[2a - 18 lines; 2b - 47 lines]

1)[line 2]MENACHOS


(a)Korbenos Minchah are offerings that contain flour, of which, in most cases, a Kometz (a handful) is burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim in the Azarah, since the Korban Minchah is in the category of Korbanos known as Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Zevachim 104:29).

(b)A Kometz is the amount that can be held by the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm. The Kohen puts his hand in the dough or baked goods and removes one handful. Using the thumb and smallest finger of the same hand, he next wipes off the dough or baked goods that stick out, until only the Kometz remains.

(c)Kemitzah is only performed when a Minchah is brought by a non-Kohen. A Minchah offered by a Kohen and a Minchah that is brought together with an animal Korban (the Minchas Nesachim see below, entry #1:II:f) are entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.

(d)A Kometz of Levonah (frankincense or oliban, a gum resin from trees of present-day Arabia and India) is placed on top of most Menachos and is later offered upon the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(e)All of the Korbanos may be brought by partners except the Korbenos Minchah, which are directly excluded by the verse, "v'Nefesh Ki Sakriv Korban Minchah..." - "And when a soul will offer a flour offering..." (Vayikra 2:1) (Menachos 104b).


(a)The Torah lists thirteen Menachos. Nine Menachos are only brought by individuals, five of which are voluntary (Minchas Nedavah) and four of which are obligatory. Three Menachos are only brought by the community (Minchas Tzibur). One Minchah may be brought either by an individual or the community (the Minchas Nesachim), which is voluntary or obligatory, depending upon the Korban along with which it is brought.

(b)The Torah records five types of MINCHAS NEDAVAH, voluntary flour offerings (Vayikra 2:1-13). They are: Minchas Soles, Minchas Chalos, Minchas Rekikin, Minchas Machavas and Minchas Marcheshes.

(c)All of these Menachos require one Log of olive oil and a Kometz of Levonah. The oil is used in the kneading and the baking of the flour. A Kometz (separating a handful of the Minchah in a process called Kemitzah - see above, entry #1:I:b) of the Minchah itself is burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash by male Kohanim (since they have the status of Kodshei ha'Kodashim). The five types of Menachos differ as follows:

1.The MINCHAS SOLES is the only Minchah in which the Kometz is removed before the Minchah is baked (hence the Minchah is still in the state of Soles, fine flour, from which this Minchah receives its name). The oil and flour are mixed and Levonah is placed on one side of the mixture, and then the Kohen performs HAGASHAH, KEMITZAH and HAKTARAH. In Hagashah, the owner brings the Minchah to a Kohen who touches the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach with the utensil that contains the Minchah. In Kemitzah, the Kohen removes a Kometz from the Minchah, puts it into another utensil and places the Kometz of Levonah upon it. In Haktarah, the Kohen walks up to the top of the Mizbe'ach, salts the Kometz and burns it on the bonfire. The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:1).

2.The MINCHAS CHALOS is one type of Minchas Ma'afeh Tanur, the Menachos that are baked upon the floor of a metal oven without a pan. A dough of flour and oil is kneaded with lukewarm water (TOSFOS to Menachos 57a DH Minchas, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 12:21, CHAZON ISH Menachos 34:1). It is then divided into ten Chalos (which are not Chametz) and baked. Next, the Chalos are folded and broken into pieces (Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed, as above. The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:4).

3.The MINCHAS REKIKIN is the other type of Michas Ma'afeh Tanur. It differs from the Minchas Chalos in that the Rekikin are smeared with oil after the baking, before the Pesisah. Otherwise, its preparation is exactly like the Minchas Chalos (Vayikra 2:4).

4.The MINCHAS MACHAVAS consists of ten Matzos baked in an oven on a pan called a Machavas, which has ten raised sections. The portions of dough lie on the elevated parts of the pan so that most of the olive oil drains off, causing the dough to bake into brittle Matzos. Levonah is added, Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed. The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:5).

5.The MINCHAS MARCHESHES consists of ten Matzos baked in an oven in a pan called a Marcheshes, which has ten deep sections filled with olive oil. The portions of dough lie in the deep parts of the pan and are baked in the olive oil, causing the dough to bake into soft Matzos. Levonah is added, and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed. The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:7).

(d)The four obligatory Menachos of an individual are:

1.The MINCHAS CHOTEI, described below, entry #5.

2.The MINCHAS CHAVITIN is brought by the Kohen Gadol every day. It consists of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked. Next, the rolls are folded without breaking them (Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah and Haktarah are performed (as above, entry #1:II:c:1). Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening (Vayikra 6:13). The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not personally have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach. The amount of oil that was used for each of the Chavitin was one Revi'is.

