[103a - 40 lines; 103b - 46 lines]
1)[line 1]כל שלא זכה המזבח בבשרהKOL SHE'LO ZACHAH HA'MIZBE'ACH BI'VESARAH- any Korban from which the Mizbe'ach does not receive its meat (for example, it became Pasul before the Zerikas ha'Dam and thus was never fit to be offered on the Mizbe'ach)
2)[line 2]"[וְהַכֹּהֵן הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת ]עֹלַת אִישׁ; [עוֹר הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב, לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה]""... OLAS ISH..."- "[And as for the Kohen who offers] the Olah of a person; [the hide of the Olah which he offered, to that Kohen it shall belong]" (Vayikra 7:8).
3)[line 3]שעלתה לאישSHE'ALSAH L'ISH- [an Olah] that achieves (lit. "goes up") for a person (i.e. it is a valid Korban that attains atonement for the one who offers it)
4)[line 4]שלא עלתה לבעליםSHE'LO ALSAH L'VE'ALIM- it does not achieve [atonement] for its owner
5)[line 8]שלא זכו בבשרהSHE'LO ZACHU BI'VESARAH- they do not receive its meat (because all of the flesh of a Korban Olah is burned on the Mizbe'ach)
6)[line 9]אין מזבח יוכיחEIN MIZBE'ACH YOCHI'ACH- the Mizbe'ach cannot prove (that is, we cannot prove from the fact that the Mizbe'ach does not receive the hide of an Olah even though it receives all of the flesh, that the Kohanim, who receive the meat of other Kodshei Kodashim, also should not receive the hide)
7)[line 14]עולה הבאה מן המותרותOLAH HA'BA'AH MIN HA'MOSAROS - an Olah that is brought from leftover [Korbanos]. When a Korban cannot be offered but must be left to graze and then redeemed when it develops a blemish, such as a Korban Asham whose owner died, the money received for the sale (redemption) of the animal must be used to buy a Korban Olah, which is then offered as "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach" (KAYITZ HA'MIZBE'ACH)
(a)In many places the Gemara states that when certain items are sold (e.g. Kodshim that become unfit to offer on the Mizbe'ach) their value is designated as a Nedavah ("v'Yiplu Demeihem l'Nedavah"), a contribution towards a Korban. This money was used to purchase Korbenos Tzibur (offerings brought by the entire people) and not Korbenos Yachid (personal Korbanos). A person may also volunteer money as a Nidvas Tzibur. In both cases, the money was placed in one of the six Shofaros (collection boxes) that were kept in the Mikdash and was used to buy Korbenos "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach" to be sacrificed as Korbenos Olah (burnt offerings) when the Mizbe'ach was not otherwise in use (Shekalim 6b).
(b)(Rashi to Sukah 56a DH Kayitz explains that these offerings were also called "Kayitz," because they were like a "dessert" to the Mizbe'ach ["Kayitz" refers to cut figs, a common dessert food].)
(c)The Gemara here states that the hide of such an Olah is not given to the Kohanim. RASHI in Temurah (23b, DH she'Ein Orah) explains that the hide instead is sold and the money received for it is used for Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach. (See CHIDUSHEI HA'GRIZ here.)
8)[line 15]לנדבת ציבור אזליL'NIDVAS TZIBUR AZLEI - they are used as communal, voluntary offerings
(a)There is a Machlokes what to do with the money that was used to redeem Kodshim that were not fit to be offered, and with money which was set aside for buying Korbanos and not used.
(b)The Chachamim are of the opinion that the money is put into the Shofaros (donation boxes) that were kept in the Mikdash, and is used to buy Korbanos "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach" (communal Olos) to be sacrificed when the Mizbe'ach was not otherwise in use (see previous entry). These Korbanos were Korbenos Tzibur (offerings brought by the entire people) and not Korbenos Yachid (personal Korbanos).
(c)Rebbi Elazar is of the opinion that the owner of the money himself uses the money to purchase an Olas Nedavah (personal Korban).
9a)[line 17]העולה, עולה ראשונהHA'OLAH, OLAH RISHONAH- when the verse states, "ha'Olah" (Vayikra 6:5), it refers to the first Olah that is offered every day, the Olas ha'Tamid (see Background to Zevachim 6:28b). Rava derives from this verse that the Tamid must be the first Olah brought every day.
b)[line 18]העולה, עולה ראשונהHA'OLAH, OLAH RISHONAH- the word "ha'Olah" in the verse that teaches that the hide of the Olah is given to the Kohen (see above, entry #2) implies that only the hide of an animal that was originally designated as an Olah is given to the Kohen, but not the hide of an Olah that is being brought from leftover Korbanos (see above, entry #7)
10)[line 19]פרט למתפיס עולה לבדק הביתPERAT L'MATPIS OLAH L'VEDEK HA'BAYIS - excluding a case of one who pledges to give a Korban Olah to Bedek ha'Bayis (KEDUSHAS HA'GUF / KEDUSHAS DAMIM)
(a)KEDUSHAS HA'GUF - an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5) or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is."
