The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[18a - 40 lines; 18b - 31 lines]

1)[line 1]נכנסNICHNAS - the family now entering (MISHMAROS)

(a)Every family of Kohanim belongs to one of 24 shifts (Mishmaros). Each Mishmar serves in the Mikdash for one week at a time, meaning that each one performs the Avodah for at least two weeks out of the year. The Mishmaros change on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar performs the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar performs the Avodah in the afternoon.

(b)Every Mishmar is further divided into six Batei Avos. Each Beis Av serves on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, the Kohanim of all of the Batei Avos perform the Avodah together (RASHI Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros are divided into seven groups, and only one group serves on Shabbos (RASHI Ta'anis 26a; see Insights).

(c)On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos) all the Mishmaros Kehunah come to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar are permitted to perform the Avodah of the Regel.

2)[line 2]שכר הגפת דלתותSECHAR HAGAFAS DELASOS- remuneration for closing the doors [to the Azarah, Cheil, Heichal, and Lishkos on Motza'ei Shabbos that were opened in the morning by the outgoing Mishmar]

3)[line 3]לא [שקיל]LO [SHAKIL]- they did not take [from the Lechem ha'Panim]

4)[line 3]בעי מיפלגBA'I MIFLAG- [the Kohen Gadol] wishes to take half of

5)[line 3]בציר חדא מפלגאBATZIR CHADA MI'PALGA- subtract one from half [since the Rabanan disagree with Rebbi and rule that the Kohen Gadol may not take a full half of the Lechem ha'Panim]

6)[line 9]משמר המתעכבMISHMAR HA'MIS'AKEV- a detained Mishmar. If Shabbos falls immediately preceding or following Yom Tov, all of the Mishmaros in the Beis ha'Mikdash divide the Lechem ha'Panim evenly amongst themselves. If a Mishmar or Mishmaros remain following a Yom Tov which fell on Thursday or before a Yom Tov that falls on Monday, they do not receive an equal share, since they are able to return home on Friday or wait to arrive on Erev Shabbos. The Chachamim, however, decreed that they should receive two of the Lechem ha'Panim.

7)[line 12]מסרו לוMASRU LO- they gave [over to] him (the Kohen Gadol)

8)[line 13]בסדר היוםB'SEDER HA'YOM- in the proper sequence of the service of the day [of Yom Kipur; i.e., from Parshas Acharei Mos]

9)[line 13]אישיISHI- my master

10)[line 15]פרים ואילים וכבשיםPARIM V'ELIM U'KEVASIM- [the] bulls, rams, and rams [that were to be used in the performance of the Avodah the next day]

11)[line 17]מפני שהמאכל מביא את השינהMIPNEI SHEHA'MA'ACHAL MEVI ES HA'SHEINAH- since [eating] food makes one sleepy [and the Kohan Gadol would stay up the entire night of Yom ha'Kipurim in order to avoid Keri, as the ensuing Mishnayos detail]

12)[line 18]לחייLECHAYEI- it is understood

13)[line 19]בנויB'NOY- in physical appearance

14)[line 20]שאם אין לוSHE'IM EIN LO- that if he does not have [more wealth than his peers]

15)[line 22]תרקבא דדינריTARKEVA D'DINAREI- a half-Se'ah (3 Kavim - approximately four liters) of golden Dinarim

16)[line 22]מרתא בת בייתוס... יהושע בן גמלאMARTA BAS BAISUS... YEHOSHUA BEN GAMLA- Marta bas Baisus was a wealthy widow who lived at the time of the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash. She married a Kohen by the name of Yehoshua ben Gamla, whose actions were praised by the Chachamim. He was not, however, a learned individual (RITVA).

17)[line 23]בכהני רברביB'KAHANI RAVREVEI- as the Kohen Gadol

18)[line 24]שעיריםSE'IRIM (SA'IR HA'NA'ASAH BA'CHUTZ)

(a)The Korban Musaf of Yom ha'Kipurim consists of one bull, one ram, and seven sheep offered as Korbenos Olah, along with one goat offered as a Korban Chatas (Bamidbar 29:7-11). These animals are offered upon the outer Mizbe'ach (Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon), and the meat of the Chatas is consumed by Kohanim on the night following Yom ha'Kipurim (Mishnah, Menachos 99b).