3.The MINCHAS CHINUCH is brought by ordinary Kohen on the day that he begins his service in the Beis ha'Mikdash. It is the same as the Minchas Chavitin that the Kohen Gadol brings every day except that the Minchas Chinuch is offered in its entirety instead of being divided (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 13:2-4).

4.The MINCHAS SOTAH, described below, entry #6.

(e)The three Menachos of the community are:

1.The MINCHAS HA'OMER is brought on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is kneaded and offered on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim Vayikra 2:14-16). Levonah is added, and Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60), Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (as above, entry #1:II:c:1). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim. In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12. The Minchas ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year (Chadash), and as such it removes the prohibition against eating from the new grain.

2.The SHTEI HA'LECHEM Minchah brought on Shavuos (Vayikra 23:16-17) consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56 or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Etzba'os (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10). In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (ibid. 23:18-19). (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.) Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60) of the Shtei ha'Lechem is performed twice; once along with the live sheep and once with the Chaza'os and Shokim (chests and right hind legs) of the sheep.

3.The LECHEM HA'PANIM (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word "l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.

(f)The MINCHAS NESACHIM is brought together with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether the Korban is offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or by an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). It is called Minchas "Nesachim" because it is normally brought along with the Nesachim (wine libations) that are offered with these Korbanos. The mixture of flour and olive oil is salted and completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).


Offering a Korban Minchah is comprised of four main actions. These four "Avodos" are Kemitzah (removing a Kometz from the Minchah), Nesinah b'Keli (putting the Kometz into another utensil), Holachah (carrying the Kometz towards the Mizbe'ach) and Haktarah (walking up to the top of the Mizbe'ach, salting the Kometz and burning it on the bonfire).

3)[line 2] SHE'LO LI'SHEMAN- not for their sake (that is, "Shinuy Kodesh," e.g. performing the Kemitzah of a Minchas Marcheshes for the sake of a Minchas Machavas. TOSFOS DH she'Lo li'Sheman learns that the Mishnah also refers to "Shinuy Be'alim," e.g. performing the Kemitzah of Reuven's Minchah for the sake of Shimon, similar to the assumption of the Gemara in Zevachim 4a.) (See Insights to Zevachim 2:1 that deals with the question of whether the intention she'Lo li'Sheman needs to be stated explicitly in order to have an effect on the Minchah or whether it is the thought that counts.)

4a)[line 2]KESHEROS- they are valid (the Kohen should continue to offer the Korban as was originally intended; the other Avodos of the Korban should be done li'Sheman, the parts that were intended to be eaten should be eaten, etc.)

b)[line 2] ELA SHE'LO ALU LA'BE'ALIM L'SHEM CHOVAH- however, the owner has not fulfilled his requirement and must offer another Korban Minchah


(a)A person brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored to atone for sins in three specific cases: Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Shevuos 30:1), Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Shevuos 2:2) and Shevu'as Bituy (see Background to Shevuos 2:1).

(b)What constitutes a Korban Oleh v'Yored varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir). If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus). If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chotei (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus). (Vayikra 5:6-13)

(c)The Minchas Chotei is not mixed with oil, and Levonah (frankincense) is not sprinkled on top of it (Vayikra 5:11). When a non-Kohen brings a Minchas Chotei, a Kometz of the flour alone is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Kohanim receive the Shirayim (the rest of the flour, which they must eat before the following sunrise RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7).

6)[line 4] MINCHAS KENA'OS

(a)A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery because she was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with a certain man and she violated the warning. The process of warning her in front of witnesses is called Kinuy. The witnesses who see her seclude herself with the suspected adulterer are called Eidei Stirah. The time of seclusion must be at least for the time that it takes to roast an egg and swallow it. The woman is forbidden to her husband and the alleged adulterer until she drinks Mei Sotah (see (d), below). If she committed adultery after not heeding the warning of two witnesses, she is put to death by Chenek (choking), as it states in the Torah (Devarim 22:22). One witness to adultery ("Ed Tum'ah) prevents her from drinking the Mei Sotah.

(b)After Kinuy and Stirah, the husband must bring his wife to the Beis ha'Mikdash to perform the ceremony of the Mei Sotah. On the way there, Beis Din appoints two Torah scholars to accompany them to make sure that they do not engage in marital relations, which are forbidden to them. Moreover, if the couple does have marital relations at this point, the Mei Sotah will not work, since the husband must be "Menukeh me'Avon," clear (lit. cleaned) of sin for the ceremony to work. The Gemara (Sotah 47b) explains that this means that he did not have relations with his wife from the time that she became prohibited to him or with any other woman (ever) who was prohibited to him (RASHI to Sotah ibid.)