(b)KEDUSHAS BEDEK HA'BAYIS - an object the value of which is consecrated to Hekdesh so that it should be used for filling the day to day needs of the Beis ha'Mikdash and not for Korbanos. An object with Kedushas Bedek ha'Bayis is used for filling the day-to-day needs of the Beis ha'Mikdash, and not to be used for Korbanos.
(c)Regarding an actual Korban that was designated as Kedushas Bedek ha'Bayis, see next entry.
11)[line 20]קדשי בדק הבית תפסי מדאורייתאKODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS TAFSEI MID'ORAISA- the Kedushah of Kedushas Bedek ha'Bayis takes effect [on a Korban] mid'Oraisa. There is an argument (Temurah 32b) concerning the status of an animal that was designated as a Korban, and was then pledged as a gift to Bedek ha'Bayis (see above, entry #10:b). One opinion maintains that the Kedushah of Bedek ha'Bayis does not take effect mid'Oraisa, since the Korban belongs to the Mizbe'ach, so to speak, and the owner has no right to pledge it to Bedek ha'Bayis. Another opinion maintains that the Kedushah of Bedek ha'Bayis does take effect, and the Korban belongs to Bedek ha'Bayis (and one must redeem it from Bedek ha'Bayis by paying its value, and offer it as a Korban).
12)[line 23]הא הדר ביהHA HADAR BEI- but he retracted [his opinion]
13)[line 24]ששה לנדבהSHISHAH LI'NEDAVAH (SHOFAROS: SHISHAH LI'NEDAVAH)
(a)"Shofaros" refers to boxes in the shape of a Shofar-horn (wide at the base and thin at the top) into which money was deposited. Their openings were narrow so that it would be impossible to reach in and steal the contents. There were thirteen Shofaros in the Beis ha'Mikdash, each one for a different purpose.
(b)Six of the thirteen Shofaros in the Beis ha'Mikdash were designated for the collection of money for Nedavah (free will) offerings. There are various opinions in the Gemara (in the last Perek of Menachos) as to the purpose of these six Shofaros. The RAMBAM and the BARTENURA explain, based on a Tosefta, that they were used for the following:
1.The money left over from buying a Chatas
2.The money left over from buying an Asham
3.The money left over from buying the bird-offerings of Zavim, Zavos, Yoldos and Metzora'im
4.The money left over from buying the offerings of a Nazir
5.The money left over from buying an Asham Metzora
6.Money that is given as a Nedavah for the Mizbe'ach
14)[line 25]ביטלת מדרשו של יהוידע הכהןBITALTA MIDRASHO SHEL YEHOYADA HA'KOHEN- you have annulled the teaching (see next entry) of Yehoyada ha'Kohen. Yehoyada ha'Kohen was the leader of the first of the 24 Mishmaros of Kohanim (see Divrei ha'Yamim II 24; see Background to Zevachim 99:3). (From the fact that Rebbi Yehudah did not respond to Rebbi Nechemyah's contention, we see that Rebbi Yehudah retracted his opinion.)
15)[line 27]כל שבא משום חטאת ומשום אשםKOL SHE'BA MISHUM CHATAS U'MISHUM ASHAM- any Korban that comes because of a Chatas or an Asham (see above, entry #7) should be brought as a Korban Olah, and its meat burned entirely to HaSh-m, and its hide given to the Kohanim
16)[line 27]לשםLA'SH-M- the meat is burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, as an offering "to HaSh-m"
17)[line 28]במאי מוקים לה?B'MAI MUKIM LAH?- [after Rav Hamnuna refuted Rav Nachman's explanation of the Beraisa's statement, "Perat l'Olas Hekdesh," as excluding the hide of an Olah that comes from Mosaros, Rav Nachman asked Rav Hamnuna,] "With regard to what [does the master, Rav Hamnuna] establish it (the statement of the Beraisa)?"
18)[line 29]המקדיש נכסיוHA'MAKDISH NECHASAV- one who consecrates all of his property for Bedek ha'Bayis (see above, entry #10:b)
19)[line 31]דמיהן יפלוDEMEIHEN YIPLU- and the money received in exchange for them shall be given (lit. shall fall)
20)[line 34]אדם חולק הקדישוADAM CHOLEK HEKDEISHO- a person has in mind to divide the property that he consecrates (and to give to the Mizbe'ach as a Korban whatever is fit to be offered on the Mizbe'ach, and to give to Bedek ha'Bayis whatever is not fit to be offered on the Mizbe'ach, even though he did not specify in his statement what type of Hekdesh he wanted each item to be)
21)[line 34]עור תפיסOR TAFIS- the Kedushah of Kedushas Bedek ha'Bayis takes effect on the hide
22)[line 36]גר שמת ואין לו יורשיםGER SHE'MES V'EIN LO YORSHIM - a convert who died who has no heirs (and thus his Korban is ownerless) (NICHSEI HA'GER SHE'MES)
(a)When a Jew dies, his closest relatives inherit his estate (according to the hierarchy established by the Torah) (Bamidbar 27:8-11). Since all of the Jews are related to each other (at least through Yakov Avinu and his sons), every Jew must have heirs. A convert, however, may have no heirs (since his non-Jewish relatives do not inherit his estate). When a convert dies without heirs, his estate becomes Hefker (ownerless). The first person who takes possession of his belongings becomes their owner.
