YOMA 57 - Dedicated in honor of 8 Av 5766, the first Yahrzeit of Mrs. Lily (Leah bas Pinchas) Kornfeld, a holocaust survivor who met all of life's challenges with courage and fortitude, by her daughter Diane and family.

[a - 40 lines; b - 35 lines]

1)[line 1] HASHTA, BARI TEMEI'IM ATEM- now [that the Beis ha'Mikdash has been destroyed] you are definitely Temei'im (spiritually defiled) [and the Shechinah therefore cannot dwell amongst you]

2)[line 1]" ""TUM'ASAH B'SHULEHA"- "Her impurity is on the bottom of her garments" (Eichah 1:9).


(a)One of the methods employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah is Hekesh. Hekesh entails comparing two subjects that are mentioned together in a verse.

(b)A Hekesh is a powerful way of determining Halachah. When two subjects are compared through a Hekesh, all possible parallels are drawn between them, unless a different Derashah teaches us otherwise ("Ein Hekesh l'Mechetzah"). Additionally, logical differences that would impede a Kal va'Chomer (see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:22) or a Gezeirah Shavah (see Background to Zevachim 103:30) do not stand in the way of learning one subject from another through a Hekesh ("Ein Meshivin Al ha'Hekesh").

(c)Our Gemara refers to that which the blood of the bull is sprinkled upward only once and that which the blood of the goat is sprinkled downward seven times, which Halachos are derived from the other through a Hekesh.

b)[line 5] CHOZER U'MELAMED B'HEKESH?- then be used as a source of Halachos taught elsewhere through a Hekesh? (The Gemara (Zevachim 49b) teaches that within the Halachos of Korbanos, we may not derive Halachos through a double Hekesh.)

4)[line 6] HEIMENU V'DAVAR ACHER- [The Hekesh through which the number of times that the blood of the bull and the goat are sprinkled is derived is not a full Hekesh. Rather, this Halachah] is derived from it itself along with another source [since that which both the blood of the bull and that of the goat must be sprinkled in two sets is stated clearly regarding each; it is merely the number that is unclear]

5)[line 8] MEKOMOS HU D'GAMREI ME'HADADI- [The same information does not pass through a double Hekesh. The first Hekesh teaches the number of sprinklings, whereas the second Hekesh] teaches [that the same manner of sprinkling must be repeated in] a different place

6)[line 8] CHUTZ MIBI'FNIM B'CHADA ZIMNA GAMAR- [all of the Halachos applicable] in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim that are paralleled in the Heichal are derived in one fell swoop [including that which the number of sprinklings for the bull and goat are derived from one another. That which a double Hekesh is disallowed within laws of Korbanos applies only when the information relayed is known only from the first Hekesh, and does not appear in that Parshah at all.]

7)[line 11] KENEGED HA'PAROCHES- opposite the Paroches [in such a manner that they fall to the ground in front of it]


(a)If the Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) issues a ruling in error permitting a transgression that is punishable by Kares, and those in Eretz Yisrael - either the majority of Klal Yisrael or most of the Shevatim - act upon their ruling, then they must offer a Par He'elem Davar to atone for the nation. This Korban consists of twelve bulls offered as Korbenos Chatas, one on behalf of each tribe. If the sin committed was that of idolatry, then the Korban differs and is termed Se'irei Avodas Kochavim (see next entry; RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).

(b)After their slaughter, the blood of each bull is sprinkled seven times in the Heichal toward the Paroches. It is then applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach, while the Emurim (innards and certain fats) are burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(c)The flesh and remaining parts of the bulls are burned outside of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-21, Bamidbar 15:22-26). The clothing of those who carry the carcasses out of the Azarah become Tamei. (According to Rebbi Shimon [Yoma 67b], those involved with burning the Paros are also Metamei Begadim.)


(a)If the sin transgressed by the majority of Klal Yisrael when the Sanhedrin ruled in error (see previous entry) was that of idolatry, then Se'irei Avodas Kochavim are offered in place of a Par He'elem Davar. Twelve bulls are offered by the Sanhedrin as Korbenos Olah, along with twelve goats offered as Korbenos Chatas - one on behalf of each Shevet. The goats are treated in the same manner as the bulls of a Par He'elem Davar.

10)[line 15] D'AVIDEI K'SIDRAN- a) that they lay in a row, one below the next (RASHI); b) that there was one above and seven below (in no specific order) (TOSFOS YESHANIM DH she'Lo k'Sidran [printed on Daf 58a]); c) that there were eight drops and not seven (RABEINU YOSEF, cited in TOSFOS YESHANIM ibid.)

