1a)[line 1]נוקםNOKEM- exact revenge

b)[line 1]נוטרNOTER- bear a grudge

2a)[line 4]מגלךMAGALCHA- your sickle

b)[line 6]קרדומךKARDOMCHA- your hatchet

c)[line 9]חלוקךCHALUKCHA- your cloak

3)[line 9]הילךHEILACH (= HEI LACH)- here it is; take it

4)[line 11]הנעלבין ואינן עולביןHA'NE'ELAVIN V'EINAN OLVIN- those who are insulted and do not respond in kind

5)[line 12]חרפתןCHERPASAN- shame

6)[line 13]עושין מאהבהOSIN ME'AHAVAH- serve HaSh-m with love

7)[line 13]יסוריןYISURIN- troubles, esp. physical pain

8)[line 15]לעולם דנקיט ליה בליביהL'OLAM D'NAKIT LEI B'LIBEI- [although he should not respond in kind,] he [should] bear the grudge in his heart

9)[line 16]המעביר על מדותיוHA'MA'AVIR AL MIDOSAV- who forgoes his honor when it is slighted (see RASHI to Rosh Hashanah 17a)

10)[line 17]דמפייסו ליהD'MEFAISU LEI- that [is referring to when the offenders] attempt to appease him

11)[line 20]חולהCHOLEH- one who is unable to extend one finger without extending the one next to it

12)[line 20]והתניאV'HATANYA- This Beraisa is offered as proof.

13)[line 23]היחידיןHA'YECHIDIN- a) Kohanim who are sick to the point that they generally sit or lie by themselves (RASHI); b) Kohanim who are Talmidei Chachamim (as in the Mishnah in Maseches Ta'anis 10a; RABEINU CHANANEL)

14a)[line 25]שלישSHALISH- the third (middle) finger

b)[line 26]גודלGUDAL- the thumb

15)[line 28]פקיעPEKI'A- a type of whip

16a)[line 30]מטרקא דטייעיMATREKA D'TAIYEI- an Arab horse-whip

b)[line 30]דפסיק רישיהD'PESIK REISHEI- the head of which has been cut (Paka) [into numerous strips in order to increase the pain inflicted.]

17)[line 31]מרישME'REISH- originally

18)[line 32]פתילתאPESILTA- a wick

19)[line 33]מבלאיBELA'EI- from the worn out

20)[line 33]המייניהןHEMENEIHEN- their belts

21)[line 34]מפקיעיןMAFKI'IN- remove [material to fashion into wicks]

22)[line 36]נגדאNAGDA- a whip

23)[line 39]תקעTAKA- drove forcefully

24)[line 39]מעלות האולםMA'ALOS HA'ULAM- the steps of [one of the] halls [built by Hurdus on Har ha'Bayis] (RASHI)

25)[line 41]עגלה ערופהEGLAH ARUFAH- see Background to 22:32

26)[line 41]געוGA'U- cried out

27)[line 42]תינוקTINOK- in this context, the young Kohen

28)[line 42]מפרפרMEFARPER- twitching convulsively; just before death

29)[line 44]"וְגַם דָּם נָקִי שָׁפַךְ מְנַשֶּׁה הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד, עַד אֲשֶׁר מִלֵּא אֶת יְרוּשָׁלִַיִם פֶּה לָפֶה; [לְבַד מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר הֶחֱטִיא אֶת יְהוּדָה, לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי ה']""V'GAM DAM NAKI SHAFACH MENASHEH HARBEH ME'OD, AD ASHER MILEI ES YERUSHALAYIM PEH LA'FEH..." - "And Menasheh also spilled much innocent blood, until he filled Yerushalayim from one end to the other [with blood]; [this aside from the sin of causing Yehudah to do evil in the eyes of HaSh-m]" (Melachim II 21:16) (THE EVIL KING MENASHEH)

(a)Menasheh was king over Yisrael for fifty-five years, and his reign was marked by evil and terror. The Pasuk describes his conduct. Among those murdered by Menasheh was his own grandfather, Yeshayah ha'Navi. Menasheh spread idolatry throughout Yehudah and went so far as to place an idol in the Beis ha'Mikdash. This was main reason why HaSh-m destroyed his temple four generations following.

(b)Our Gemara points out that the above mentioned verse equates Menasheh's cold-blooded murder with his defilement of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

30)[line 45]הי מעשה קדים?HAI MA'ASEH KADIM?- which story occurred earlier [that mentioned in our Mishnah of the Kohen who fell from the ramp, or the one detailed here]?

