[2a - 22 lines; 2b - 57 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Rashi 2a (at the end of the page) DH she'Hu b'Oleh v'Yored ד"ה שהוא בעולה ויורד:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #35
 Rashi 2b DH Mishum d'Ketani Seifa ד"ה משום דקתני סיפא:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #26
1)[line 2]כריתותKERISOS (KARES AND MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM: Heavenly Punishment of Untimely Death)
(a)Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death. There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments: Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts, but through divinely administered justice.
(b)One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.
(c)The Tif'eres Yisrael, in his commentary to Sanhedrin 9:6, lists a number of differences between Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and Kares:
1.One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim 2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60 but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)
2.When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children (Yevamos 55a and RASHI there; see, however, RIVA in Tosfos to Yevamos 2a DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be referring to the death of children who are not minors.)
4.In addition to the above, in certain instances a form Kares is prescribed in which the sinner not only dies before his time but is also 'severed' (Nichras) from receiving a portion in the World to Come (see Sanhedrin 64b, 90b).
(d)As the Mishnah here states, there are 36 sins listed in the Torah for which one receives Kares: the sixteen forbidden conjugal relations listed in the Torah (Vayikra 18); one who curses G-d; an idol worshipper; one who worships Molech (see Background to Sanhedrin 53:5); one who practices Ov (see Background to Pesachim 113:62); one who desecrates Shabbos; one who ate Kodshim or entered the Mikdash while in a state of Tum'ah; one who consumed blood, Nosar (see Background to Pesachim 120:9), or Pigul (see Background to 6:60); one who slaughters or offers a sacrifice outside of the Mikdash; one who eats Chametz on Pesach; one who eats or performs Melachah on Yom Kipur; one who compounds Shemen ha'Mishchah (the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu to anoint the Mishkan and its vessels, Kohanim Gedolim, and the kings of the Davidic dynasty) or the Ketores (see Background to 11:25) for his own use; one who anoints himself with Shemen ha'Mishchah; one who neglects to give himself a Bris Milah; and one who neglects to offer a Korban Pesach.
2)[line 8]המגדףHA'MEGADEF (MEGADEF)
The Torah states that a Megadef is punishable with Kares (Bamidbar 15:30). There are two opinions regarding the definition of Megadef: (a) a person who curses HaSh-m; (b) a person who plays music to and sings to Avodah Zarah. However, the Megadef in our Mishnah is clearly the former, since playing music to Avodah Zarah is no different than Avodah Zarah, which is already mentioned in the Mishnah.
3)[line 9]הנותן מזרעו למולךHA'NOSEN MI'ZAR'O LA'MOLECH
(a)The Torah (Vayikra 18:21, 20:2-5) prohibits the rites of Molech, which is either an Avodah Zarah (an idol) or a form of Darchei ha'Emori, those customs of the Nochrim that have no logical foundation, but are not idol worship.
(b)According to RASHI (Sanhedrin 64a and to Vayikra 18:21), the person who wished to practice the rites of Molech handed over his children to the priests of Molech, who forced them to walk in between two large bonfires. (There is a dispute as to whether the children were burned to death or not — Sanhedrin 64a.) RAMBAN (to Vayikra ibid.) argues, claiming that after the parents handed over their children to the priests of Molech (who perform Tenufah or Hagashah before the Molech idol) the parents themselves must walk their children into the bonfires.
4)[line 9]בעלאובB A'AL OV (OV)
The Gemara (Sanhedrin 65b) defines a Ba'al Ov as someone who attempts to communicate with the dead by bringing up a deceased person through sorcery and having it speak. To get it to speak, the diviner would put a certain bone in his armpit and flap his arms or move around in various ways.
5)[line 11]נותרNOSAR (NOSAR)
(a)If any meat of a Korban remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it must be burned, as the Torah states, "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref" - "It shall be eaten the same day that you slaughter it and on the next day, and anything that remains until the third day shall be burned in fire" (Vayikra 19:6; see Background to Shevuos 3:11).
(b)If a person eats a k'Zayis of Nosar b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Nosar is learned from the verse of the Milu'im, "v'Im Yivaser mi'Besar ha'Milu'im u'Min ha'Lechem Ad ha'Boker, v'Sarafta Es ha'Nosar ba'Esh, Lo Ye'achel Ki Kodesh Hu" - "And if any flesh or bread of the Milu'im sacrifices is left over until the (following) morning, you shall burn the remnants in fire, it shall not be eaten since it is holy" (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #215).
6)[line 12]פיגולPIGUL (PIGUL)
(a)A sacrifice that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas ha'Dam — see Background to Menachos 2:18) with the intention of eating it or offering it Chutz li'Zemano (after its allotted time) becomes disqualified. Similarly, a Minchah that was offered with intentions of offering it (i.e. doing one of its essential Avodos) or eating it after its allotted time becomes disqualified.
(b)It is forbidden to eat such a Korban, as the verse states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "If [the person offering the sacrifice plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).
(c)If a person eats a k'Zayis of Pigul b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Pigul is learned from the verse of the Milu'im (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #144.)
