The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[70a - 21 lines; 70b - 29 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.

[1] Rashi 70a DH v'Iy k'Rebbi Shimon ד"ה ואי כרבי שמעון:

"keshe'Karev Ashamo keshe'Hu Ashir Yachol l'Havi Chatas Ani" כשקרב אשמו כשהוא עשיר יכול להוי חטאת עני

The words keshe'Hu Ashir Yachol l'Havi Chatas Ani כשהוא עשיר יכול להוי חטאת עני are unnecessary and only belong the first time they appear in Rashi. They were duplicated by a printer's error (M. KORNFELD).

[2] Rashi 70b DH Shechitaso b'Tzafon ד"ה שחיטתו בצפון:

The period after the words "ul'Yom v'Lailah" וליום ולילה is unnecessary.


1)[line 1]היא תועבהHI TO'EVAH- she (the mother) alone is an abomination (i.e. prohibited with regard to the Kehunah; see Background to Nidah 69:23)


(a)On the day that a Metzora (see Background to Nidah 50:3) is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over one Revi'is of fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.

(b)The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He counts seven days ("Yemei Sefiro"), and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4).

(c)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his Taharah. The animal Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves) as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as his Asham. An ordinary Metzora or a poor Metzora brings Nesachim with all of his animal Korbanos (Menachos 91a).

(d)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham with the Log of oil resting upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate (see Yoma 38)). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the archway of the gate.

(e)After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the Kodshei ha'Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3)

(f)There is an argument among the Tana'im as to when we judge the means of the Metzora with regard to which Korbanos he must bring. Rebbi Yehudah states that his status is established at the time he brings the Asham, which is the first Korban. Rebbi Shimon rules that the Chatas establishes his status. Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov rules that his means are checked at the time that he brings the Tziporei Metzora.

3)[line 5]חטאת העוף הבא על הספקCHATAS HA'OF HA'BA AL HA'SAFEK (CHATAS HA'OF)

(a)It is prohibited to offer an animal as a sacrifice when its obligation is in question, since it is possible that we will be slaughtering, offering or eating Chulin ba'Azarah.

(b)Unlike other Korbanos, a Chatas ha'Of is not slaughtered nor is it offered on the Mizbe'ach. Instead, Melikah is performed upon it and its blood is sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach. Therefore, it may be offered (but not eaten) even when its obligation is not certain. For example, if it is unclear whether a woman gave birth to a fully formed child or not, she may bring, out of doubt, a bird as a Chatas in order to permit her to eat Kodshim. The bird, however, is not eaten. Our Sugya mentions another instance where it should be possible to offer a Chatas ha'Of ha'Ba'ah Al ha'Safek. Rebbi Yehoshua claims that a Metzora who is not sure whether or not his Korbanos were offered could bring this Korban after he writes off all of his assets to others, rendering himself poor. The Chatas offered by a poor Metzora is a Chatas ha'Of, and this person may be able to offer it Al ha'Safek.

(c)Rabanan rule that the Chatas ha'Of ha'Ba Al ha'Safek is burned, while Rebbi Yehudah rules Yatilenah la'Amah - he should throw it into the channel of water that was an Amah wide, which passed through the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash and emptied into Nachal Kidron (Pesachim 28a).

4)[line 8]אשם קבעהASHAM KAV'AH- the status of the Metzora is established at the time he brings the Asham, which is the first Korban

5)[line 14]הכל הולך אחר צפוריםHA'KOL HOLECH ACHAR TZIPORIM- everything follows the assessment of his means at the time that he brings the Tziporei Metzora (see above, entry #2)

6)[line 17]לייתי ולתניLAISEI V'LISNI- he should bring a Korban and stipulate that it is either an Asham or a Shelamim (Rebbi Shimon rules that it is not prohibited to shorten the eating time of Kodshim)


A Log of oil is used in the purification process of a Metzora (Vayikra 14:10; for a discussion of the laws of a Metzora, see above, entry #2)

8)[line 19]שער נקנורSHA'AR NIKANOR- VS #17, TY #18. The Gate of Nikanor, the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate (see Yoma 38a). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. (For a discussion of the different levels of Kedushah of the Beis ha'Mikdash compound, see Background to Menachos 95:13.) The Chachamim arranged this so that a Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the archway of the gate.