(b)The Mishnah (Shevuos 2a) states that the goat (Sa'ir ha'Na'aseh ba'Chutz), in conjunction with the day of Yom ha'Kipurim, atones for non-Kohanim who transgressed the sin of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see next entry). This atonement is limited to a situation in which one only realized that he had transgressed after he sinned. This was due to one of three reasons:

1.he was not aware of his Tum'ah state;

2.he was not aware that the meat which he partook of was Kodesh;

3.he was not aware that the area which he entered was part of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

19)[line 25]על חטא קא אתוAL CHET KA ASU (TUM'AS MIKDASH V'KODASHAV)

(a)On may not enter the Mikdash (see Background to Tamid 27:27 for a definition of this term) if he has become Tamei due to contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah (Bamidbar 5:2; see Background to 14:14).

(b)One may not consume Kodshim in a state of Tum'ah even if he is outside of the Mikdash. This is derived from the verse which states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga" - "... she (a woman after childbirth) may not touch any consecrated item" (Vayikra 12:4). The Gemara (Yevamos 75a, Makos 14b) understands that this Pasuk forbids one who is Tamei to partake of Kodshim.

(c)If one transgresses these prohibitions b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must offer a Korban Oleh v'Yored (see Background to Kerisus 2:10). If he transgresses them b'Mezid (intentionally) in front of two Halachically valid witnesses who have warned him of the consequences of his action (Hasra'ah), he receives Malkus (lashes) from Beis Din. If he was not warned, then he receives Kares (see Background to Shekalim 13:47; Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #167).

20)[line 25]חלשא דעתיהCHALSHA DA'ATEI- he would become disheartened

21)[line 25]פר נמי על חטא הוא דאתיPAR NAMI AL CHET HU D'ASI - the bull [of the Kohen Gadol] also comes to atone for sin (PAR SHEL YOM HA'KIPURIM)

(a)Among the Korbanos offered by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim is a bull purchased with his personal funds (Vayikra 16:3-6). The Kohen Gadol performs Semichah (the placement of both hands upon the head of the animal and leaning on it with all of one's might) on his bull while reciting Viduy (the confession of his sins) (Vayikra 1:4). He then slaughters it, collects its blood, and sprinkles the blood in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:14), and then again in the Heichal toward the Paroches (the curtain separating the Heichal from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim; ibid. 16:16). He then applies it to the Mizbach ha'Ketores in the Heichal (ibid. 16:18). The carcass of the bull is then burned in its entirety outside of Yerushalayim in the same place that the ashes removed from the Mizbe'ach are deposited. The remainder of its blood is then poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(c)The Mishnah (Shevuos 2a) states that the service of this Par atones for sins of the Kohanim. The Tana'im disagree as to what sins are atoned for:

1.Rebbi Yehudah is of the opinion that the Par of the Kohen Gadol atones for sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see above, entry #19).

2.Rebbi Shimon maintains that atonement for Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav is provided by the sprinkling of the bull's blood. The Viduy of the Kohen Gadol atones for all other sins of the Kohanim.

22)[line 27]דאית ביה מילתאD'IS BEI MILSA- who has sinned

23a)[line 28]אי בר אחתיך דיילא הוי חזיIY BAR ACHASICH DAILA HEVEI CHAZI- if you see your nephew the officer

b)[line 28]בשוקא קמיה לא תחליףB'SHUKA KAMEI LO SACHALIF- do not pass in front of him in the marketplace [since, as he is your relative, he is aware of your illegal activities]

24)[line 30]סלתותSELASOS- different types of flour

25)[line 30]למסמסוL'MASMESO- a) to loosen his bowels [in order to empty them, so that he will not be interrupted in the middle of the Avodah of Yom Kipur] (RASHI); b) to cause him to become constipated [so that he will not be interrupted in the middle of the Avodah of Yom Kipur] (TOSFOS HA'ROSH)

26)[line 31]חימוםCHIMUM (BA'AL KERI)

(a)One who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not enter the Machaneh Leviyah (the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser, Terumah or Kodshim. He becomes Tahor upon immersing in a Mikvah and may immediately enter Machaneh Leviyah and eat Ma'aser. Until nightfall he remains a "Tevul Yom" (see Background to 34:21), after which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim. Mid'Rabanan he may not enter the Ezras Nashim of the Beis ha'Mikdash until nightfall.

(b)Our Gemara is concerned that the consumption of foods that increase sperm production will cause the Kohen Gadol to experience "Chimum" (literally "heat"); i.e., an emission of semen.