11)[line 22] NISARVU LO DAMIM B'DAMIM- if the blood of the bull and the goat were mixed [inadvertently before they were sprinkled]

12)[line 24] L'KAN UL'KAN- for both the bull and the goat

13)[line 25] BAVLA'EI TIPSHA'EI- foolish Babylonians

14a)[line 26] B'AR'A D'CHASHOCHA- in a dark land (i.e., Bavel, referred to as such due to the fact that it is sits in a valley)

b)[line 26] SHEMAITA D'MECHASHCHAN- dark (i.e., incorrect) sayings

15)[line 28]" ...""V'CHILAH MI'KAPER ES HA'KODESH"- "And he shall finish atoning for the Kodesh" (Vayikra 16:20).

16)[line 33] B'MATANOS HA'SCHRONOS- after sprinkling the blood of the bull once upward

17a)[line 38] D'KA MEGAMRINAN LEHU- for they (the Talmidei Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael) teach them (the Babylonians; i.e., us)

b)[line 38] V'LO GEMIREI- and they (we) do not learn


18)[line 3] KOSOS B'KOSOS- the bowl [holding the blood of the bull] with the bowl [holding the blood of the goat]

19)[line 4] SHELOSHAH PE'AMIM- It is necessary to sprinkle from the first bowl again following the sprinkling from the second. This is because if the first had been the blood of the goat, it is invalid when sprinkled before that of the bull (Beraisa, 40a).

20)[line 6] MI'VADA'IN YAHIV- he should perform the Avodah with [the blood whose identity is] known

21)[line 6]HANACH- the mixed blood

22a)[line 6] SHIRAYIM HAVU- is it considered the remainder [of blood from the Korbanos

b)[line 7] VEL'YESOD AZLI- that is poured onto the base [of the Mizbe'ach] (e.g. Vayikra 4:30)?

23a)[line 7] DECHUYIN HAVU- it is considered rejected [blood, unfit for Avodah]

b)[line 7]V'AZLI L'AMAH- in which case it should be poured into the Amah[-by-Amah channel of water that runs through the Azarah]?


(a)As a general rule, only one utensil is required to collect the Dam ha'Nefesh (lifeblood) of a Korban following its slaughter. After the blood is applied to the Mizbe'ach in the proper manner, the rest is emptied upon the Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach. If a Kohen collected the Dam in more than one utensil, but only applied blood from one of them to the Mizbe'ach, then Tana'im disagree as to the status of the blood in the other utensil(s). The Tana Kama rules that this blood, too, has the status of Shirayim (the remainder of the blood), and it is therefore poured onto the Yesod. Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Shimon maintains that such blood is Dachuy (rejected), and it must be emptied into the Amah-by-Amah channel of water that runs through the Azarah.

25)[line 14] D'DACHYEI B'YADAYIM- when it was actively pushed away [through its collection in a second, unnecessary vessel]

26a)[line 15]L'MA'ALAH- earlier (regarding a Se'ir Nasi; see Background to Kesuvos 45:5:b [Vayikra 4:25])

b)[line 15]L'MATAH- later (regarding a Korban Chatas; see next entry [Vayikra 4:30])


(a)If one transgresses a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to receive the punishment of Kares (see Background to Pesachim 32:16) had he transgressed it b'Mezid (intentionally), he must offer a Korban Chatas. This Korban consists of a female goat or sheep.

(b)One who offers a Korban Chatas first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern area of the Azarah. He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking HaSh-m for forgiveness. The animal is then immediately slaughtered. The blood of the Chatas is applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts on the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The remaining blood is then spilled onto the Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach. Certain parts of the Korban are eaten by Kohanim in the Azarah; it must be consumed before the day following its offering (Vayikra 27-31).

28)[line 27] SHEB'TZAV'AR BEHEMAH- that remains in the neck of the animal

29a)[line 28] ME'ARVIN L'KERANOS- [the blood of the Par and that of the Sa'ir] should be mixed together [before they are applied] to the corners [of the Mizbe'ach ha'Zahav]

b)[line 30] EIN ME'ARVIN- [the blood of the Par and that of the Sa'ir] should not be mixed together [before they are applied] to the corners [of the Mizbe'ach ha'Zahav, although they should be mixed before their application to the top of the Mizbe'ach (TOSFOS, TOSFOS YESHANIM)]

30)[line 31]" AF AL GAV D'LO KSIV YACHDAV- even though the word "Yachdav" - "together" - is not written [regarding the prohibition against cursing one's father or mother (Vayikra 20:9)

31)[line 32] K'MAN DI'CHESIV YACHDAV DAMI- it is as if "Yachdav" is written [and therefore, without a source that teaches us otherwise, one would not receive the death penalty for cursing his father or mother unless he cursed both of them]

32)[line 33]"[ ] [...]""[V'CHIPER AHARON AL KARNOSAV] ACHAS [BA'SHANAH]"- "[And Aharon shall bring about atonement through (the application of blood to) its corners,] once [a year]" (Shemos 30:10). Our Gemara suggests this verse as a source that the blood must be mixed before it is applied, since it is only applied once, and not twice.

33)[line 34] D'LO K'SHINUYAN- unlike that which we answered [that even Rebbi Yonasan agrees that the blood must be first mixed]