7)[line 14]המפטם את השמןHA'MEFATEM ES HA'SHEMEN - and one who prepares [an imitation of] the Shemen ha'Mishchah (SHEMEN HA'MISHCHAH)
(a)After Benei Yisrael constructed the Mishkan in the desert, HaSh-m instructed Moshe Rabeinu to anoint the Mishkan and all of its utensils. Moshe was commanded to make Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33) for this purpose. The Shemen ha'Mishchah is the spiced oil that was used for anointing (and thereby consecrating) the Mishkan and its utensils, the utensils of the Beis ha'Mikdash, the kings of the House of David and the Kohanim Gedolim.
(b)The ingredients of the Shemen ha'Mishchah are as follows:
1.500 Maneh (approximately 212 kilograms) of MOR DEROR - (a) distilled myrrh, a resin produced by trees and shrubs that grow in Arabia and Africa, that leaves a lasting, bitter, aromatic taste; (b) according to RABEINU SA'ADYAH GA'ON and the RAMBAM, this refers to musk, an extract taken from the musk deer that lives in Nepal and Tibet.
2.250 Maneh (approximately 106 kilograms) of KINEMAN BESEM - (a) fragrant cinnamon, the dried bark of the cinnamon tree, cultivated today mainly in Ceylon; (b) aloeswood (or lignum aloes), which grows presently in the East Indies and tropical Southeast Asia. (There are indications that it used to grow in the Holy Land.) This is the opinion of the Gemara (Yerushalmi Shekalim 16a). The Talmud Bavli (Kerisus 5a), however, interprets the verse in Shemos (30:23) to mean that two portions each of 250 Maneh of Kineman Besem were taken (to give Hekdesh the "good measure" two times).
3.250 Maneh (approximately 106 kilograms) of KENEH VOSEM - fragrant cane. (a) Some identify this with the sweet calamus. This is the sweetflag or flagroot, a species of which apparently grew in the Chula valley in the Holy Land. (b) Some identify it with the present-day Indian plant, Cympopagan martini, which has the form of red straw.
4.500 Maneh (approximately 212 kilograms) of KIDAH - (a) cassia, the bark of a tree that grows in present-day China; (b) costus (Kosht), the root of a herb that grows in Kashmir.
(c)The total weight of the dry ingredients was 1500 Maneh (approximately 636 kilograms or 1400 pounds). According to the Talmud Bavli, the total weight was 1750 Maneh (approximately 743 kilograms or 1635 pounds). These ingredients were prepared with one Hin (12 Lugin, approximately 3.6, 4.14 or 7.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of olive oil.
(d)It is forbidden to make an imitation Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:33). One who prepares such anointing oil b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned) is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he prepares it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas. However, one is Chayav only when he makes an imitation Shemen ha'Mishchah for the purpose of anointing with it. If he makes it in order to demonstrate how the Shemen ha'Mishchah is made, or to give it away to others, he is exempt from punishment. (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 1:4)
8)[line 14]המפטם את הקטרתHA'MEFATEM ES HA'KETORES - and the one who prepares [an imitation of] the Ketores (KETORES)
(a)The Ketores is the incense that was offered on the golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It was offered twice each day, in the morning when the Kohen cleaned out the lamps of the Menorah, and before evening when the Kohen lit the Menorah. It consisted of the following eleven ingredients:
1.70 Maneh (99.12 or 119 kilograms, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of Tzari, which is "Seraf ha'Notef me'Atzei ha'Ketaf" - sap of the balsam tree (Shabbos 26a, Kerisus 6a).
2.70 Maneh (99.12 or 119 kilograms) of Tziporen ("Shecheles") - a kind of root/annual plant. Some identify this plant with a species of rock-rose, Cistus ladaniferus, which has fingernail-like petals. Alternatively, Tziporen may be onycha, a type of flower.
3.70 Maneh (99.12 or 119 kilograms) of Chelbenah - (a) galbanum; a yellow-brown gum resin obtained from a plant that presently grows in Persia; (b) According to some, Chelbenah is the gum of the common storax tree.
4.70 Maneh (99.12 or 119 kilograms) of Levonah - frankincense or oliban; a gum resin from trees of present-day Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter nauseous taste. It is hard and capable of being pulverized, producing a strong aromatic odor when burned.
5.16 Maneh (22.656 or 27.2 kilograms) of Mor - myrrh.
6.16 Maneh (22.656 or 27.2 kilograms) Ketzi'ah - cassia.
7.16 Maneh (22.656 or 27.2 kilograms) Shiboles Nerd - spikenard.
8.16 Maneh (22.656 or 27.2 kilograms) Karkom - saffron.
9.12 Maneh (16.992 or 20.4 kilograms) Kosht - costus.
10.3 Maneh (4.248 or 5.1 kilograms) Kilufah - cinnamon bark.
11.9 Maneh (12.744 or 15.3 kilograms) Kinamon - cinnamon.
(b)In addition, the following ingredients were added to make it burn well:
1.One quarter Kav (0.3, 0.345 or 0.6 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of Melach Sedomis - Sodomite salt.
2.A small amount of Ma'aleh Ashan - probably Leptadenia Pyrotechnica, which contains nitric acid, causing the smoke to rise up in a straight column.