9)[line 1]שחיטתו בצפוןSHECHITASO B'TZAFON - its slaughter is in the northern [part of the Azarah] (KODSHEI KODASHIM / KODASHIM KALIM)

(a)Kodshim are animals that are designated to be sacrificed. Kodshei Kodashim are Korbenos Olah, Chatas and Asham (and Menachos), which have a greater degree of sanctity than Kodshim Kalim. They may only be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash and those parts that may be eaten may only be eaten in the Azarah by male Kohanim.

(b)The term Kodshim Kalim refers to the Korbenos Shelamim, Todah, Ma'asar Behemah, Pesach and Bechor, which have a lesser degree of sanctity. They may be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part) and may be eaten in the entire city of Yerushalayim by men or women, Kohanim or non-Kohanim.

10)[line 1]טעון מתנת בהונותTA'UN MATNAS BEHONOS- see above, entry #2

11)[line 1]סמיכהSEMICHAH

(a)Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press both of his hands on the head of his animal Korban, as described in Vayikra (1:4). Semichah is performed immediately before the animal is slaughtered, in the place where it will be slaughtered (Menachos 93a).

(b)Not all Korbanos require Semichah. All private Korbanos require Semichah, except for the Bechor, Ma'aser, and Pesach offerings. The only public Korbanos that require Semichah are the Par He'elem Davar (see Background to Kerisus 26:7), the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach (scapegoat) of Yom ha'Kipurim (see Background to Nidah 55:17), and according to some, the Sa'ir brought as an atonement when most of the nation sins with Avodah Zarah (see Background to Kerisus ibid.). If the Korban is a Chatas, Asham or Olah, all of which are brought to atone for sins, the owner of the Korban confesses his sin while he performs Semichah. If the Korban is a Korban Shelamim or Todah, which a person brings to thank HaSh-m for the kindness or salvation that was bestowed upon him, the owner of the Korban says words of praise for HaSh-m while he performs the Semichah (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 3:13-15).

(c)If a Korban is brought by partners, each one performs Semichah. Certain people do not perform Semichah for their Korbanos. These include women, children, slaves, people designated Halachically as fools, deaf-mutes and Nochrim (Menachos 93a). Semichah is not performed when offering a Korban on a Bamah (Zevachim 119b; see Background to Zevachim 101:37).

(d)The Gemara discusses whether Semichah involves pressing on the animal's head with all of one's strength, or just placing one's hands on the animal's head (Chagigah 16b). The conclusion is that one must press on the animal's head with all of one's strength (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 3:13).

(e)If one does not perform Semichah on his Korban, the Korban remains valid (Menachos 93b).

12)[line 2]נסכיםNESACHIM

(a)The Nesachim are wine libations that are brought together with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether the Korban is offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or by an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). They are brought along with the Minchas Nesachim, a flour offering that is offered with these Korbanos (see Background to Me'ilah 15:5). (See also Background to Temurah 17:4:b.)

(b)The amounts of wine, flour and oil vary based upon which animal is being offered — see Background to Kidushin 37:12.

13)[line 2]תנופהTENUFAH

(a)Waving portions of certain Korbanos and flour offerings is called Tenufah; the Kohen, together with the owner of the Korban (when it is not a Korban Tzibur), waves them in all four directions and up and down (Vayikra 7:30; RASHI to Menachos 62a DH Molich. TOSFOS to Sukah 37b DH Kedei, ponders whether all Tenufos were done in this fashion, or whether some Tenufos required only lifting and lowering).

(b)The Tenufah of the Asham Metzora is performed when the animal is alive while the Tenufah performed on the Shelamim is only done after it is slaughtered and only on the Chazeh v'Shok.

14)[line 2]חזה ושוקCHAZEH V'SHOK (KORBAN SHELAMIM)

(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice (Olas Nedavah), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).