27)[line 35]זבZAV

(a)A man who emits Zov at least twice, whether this occurs over the course of one day or two or consecutive days, is called a Zav. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg (in contrast to semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white). Zov also may be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid component of barley dough or soft barley batter. A Zav has the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah and may not enter "Machaneh Leviyah" (see Background to Pesachim 67:6).

(b)A Zav causes objects underneath him to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether or not they come into contact with him. The status of such an object is that of a Tamei Midras (lit. that which is treaded upon), also known as a Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, or the "Tachton" of a Zav. An object beneath a Zav becomes a Midras only if it is designed for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot receive Tum'as Midras.

(c)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras of a Zav or the Zav himself gains the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, along with any clothing he is wearing as well as any other utensil (with the exception of earthenware utensils) that he is in contact with at the time.

(d)Utensils or clothing lying above a Zav also become a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether or not they come into contact with the Zav. Such objects are referred to as the "Elyon" of a Zav.

(e)A Tahor person or object moved (or outweighed on a balance scale) by a Zav becomes a Rishon Tum'ah. This is called Tum'as Heset, and is an application of Tum'as Masa (see above, #d). Only a Zav, Zavah, Nidah, or Yoledes can be Metamei people or objects in this manner.

(f)A Zav must count seven "clean" days during which he experiences no discharge in order to start his purification process. On the seventh day or following, he may immerse himself in a Ma'ayan (a natural spring) during the daytime. At nightfall he becomes Tahor (assuming that he has not experience any emissions before then; Zavim 2:2).

(g)A man who emits Zov does not gain the full status of a Zov if his emission is due to an external factor (b'Ones). If the discharge came about b'Ones, he is only Tamei until nightfall, similar to a Ba'al Keri (see previous entry). Some examples of Ones are:




4.sickness (ibid.).

28)[line 36]אין מאכילין אותוEIN MA'ACHILIN OSO- we do not give [a Zav] to eat [from the following foods after he sees Zov once b'Ones. Since they increase the likelihood of his emitting Zov in a way that is not an Ones, he would then have the status of a Zov who is Tamei for seven days and must bring a Korban.]

29)[line 38]מי גריסין של פולMEI GERISIN SHEL POL- a soup made with crushed beans

30)[line 39]מרייסMARYAS- a brine containing fish-hash and sometimes wine


31a)[line 1]שחליםSHICHLAYIM- (O.F. cresson) a variety of cress

b)[line 1]חלגלוגותCHALAGLOGOS- (O.F. polpier) the purslane plant

c)[line 1]גרגירGARGIR- (O.F. orugue) Eruca sativa; the rocket plant. This plant has medicinal qualities that benefit the eyes.

32)[line 1]"וַיֵּצֵא אֶחָד אֶל הַשָּׂדֶה לְלַקֵּט אֹרֹת...""VATZEITZEI ECHAD EL HA'SADEH L'LAKET OROS..." - "And one [of the students] went out to the field to pick Oros..." (Melachim II 4:39) (MIRACLES PERFORMED BY ELISHA)

(a)The Navi details many miracles brought about by the Navi Elisha. Following the miracle in which a small amount of oil flowed to fill numerous containers in order to support the widow and family of the Navi Ovadyah, the story is told of how Elisha revived the dead son of the Shunamite woman (who later grew up to become Chabakuk ha'Navi). We then learn that there was a famine in the land. Elisha returned to his Talmidim (known as Bnei Nevi'im) in Gilgal, and instructed his servant to prepare a pot of broth for the Talmidim to eat. The Talmid erred, however, and picked wild berries that were bitter as well as poisonous. He then added them to the brew.

(b)When the Talmidim tasted the broth, they screamed that it was poisonous, and were unable to continue eating. Elisha called for some flour to be added to the pot. After this was done, no poisonous element remained.

33)[line 7]מצרנאהMATZRANA'AH- that has grown on the boundary of a field [far away from other plants which would sap nutrients from the surrounding soil, weakening the curative properties of the Gargir]

34)[line 8]אכסנאיACHSENAI- a guest

35a)[line 8]לא יאכל ביציםLO YOCHAL BEITZIM- should not eat eggs [since they increase sperm production]

b)[line 8]ולא יישן בטליתו של בעל הביתV'LO YISHAN B'TALIS SHEL BA'AL HA'BAYIS- nor should he sleep upon the clothing of his host [since should he emit semen, it will be discovered, and his host will lose respect for him]

36)[line 9]כי מקלע לדרשישKI MIKLA L'DARSHISH- when he would come to the city of Darshish, also known as Ardeshir or Ardjir. Seleucius I, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, founded the city and called it Seleucia. It was located on the Tigris River near Babylon and Ctesiphon. This is mentioned in our Gemara since the Gemara concludes that the reason for this practice was in order to avoid Tum'as Keri (TOSFOS YESHANIM).