31)[line 48]אקראי בעלמא הואAKRAI B'ALMA HU- it was an unusual occurrence

32)[last line]אתוייASUYEI- bring


33a)[line 7]דזלD'ZAL- that became cheapened

b)[line 8]כדקיימא קיימאKED'KAIMA KAIMA- remained at its proper level of severity

34)[line 10]מדקא נסיב לה תלמודאMID'KA NASIV LAH TALMUDA- from that which a parallel was drawn [from]

35)[line 13]"וּפָשַׁט אֶת בְּגָדָיו, וְלָבַשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים; וְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַדֶּשֶׁן...""U'FASHAT... V'LAVASH BEGADIM ACHERIM, V'HOTZI ES HA'DESHEN..."- "And he shall remove [his garments,] and clothe himself in other vestments, and remove the ash..." (Vayikra 6:4). Following the commandment to perform the Terumas ha'Deshen (see below, entry #43), the Torah describes Hotza'as ha'Deshen (see next entry).

36)[line 13]והוציא את הדשןV'HOTZI ES HA'DESHEN (HOTZA'AS HA'DESHEN)

(a)Ashes from burnt sacrifices left on the Mizbach ha'Olah after the Terumas ha'Deshen (see below, entry #43) is performed are consolidated in the Tapu'ach, a large pile of ash in the middle of the Mizbe'ach. When the Tapu'ach grows excessively large, the ash is carried to the Shefech ha'Deshen, a Tahor place located outside of the encampment in the desert or Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:12, 6:4).

37)[line 14]שומעניSHOM'ANI (= SHOME'A ANI)- I would think it logical

38)[line 14]כדרך יום הכפוריםK'DERECH YOM HA'KIPURIM (BIGDEI KEHUNAH)

(a)Every Kohen wears four white linen garments while performing the Avodah. The Bigdei Kehunah are:

1.the Kutones (long shirt),

2.Michnasayim (breeches),

3.Avnet (belt),

4.Migba'as (hat).

(b)The Kohen Gadol wears an additional four garments whenever he performs the Avodah. These are:

1.the Tzitz (a thin gold band upon which the words "Kodesh la'Sh-m" are inscribed, worn upon the forehead),

2.Ephod (apron),

3.Choshen (breastplate),

4.Me'il (robe).

(c)The head-covering of the Kohen Gadol is referred to as a "Mitznefes" by the Torah; some Rishonim understand that the head-coverings of the Kohen Gadol and Kohen Hedyot differed in appearance (see TOSFOS 25a DH Notel).

(d)If a Kohen performs the Divine Service while not wearing the Bigdei Kehunah, he receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. The Gemara (Sanhedrin 83b) derives from a Pasuk (Shemos 29:9) that they are considered Zarim (non-Kohanim; see Background to Sanhedrin 83:1) while in this state.

(e)On Yom ha'Kipurim, the Kohen Gadol wears Bigdei Lavan when performing the special Yom Kipur service (Vayikra 16:4). The Bigdei Lavan of the Kohen Gadol are identical to the four white linen garments worn by a Kohen Hedyot. The Kohen Gadol wears the Bigdei Lavan while performing the Avodas Penim (the parts of the service which include entering the Heichal and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim). He changed his garments from Bigdei Zahav (his regular eight vestments) to Bigdei Lavan and vice versa five times over the course of the day.

(f)Our Gemara is not suggesting that a Kohen Hedyot performing the Hotza'as ha'Deshen should be required to wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol, as this is untenable. Rather, similar to a Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur who changes his garments that have one level of Kedushah to those on a different level, so must the Kohen performing the Hotza'as ha'Deshen change to a set of clothing with a different level of Kedushah; namely, his regular clothing, which have no Kedushah.

39)[line 19]פחותין מהןPECHUSIN ME'HEM- inferior [due to that which they are worn, or to that which they are woven of lesser quality linen]

40)[line 20]אחרים והוציאACHERIM V'HOTZI- [the words] "Acherim" and "v'Hotzi" [should be read together, implying that it is other Kohanim who remove the ash]

41)[line 20]בעלי מומיןBA'ALEI MUMIN (BA'AL MUM)

(a)A Kohen who has a Mum (physical blemish) is forbidden to perform Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, whether he has a Mum Kavu'a (a permanent blemish; e.g. an amputated hand or foot) or a Mum Over (a temporary blemish; e.g. boils). The RAMBAM in SEFER HA'MITZVOS maintains that these are counted as two separate negative commandments (#'s 70 and 71), while the RAMBAN rules that they are included in one Lav.

(b)There are three categories of blemishes (Bechoros 43a):

1.those that invalidate both a Kohen from performing the Avodah as well as an animal from being offered as a sacrifice upon the Mizbe'ach;

2.those that invalidate a Kohen but not an animal;

3.those that invalidate both a Kohen and an animal, but only due to Mar'is ha'Ayin - since they appear to be invalidating blemishes.

(c)The status of a Kohen, and the Avodah he performed, while he was a Ba'al Mum depends on the severity of the Mum:

1.If his Mum is one that invalidates both Kohanim and animals, then he is liable to receive Malkus (lashes) if he performed the Avodah b'Mezid according to the Rabanan, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim according to Rebbi. His Avodah is Pesulah whether he performed it b'Shogeg or b'Mezid.