(c)The husband brings a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour as a Minchah offering. Oil and Levonah are not added (Bamidbar 5:15), and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (as above, entry #1:II:c:1). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim. In the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen reads Parshas Sotah, the portion of the Torah describing the curses with which a Sotah is cursed, out loud (in any language that the Sotah understands) and makes the Sotah swear that she has been faithful to her husband.

(d)An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Lug of water from the Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Azarah is placed on top of the water. Parshas Sotah (that contains numerous appearances of Hash-m's name) is written on parchment and then immersed in the water, which causes the ink to dissolve, erasing the Holy Names. The Sotah afterwards drinks from the water. If she was unfaithful to her husband and allowed herself to become defiled, the water would enter her body and poison her, causing her belly to swell out and her thigh to rupture. If she was faithful to her husband, she remained unharmed and would be blessed that she would become pregnant (Bamidbar 5:11-31). In times when there is no Mei Sotah such as in the present day, a Sotah must be divorced and does not receive her Kesuvah.

7)[line 5]HILECH- [the Kohen] performed Holachah, carrying the Kometz towards the Mizbe'ach


See above, entry #1:II:b-c.

9)[line 16] , ?MISHUM D'MESHANI VAH, KOL HANEI LISHNI VAH V'NEIZIL?- just because he performed (lit. changed) one [of the Avodos she'Lo li'Shema], should he go on to perform (lit. change) the rest of them (the rest of the Avodos) [she'Lo li'Sheman]?

10)[line 16]" ; ' - , [ ]""MOTZA SEFASECHA TISHMOR V'ASISA, KA'ASHER NADARTA LA'SH-M ELKECHA NEDAVAH..."- "That which emerges from your lips you shall observe and perform, according to what you have vowed an offering to HaSh-m your G-d, [anything that you have promised with your mouth]." (Devarim 23:24)

11)[line 17] / NEDAVAH / NEDER

(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).

(b)When a person states, "I pledge an Olah" ("Harei Alai Olah"), without singling out a specific animal, his pledge is called a Neder. When he sets aside an animal with which to fulfill his pledge, and the animal gets lost or dies, he must bring another in its place. If he states, "This animal is an Olah" ("Harei Zo Olah"), his pledge is called a Nedavah. If the animal gets lost or dies, he has no obligation to bring another in its place.


12)[line 1] ?U'NEDAVAH MI SHARI LI'SHENUYEI VAH?- and who permits a person to change any of the Avodos of the Korbenos Nedavah? (this is the end of the proof)

13)[line 5]ZEVACHIM- animal sacrifices

14a)[line 6]CHAREIVAH- [a Korban Minchah that is] dry, i.e. not mixed with oil, e.g. the Minchas Chotei (see above, entry # 5) and the Minchas Kena'os (see above, entry #6)

b)[line 7]BELULAH- [a Korban Minchah that is] mixed [with oil], i.e. all other Menachos besides the Minchas Chotei and the Minchas Kena'os

15)[line 10] HANICHA L'RAV ASHI- this answer is reasonable (and the Mishnah may follow the opinion of Rebbi Shimon as well as that of the Rabanan) according to the opinion of Rav Ashi... (The forthcoming Gemara (line 23) points out that there is a contradiction between two sources that quote Rebbi Shimon. The source quoted previously (line 2) states that Menachos she'Nikmetzu she'Lo li'Sheman are Kesheiros and fulfill the obligation of the person who offers them, while another source (line 23) states that Menachos she'Nikmetzu she'Lo li'Sheman are sometimes Kesheiros and sometimes Pesulos, and that they never fulfill the obligation of the person who offers them. Three Amora'im offer solutions to this contradiction: Rabah (line 30), Rava (Daf 3b, line 1) and Rav Ashi (Daf 3b, line 22).)

16)[line 22]MECHAVARTA- it is clearly correct

17)[line 24]"[ , ;] , ""...KODESH KODASHIM HI, KA'CHATAS VECHA'ASHAM"- "[It shall not be baked leavened, I have given it [to them] as their portion of My offerings made by fire;] it is most holy, as is the sin offering and the guilt offering." (Vayikra 6:10)


(a)"Lishmah" is one of the Halachos that apply to Korbanos. This Halachah specifies that all of the actions that are performed on the Korban (the "Avodos") must be done with the intent of offering it as the specific type of Korban for which it was designated, and for the sake of the owners who dedicated it. For example, if Reuven brings a Korban Olah, the Kohen must perform the Shechitah for the sake of Reuven's Korban Olah.

