(a)The offering of the Olas ha'Of consisted of four procedures:

1.MELIKAH - Standing on the Sovev (see Background to Yoma 22:15) of the Mizbe'ach, on the southeastern corner, the Kohen holds the bird in his right hand and pierces its neck from the back with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut through one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus).

2.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach, squeezing its blood onto the Mizbe'ach above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that horizontally divides the Mizbe'ach in half.

3.HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it on to the fire atop the Mizbe'ach.

4.HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen removes the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines - Zevachim 65a) and throws them on to the pile of ash at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiyah), salts it, and throws it into the fire.

35)[line 34] DAVAR PASUL- that which is invalidated [from being offered upon the Mizbe'ach, but need not be removed from there if it was mistakenly brought there, such as Kodshei Kodshim that are slaughtered in the south of the Azarah]

36)[line 35] LAMAH MEFISIN?- [the Gemara now returns to our Mishnah, and asks,] why is a Payis necessary?

37)[line 37] L'HARGISH KOL HA'AZARAH- to cause a great sound to sweep through the Azarah [in a way that glorifies the divine service]

38)[line 38]" ; - ""ASHER YACHDAV NAMTIK SOD; B'VEIS EL-KIM NEHALECH B'RAGESH"- "That together we would take wise (lit. sweet) counsel; in the House of El-kim we would accompanied by the tumult of multitudes" (Tehilim 55:15).

39a)[line 41] BA'ALEI ZERO'A- powerful individuals

b)[line 42] D'CHAMSEI V'AVDEI- who would seize [the opportunity to perform] the Avodah by force [although they had not been selected by the Payis]

40)[line 43]CHAVIVUSEI- their fondness

41)[line 43]MIKRU- it could happen

42)[line 43] MASRUN L'CHAZANIN- they were given over to the officials in charge of dressing the Kohanim in the Bigdei Kehunah

43)[last line]MAFSHITIN- strip