2.If his Mum is one that invalidates only Kohanim, then his Avodah is Kesheirah (RAMBAM Hilchos Bi'as Mikdash 6:6).

3.If his Mum is one that prevents him from performing the Avodah only due to Mar'is ha'Ayin, then he does not receive Malkos, and his Avodah is Kesheirah (Sefer ha'Chinuch #275, 276).

42)[line 24]לא ימזוג בהן כוס לרבוLO YIMZOG BA'HEN KOS L'RABO- [the servant] should not pour a cup in them for his master [since they are dirty and smoke-filled from the cooking]. This is a parable; a Kohen should not perform Avodah relating to the offering of Korbanos in the same set of clothing dirtied from the removal of ash.


(a)Every morning, a Kohen removes some of the ashes of the consumed sacrifices heaped upon the Mizbe'ach. He then places them southeast of the Mizbe'ach alongside its ramp, at a distance of three Tefachim (approx. 10.5 inches) away from the ramp and 10 Amos from the foot of the ramp (Vayikra 6:3).

44)[line 29]בשני כליםBI'SHNEI KELIM?- when performed with only two of the Bigdei Kehunah? The Pasuk states regarding the Terumas ha'Deshen, "v'Lavash ha'Kohen Mido Vad, u'Michnesei Vad Yilbash Al Besaro, v'Herim Es ha'Deshen ..." - "And the Kohen shall don a linen tunic, and linen breeches he shall place upon his skin, and he shall lift the ash ..." (Vayikra 6:3)

45)[line 30]כתונת, מכנסים, מצנפת, אבנטKUTONES, MICHNASAYIM, MITZNEFES, AVNET- see above, entry #38

46)[line 31]כמדתוK'MIDASO- matching his size; the Bigdei Kehunah must fit the Kohen wearing them

47)[line 32]שלא יהא דברSHE'LO YEHEI DAVAR- that none [of the Bigdei Kehunah should be put on]

48)[line 34]"על בשרו""AL BESARO"- (Vayikra 6:3).The terminology of "upon his skin" implies that he is wearing nothing else when he dons the Michnasayim.

49)[line 34]מדאפקיה רחמנא בלשון מדוMID'AFKEI RACHMANA B'LASHON MIDO- from that which the Torah used the terminology of "Mido" [to describe the tunic, as opposed to "Kesones Bad" or a similarly unambiguous phrase]

50)[line 36]מ"על בשרו" נפקאME"AL BESARO" NAFKA- derives it from the words "Al Besaro" [which are unnecessary, since they are implied by the word "Yilbash"]

51)[line 37]מה תלמוד לומר "ילבש"?MAH TALMUD LOMER "YILBASH"?- what does the word "Yilbash" teach [as it is unnecessary since the phrase "u'Michnesei Vad" can be modified by the first time the verse states "v'Lavash"]?

52)[line 41]תשובות בדברTESHUVOS B'DAVAR- retorts to the opinion of Rebbi Dosa

53)[line 42]אבנטו של כהן גדול, לא זה הוא אבנטו של כהן הדיוטAVNETO SHEL KOHEN GADOL, LO ZE HU AVNETO SHEL KOHEN HEDYOT

(a)The Torah tells us that the Avnet (belt) normally worn by the Kohen Gadol as part of his usual eight garments contains Kil'ayim (a normally forbidden mixture of linen and wool). We are also notified that when he performs the special Avodah of Yom ha'Kipurim, then his belt consists of 100% linen. Nowhere, however, does the Torah specify what material(s) the Avnet of a Kohen Hedyot is woven from.

(b)There is a disagreement between two Amora'im as to what material is used to make the belt of a Kohen Hedyot. One of them maintains that a Kohen Hedyot wears a belt of linen, similar to that of the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur. The other argues that the Avnet of a Kohen Hedyot contains Kil'ayim, similar to the belt worn by the Kohen Gadol during the rest of the year.

(c)The terms used to refer to these two opinions are "the Avnet of the Kohen Gadol equals that of the Kohen Hedyot," or that it "does not equal the Avnet of the Kohen Hedyot." Rashi to our Gemara explains that the first opinion maintains that the belt worn by the Kohen Gadol during the year is similar to that of a Kohen Hedyot; they are both Kil'ayim. The other contends that the Kohen Hedyot wears a belt that is not Kil'ayim. According to Rashi in Chulin (138a), the opposite is true. The opinion that maintains that the two Avnetim are similar is comparing that of the Kohan Hedyot to the belt worn by the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur; they are both entirely linen. It is the other opinion who says that a Kohen Hedyot wears a belt made with Kil'ayim.


(a)Once a person or object attains a certain level of holiness, one may not subsequently lower its status. The only option available is to raise it to a higher level of Kedushah.

(b)Given this rule, Rebbi asks how those garments worn by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim can then be used for a lighter - i.e., a less stringent - Kedushah.