(b)If a convert dies before he was able to offer a Korban that he designated, the animal has the status of a Korban whose owner has died and is treated accordingly (e.g. a Korban Olah is offered, a Chatas is left to die, etc.).
23)[line 12]לא זכה במקצתLO ZACHAH B'MIKTZAS- it does not receive even a partial amount [of hides from Korbanos]
24)[line 14]כל עצמו לא הוצרכנוKOL ATZMO LO HUTZRACHNU- the entire teaching [that the hide of a Korban Olah is given to the Kohanim] is not necessary [to teach us the status of the hides of other Korbanos, but rather it is necessary only for itself, to teach us the status of the hide of an Olah]
25)[line 18]רצו, מפשיטין אותןRATZU, MAFSHITIN OSO- if they want, they may skin it (and process it)
26)[line 19]אוכלין אותן על גב עורןOCHLIN OSAN AL GABEI ORAN- they may eat the flesh of the Korban on their hides (that is, if they want, they may discard the hides without removing them)
27)[line 28]תיפוק לי מדינאTEIFOK LI MI'DINA- he should learn it from a Kal va'Chomer (as Rebbi Yishmael learns)
28)[line 28]מילתא דאתיא בקל וחומר, טרח וכתב לה קראMILSA D'ASYA B'KAL VA'CHOMER, TARACH V'CHASAV LAH KERA- the Torah troubles itself to write out explicitly that which can be learned from a Kal va'Chomer (see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:22)
29)[line 32]עצמותיוATZMOSAV- its bones
30)[line 33]מופניMUFNEI (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Gezeirah Shavah, which is a Halachic device by which two similar words in the Torah from different subjects teach that laws from one subject apply to the other.
(b)A sage is only permitted to use the method of Gezeirah Shavah if he received a tradition from his teachers that a Gezeirah Shavah exists between the two words. However, the comparison that he makes regarding which laws are applied from one subject to the other may be his own, if he did not learn it directly from his teachers.
(c)MUFNEH MI'SHENEI TZEDADIM - If two similar words in the Torah are free of any Derashah, they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah between the two topics.
(d)MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If only one of the words is free, there is a Machlokes whether they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah (Lemedin v'Ein Meshivin), or if they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument against learning the Gezeirah Shavah (Lemedin u'Meshivin).
(e)EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If both words are used for another Derashah, there is a Machlokes whether they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument not to learn the Gezeirah Shavah, or if they cannot be used at all for a Gezeirah Shavah.
31)[line 34]קרא יתירא הואKERA YESEIRA HU- it is an extra verse. The phrase, "it shall belong to him" in the verse, "The Kohen who offers the Olah of a person, the hide of the Olah which he offers shall belong to the Kohen, it shall belong to him" (Vayikra 7:8), is seemingly extra. We may therefore derive a Gezeirah Shavah from those words.
32)[line 35]שאירע בהן פסולSHE'IRA VAHEN PESUL- they became disqualified (lit. a disqualifying feature happened in them)
33)[line 35]הפשיטןHEFSHEITAN- the skinning of their hides
34)[line 36]רבי חנינא סגן הכהניםREBBI CHANINA SEGAN HA'KOHANIM- Rebbi Chanina, the Segan Kohen Gadol, the Kohen who has been prepared to officiate in place of the Kohen Gadol if he becomes Pasul. Rebbi Chanina Segan ha'Kohanim served in the second Beis ha'Mikdash, and, according to the Gemara in Ta'anis (Daf 13a), he was an eyewitness to the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash.
35)[line 37]שיוצא לבית השריפהSHE'YOTZEI L'VEIS HA'SEREIFAH- that was brought out to the place where disqualified Korbanos are burned
(a)See Background to Zevachim 104:19.
(b)The hide of a Bechor that was found to have a blemish after the hide was removed (and thus was invalid to be offered on the Mizbe'ach) may be kept by the Kohanim. Even though the blemish existed before the hide was removed, since it was discovered only after the animal was slaughtered and the hide removed, the Kohanim may keep the hide.
37)[line 38]שיאותוSHE'YE'OSU- they may keep and derive pleasure from
38)[line 38]אין לא ראינו ראיהEIN "LO RA'INU" RE'AYAH- "we did not see" is not a proof
39)[line 43]אין הדם מרצה על העור בפני עצמוHA'DAM MERATZEH AL HA'OR BI'FENEI ATZMO- the blood serves to gain favor for the owner of the Korban even when the only part of the Korban that is not Pasul is the hide; the blood may still be sprinkled (Zerikas ha'Dam) for that part of the Korban alone
40)[line 45]אין הפשט קודם זריקהEIN HEFSHET KODEM ZERIKAH- the skinning of the hide of the animal is normally not done before the Zerikah (and therefore the Mishnah does not discuss the Halachah in such a situation). Rather, the Zerikah is done immediately after the animal is slaughtered, so that the blood not have to wait.