37)[line 10]מאן הויא ליומא?MAN HAVYA L'YOMA?- who is [willing] to become [my wife] for a day (i.e., temporarily)?

38)[line 10]שכנציבSHECHANTZIV- a city in Bavel

39)[line 14]יזדווגו זה אצל זהYIZDAVGU ZEH ETZEL ZEH- the son of one will marry the daughter of the other

40)[line 16]ממזרותMAMZERUS (MAMZER)

(a)The offspring of certain prohibited marital relations are termed Mamzerim. A disagreement among various Tana'im exists as to the severity of the forbidden relationship required such that any resulting children will have the status of a Mamzer (see Background to Sanhedrin 51:2). The Halachah follows the opinion of Rebbi Shimon ha'Timni, who rules that only relations punishable by Kares will produce a Mamzer (Yevamos 49a).

(b)A Mamzer is prohibited from marrying into the community of HaSh-m; that is, Kohanim, Leviyim, and Yisraelim. They may, however, marry other Mamzerim or Gerim (converts; Mishnah Kidushin 69a).

41)[line 16]"... וּמָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ זִמָּה""... U'MAL'AH HA'ARETZ ZIMAH"- "... and the earth shall be filled with immorality" (Vayikra 19:29).

42)[line 17]רבנן קלא אית להוRABANAN KALA IS LEHU- the reputation of such prominent rabbis precedes them [and his children are therefore known as "the son/daughter of so-and-so]

43)[line 18]תבעוה להנשא ונתפייסהTAV'UHA L'HINASEI V'NISPAISAH- if a woman accepted a marriage proposal

44)[line 18]לישב שבעה נקייםLEISHEV SHIV'AH NEKIYIM- to determine that she is free of uterine bleeding for seven days [since the excitement of her impending marriage may cause her period to begin]

45a)[line 19]אודועי הוו מודעו להוODO'EI HAVU MOD'U LEHU- they would notify them [in advance that they would be coming]

b)[line 20]מקדם הוו מקדמי ומשדרי שלוחאMEKADEM HAVU MEKADMEI U'MESHADREI SHELUCHA- they would send a messenger [to betroth her] beforehand

46)[line 21]יחודי הוו מיחדיYICHUDEI HAVU MEYACHDEI- a) He would seclude himself with her without relations for the first seven days (RASHI); b) he would marry her on the understanding that all he desired was her company, and not relations (TOSFOS DH Yichudei); c) he would merely designate her as she whom he would marry if he felt it necessary, but he did not actually marry her (RI HA'LAVAN, RA'AVAD). (see Insights)

47)[line 22]פת בסלוPAS B'SALO- lit. bread in his basket; i.e., a wife available to him [and is therefore less likely to experience an emission of semen]

48)[line 24]בית אבטינסBEIS AVTINAS

(a)The room where the Ketores (see Background to Shekalim 11:25) was compounded (TY #34) is named for the Avtinas family. This family of Kohanim closely guarded the secret of how to compound the Ketores in such a way that its smoke rose straight up in the air, and only then dispersed.

(b)The Kohen Gadol is taught the art of Chafinah - pouring the Ketores from its container into his two cupped hands - in this chamber. Next to this room is a Mikvah in which the Kohen Gadol immersed himself for the first time on Yom ha'Kipurim.

49)[line 24]נפטרוNIFTERU- took leave

50)[line 27]ששכן שמוSHE'SHICHEN SHEMO- who caused his name to dwell

51)[line 28]אם (הוא) היה חכם, דורשIM (HU) HAYA CHACHAM, DORESH- [while attempting to stay awake on the night of Yom Kipur,] if he was wise, he would expound [upon the Torah]

52)[line 29]לקרותLIKROS- to read [verses in Tanach]

53)[line 30]באיוב ובעזרא ובדברי הימיםB'IYOV UV'EZRA UV'DIVREI HA'YAMIM- from the books of Iyov, Ezra, and Divrei ha'Yamim [which were interesting and would engage his attention]