[32a - 41 lines; 32b - 50 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 32a [line 17, 18]:

The word "Zevinei" זביניה should be written without a "Heh" at the end (BECHOR SHOR)

[2] Rashi 32a DH Kol Heicha deme'Ikara ד"ה כל היכא דמעיקרא:

The words "Mihu Mamona d'Chohen [Ochel] Mamona Hu" מיהו ממונא דכהן אוכל ממונא הוא

should be "Mihu Mamona d'Chohen d'Achal Mamona Hu" מיהו ממונא דכהן דאכל ממונא הוא (Dikdukei Sofrim #1)


1)[line 1]הסךHA'SACH- one who anoints [himself with oil of Terumah, which is a benefit considered to be akin to drinking[

2)[line 2]וחומשא דחומשאV'CHUMSHA D'CHUMSHA- [and if one unintentionally eats that which he designated as the "fifth" which he must add to his repayment, he must replace that amount plus] a fifth of that fifth

3)[line 10]גריואGERIVA- a Se'ah

4)[line 12]גרוגרותGROGEROS- dried figs (which are a less desirable product than dates)

5)[line 17]מידי דלא קפיץ עליה זביניהMIDI D'LO KAFITZ ALEI ZEVINEI- a product for which buyers do not jump at the opportunity to buy

6)[line 23]היה עושה את יום הכפורים כשבתHAYAH OSEH ES YOM HA'KIPURIM K'SHABBOS- see Background to Pesachim 29:3

7)[line 24]כתנאיK'TANA'I- [whether or not Terumah must be repaid according to volume or value] is the subject of a Machlokes Tana'im. Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri is of the opinion that Terumah must be replaced with equal volume, even if it was worthless; Rebbi Akiva maintains that only the value must be repaid. No differentiation is made in their Machlokes between intentional and unintentional transgression.

8)[line 31]תותיםTUSIM- berries

9)[line 32]במה דברים אמורים...BAMEH DEVARIM AMURIM...- how is it possible to have Terumah which is Chametz on Pesach? A possibility not mentioned by the Gemara is that the Chametz was made into Terumah before Pesach.

10)[line 33]"ונתן לכהן את הקדש""V'NASAN LA'KOHEN ES HA'KODESH"- (Vayikra 22:14) - This verse refers to the remuneration a non-Kohen must pay to a Kohen for eating his Terumah unintentionally.

11)[last line]מריצה לפני כלבוMERITZAH LIFNEI CHALBO- he may throw it to his dog


12)[line 35]אמרו לוAMRU LO- this is a continuation of the Beraisa

13)[line 39]"חטאה בשגגה...""... V'CHAT'AH B'SHEGAGAH..."- "... and he sinned unintentionally..."; this verse requires one who mistakenly benefited from Hekdesh (known as Me'ilah) to bring a Korban (Vayikra 5:15)

14)[line 39]והלא דין הוא?VA'HALO DIN HU?- is it not able to be logically derived [and why, therefore, is a verse necessary]?

15)[line 40]פוטר בהן את המזידPOTER BAHEN ES HA'MEZID- one who intentionally transgresses them need not [offer a Korban Chatas]

16)[line 43]מיתהMISAH (KARES AND MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM: Heavenly Punishment of Untimely Death)

(a)Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death. There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments: Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts, but through divinely administered justice.

(b)One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.

(c)The Tif'eres Yisrael, in his commentary to Sanhedrin 9:6, lists a number of differences between Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and Kares:

1.One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim 2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60 but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)

2.When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children (Yevamos 55a and RASHI there; see, however, RIVA in Tosfos to Yevamos 2a DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be referring to the death of children who are not minors.)

3.Some add that when punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, the sinner's cattle and possessions slowly expire until he is left destitute — see Insights to Yevamos 73:2 and Insights to Pesachim 32:2.

4.In addition to the above, in certain instances a form Kares is prescribed in which the sinner not only dies before his time but is also 'severed' (Nichras) from receiving a portion in the World to Come (see Sanhedrin 64b, 90b).

(d)As stated in the Tosefta at the beginning of Kerisus (cited in Sanhedrin 83a), nine sins are punishable with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim:

1.A Kohen who serves in the Mikdash ...without washing his hands and feet

2....or without wearing the Priestly Garments

3....or while intoxicated

4....or with long hair

5....or while Tamei, or even after immersing in a Mikvah from his Tum'ah but before nightfall (or after nightfall but before bringing the Korbanos he is required to bring - Sanhedrin ibid; however Rambam Bi'as Mikdash 4:4 exempts from Misah in such a case.)

6.A Kohen who is Tamei and eats Terumah that is Tahor

7.A non-Kohen ...who serves in the Mikdash

8....or who eats Terumah (or Bikurim - Mishnah Bikurim 2:1).

9.A person who eats Tevel (food that has not been tithed properly).

10.Rebbi (ibid.) adds two more sins that are punishable with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim:

i.A Kohen who serves in the Mikdash with a Mum

ii.A person who intentionally exploits Hekdesh for personal use.

(e)Additional sins punishable with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim are:

1.One who does not heed - or does not transmit - a prophetic command (Sanhedrin 89a).

2.According to some, a Levi or a Kohen who performs service in the Mikdash that has not been assigned to him (Erchin 11a according to Abaye; however Rambam in Sefer ha'Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh #72 and Klei ha'Mikdash 3:11 exempts a Kohen from Misah b'Yedei Shamayim).

(f)The Beraisa brought in our Gemara seems to say that since Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is a more severe punishment than Kares, one would not necessarily be able to apply to Aveiros for which one incurs Misah b'Yedei Shamayim the same leniencies that apply to Aveiros for which one incurs Kares. See Insights to Pesachim 32:2.

17)[line 49]תנוח דעתךTANU'ACH DA'ATCHA- may your mind be at ease

18)[last line]שדו ביה נרגאSHADU BEI NARGA- lit. swung an ax at it, i.e. they questioned its legitimacy