(b)Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only (Shetayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a flour offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).

(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (the two upper sections of the right hind leg, until the shoulder blade) of the Shelamim are given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban ("Eimurim,") are offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The Eimurim consist of:

1.the layer of fat covering the stomachs;

2.all other fat attached to the stomachs;

3.the two kidneys;

4.the fat on the kidneys;

5.The Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or a lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON);

6.In the case of a sheep, the Alyah - the fat tail (Vayikra 3:3-4).

(d)The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten for two days and the intervening night.

(e)If one animal is offered with the stipulation that it be either a Shelamim or an Asham Metzora, Tenufah is performed on the live animal and on the Chazeh v'Shok after it is slaughtered. (See TOSFOS to Menachos 105b DH u'Senufas, where they record the Girsa of our Gemara as "u'Senufas Chazeh v'Shok.")


(a)Every Korban has specific Halachos with regard to when, where and by whom it may be eaten. Some Korbanos are eaten on the day that they are slaughtered and the following night, while others are eaten for two days and the night in between. Some may be eaten in all of Yerushalayim, while others must be eaten only in the Azarah (courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). Some may be eaten by any Jew, while others may be eaten only by the Kohanim. According to those who rule Ein Mevi'in Kodshim l'Veis ha'Pesul, it is prohibited to bring a Korban in a way which will limit the amount of time, places or people with which the Korban is eaten. Doing so may cause part of the Korban to not be eaten and to become Nosar.

(b)An Asham is eaten for only one day and the following night. A Shelamim is eaten also the following day. Therefore, the Korban that one brings to fulfill the obligation of an Asham Metzora and a Shelamim can only be eaten for one day and the following night. If the Korban was in reality a Shelamim, this causes it to be burned unnecessarily (if the parts meant to be eaten were not finished).

16)[line 7]"כי לא אחפוץ במות המת ...""KI LO ECHPOTZ B'MOS HA'MES …"- "'For I have no pleasure in the death of him who dies,' [says HaSh-m, the Lord G-d, 'Therefore turn, and live.']" (Yechezkel 18:32)

17)[line 16]נשא שלמה את בת פרעהNASA SHLOMO ES BAS PAR'OH- Shlomo ha'Melech was on such a lofty spiritual level that he was certain that some of the commandments that limit the actions of kings of Yisrael lest they sin (Devarim 17:1420) did not apply to him. As a result, he married an exorbitant number wives and concubines, among them Nochri women, as it states in Kings I 11:18. Towards the end of his life he was not able to prevent them from serving idols. As part of the punishment for his original mistake, the verse states explicitly that he aided his wives in serving their idols. The most beloved and influential of these wives was the daughter of Par'oh (Kings I 3:1). The RAMBAM (Hilchos Isurei Bi'ah 13:14-16) explains that Shlomo converted all of his wives before marrying them, but since their conversion was not truly sincere the verse calls them Nochriyos.

18)[line 19]נציב מלחNETZIV MELACH- a pillar of salt

19)[line 19]בן שונמיתBEN SHUNAMIS- Elisha ha'Navi promised his hosts from Shunem that they would be blessed with a child because of their hospitality. After a number of years the child died from sunstroke. The mother closed the door to the room where the child lay, and went to Elisha who brought him back to life through his prayers. The people of Alexandria asked if he was still Tamei like a corpse after he was resurrected.

20)[line 21]נחכם להןNECHAKEM LAHEN- we will figure it out [then]

21)[line 25]משגר לאוהביוMESHAGER L'OHAVAV- and he sends to his friends

22)[line 27]ישא ויתן באמונהYISA V'YITEN B'EMUNAH- (lit. and he should take and give in trust) he should conduct his business dealings honestly

23)[line 28]"לי הכסף ולי הזהב""LI HA'KESEF V'LI HA'ZAHAV"- "Mine is the silver and Mine is the gold, [says HaSh-m Tze-vakos]" (Chagai 2:8).

24)[last line]אשה ההוגנת לוISHAH HA'HOGENES LO- a woman who is fit for him