(b)Four Avodos of the Korban must be performed Lishmah: Shechitah, Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachah and Zerikas ha'Dam.

(c)In general, all sacrifices in which these Avodos were done she'Lo li'Sheman are Kosher and are offered on the Mizbe'ach, however the owner is still obligated to bring another Korban. A Korban Chatas, and a Korban Pesach brought on Erev Pesach are different; if their four Avodos were not done li'Sheman the Korbanos are Pesulim and cannot be offered on the Mizbe'ach (Zevachim 2a).

19)[line 29] EINO MERATZEH- and it does not finds favor (the Korban he offers does not fulfill his obligation)

20a)[line 31] SHINUY KODESH- changing the type of Korban (lit. sanctity), e.g. performing the Kemitzah of a Minchas Marcheshes for the sake of a Minchas Machavas (in which case Rebbi Shimon rules that the Minchah is Kasher and fulfills the obligation of the person who offered it, since Ma'aseha Mochichin - it is obvious that the Kohen is using the incorrect terminology)

b)[line 31] SHINUY BE'ALIM- changing the owner or the Korban, e.g. performing the Kemitzah of Reuven's Minchah for the sake of Shimon (in which case Rebbi Shimon rules that the Minchah does not fulfill the obligation of the person who offered it since Ein Ma'aseha Mochichin - it is not obvious that the Kohen has the intention for the incorrect individual)

21)[line 35]" REBBI SHIMON DARISH TA'AMA DI'KERA- Rebbi Shimon used to suggest logical reasons for the Torah's commandments; this is the meaning of "Darish Ta'ama di'Kra," as in Yevamos 23a.

22)[line 37](' )(SIMAN OLAH OLAH MALAK U'MITZAH CHATAS HA'OF KODSHEI KODASHIM KODSHIM KALIM)- this is a mnemonic device for remembering the five questions on the opinion of Rabah that follow:

1.Olah refers to "Olas ha'Of she'Malkah l'Ma'alah Mishum Chatas ha'Of..." (line 39)

2.Olah refers to "Olas ha'Of she'Mitzah Damah l'Ma'alah l'Shem Chatas ha'Of..." (line 44). (The next two words also refer to the first two questions, pointing out the order of the actions performed upon the Olas ha'Of in each case.)

3.Malak refers to "Olas ha'Of she'Malkah l'Ma'alah Mishum Chatas ha'Of..." (line 39)

4.u'Mitzah refers to "Olas ha'Of she'Mitzah Damah l'Ma'alah l'Shem Chatas ha'Of..." (line 44)

5.Chatas ha'Of refers to "Chatas ha'Of she'Hizah Damah l'Matah l'Shem Olas ha'Of..." (Daf 3a, line 3)

6.Kodshei Kodashim refers to "Kodshei Kodashim she'Shachtan ba'Tzafon l'Shem Kodshim Kalim..." (Daf 3a, line 8)

7.Kodshim Kalim refers to "Kodshim Kalim she'Shachtan ba'Darom l'Shem Kodshei Kodashim..." (Daf 3a, line 13)

23)[line 39] OLAS HA'OF

(a)The offering of the Olas ha'Of (e.g. in Vayikra 1:14-17) consists of four procedures:

1.MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Yoma 22:13) of the Mizbe'ach, on the southeastern corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is crowded with Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of Korbanos are offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)

2.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.

3.HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.

4.HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiya), salts it, and throws it into the fire.

24)[line 39]SHE'MALKAH (MELIKAH)

See previous entry, 23:a:1.

25)[line 40] CHATAS HA'OF

(a)The offering of the Chatas ha'Of (which is brought by a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes and Nazir Tamei, and by a Metzora who is poor, and by a poor person who was Nishba l'Sheker, or who transgressed Shevu'as ha'Edus, or was Metamei Mikdash v'Kodashav; see Background to Kinim 22:9:b for references) consists of three procedures (see, for example, Vayikra 5:8-9): Melikah, Hazayah, and Mitzuy.

1.MELIKAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck (Orpo - similar to the word Arifah) of the bird with his right thumbnail. He makes sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus), but not to sever the entire neck of the bird.

2.HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.

3.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and squeezes its remaining blood onto the Mizbe'ach.

(b)The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim, in the Azarah, on the day that it is offered and the following night. No part of it was burned on the Mizbe'ach.


See previous entry, 25:a:3.

27)[last line]HAZA'AH

See above, entry #25:a:2.