(c)The following two ingredients were used to prepare the Tziporen:
1.9 Kabin (10.8, 12.42 or 21.6 liters) of Boris Karshinah - vetch lye to polish the Tziporen.
2.3 Se'in and 3 Kabin (= 21 Kabin or 25.2, 28.98 or 50.4 liters) of Yein Kafrisin - (a) the fermented juice of the caper-berry; (b) wine made from grapes that grow in Cyprus. The Tziporen was soaked in the Yein Kafrisin. If Yein Kafrisin was not available, the Ketores was compounded instead with Chamar Chivaryan Atik - very old strong white wine.
(d)Rebbi Nasan ha'Bavli says that a small amount of Kipas ha'Yarden, probably cyclamen, was also added.
(e)The total amount of Ketores that was prepared each year weighed 368 Maneh. One Maneh was burned every day, half in the morning and half before evening. Three Maneh were reground on Erev Yom ha'Kipurim for the Kohen Gadol to use on Yom ha'Kipurim, when he took out "Melo Chafnav" of Ketores to burn in the Kodshei ha'Kodashim (see Background to Yoma 49:15b). The Gemara (Kerisus 6b) records that after 60 or 70 years, the extra Ketores would reach the weight of half of the required amount, or 184 Maneh, which could be reconsecrated for the coming year.
(f)It is prohibited to prepare incense with the intention of burning it for one's own purposes (as opposed to donating it to the Beis ha'Mikdash) according to the exact quantities of spices with which the Ketores was prepared (Shemos 30:38). One who prepares such incense b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned) is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he prepares it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid). One who smells this incense for his personal pleasure transgress the prohibition of Me'ilah (see Background to Kerisus 4:15) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #110).
9)[line 18]לא הודע שלהםLO HODA SHELAHEM- their doubt (it is unknown whether or not one committed the transgressions)
10)[line 18]המטמא מקדש וקדשיוHA'METAMEI MIKDASH V'KODASHAV
(a)It is forbidden for a person to enter the Mikdash (see Background to Makos 12:33 for a discussion of the boundaries of the various areas in the Mikdash) if he touched an Av ha'Tumah (Bamidbar 5:2). Regarding a person who becomes Tamei the verse states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga" - "... she (a woman after childbirth) shall touch no consecrated thing" (Vayikra 12:4), from which the Gemara (Yevamos 75a, Makos 14b) derives that it is forbidden for a person who is Tamei to eat Kodshim. If a person who is Tamei eats the blood of Kodshim, he does not transgress this prohibition.
(b)One who transgresses these prohibitions b'Shogeg (unintentionally) becomes obligated to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored (see next entry). If he transgresses them b'Mezid (intentionally) and witnesses saw him and he was warned (Hasra'ah) not to transgress, he is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not warned, he is punished with Kares (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #167).
11)[line 19]עולה ויורדOLEH V'YORED (KORBAN OLEH V'YORED)
(a)A person brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored to atone for sins in three specific cases: Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Shevuos 30:1), Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see previous entry) and Shevu'as Bituy (see Background to Shevuos 2:1).
(b)What constitutes a Korban Oleh v'Yored varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir). If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus). If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chotei (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus). (Vayikra 5:6-13)
(c)The Minchas Chotei is not mixed with oil, and Levonah (frankincense) is not sprinkled on top of it (Vayikra 5:11). When a non-Kohen brings a Minchas Chotei, a Kometz of the flour alone is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Kohanim receive the Shirayim (the rest of the flour, which they must eat before the following sunrise — RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7).
12)[line 2]העלם אחתHE'ELEM ACHAS
(a)A He'elem is a period of forgetfulness. If a person sins repeatedly (for example, if he ate two or more k'Zeisim of Chelev) in one He'elem, and later finds out that he has sinned, he only has to bring one Korban Chatas to atone for his sins. However, if a person sins two different types of sins in one He'elem, he has to bring a separate Korban Chatas for each sin.
(b)The Torah states (Vayikra 20:17) that having relations with one's sister is punishable with Kares, a fact that is already known from the general Chiyuv Kares for all of the Arayos in Acharei Mos (Vayikra 18:29). As such, the Kares of Achoso is a "Davar she'Hayah bi'Chelal v'Yatza Min ha'Chelal l'Lamed" (see Background to Yevamos 7:2), one of the thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting Halachos from the verses of the Torah. The verse teaches that if a person transgresses, b'Shogeg, more than one type of Giluy Arayos in one He'elem (for example, if he lives with his sister and his father's sister), he is Chayav for each of the Arayos a separate Korban Chatas. Two Arayos are considered different types of sins, and not repetitions of the same sin.
13)[line 3]אבות מלאכותAVOS MELACHOS (SHABBOS: AVOS)
(a)There are thirty-nine Avos Melachos (categories of creative acts) that are forbidden mid'Oraisa on Shabbos. Each Av Melachah has Toldos (sub-categories) that are also forbidden mid'Oraisa. A list of the Avos Melachos is found in the Mishnah in Shabbos 73a.
(b)A person who transgresses one of the Avos or Toldos of Shabbos and was unaware that the act was a Melachah, or he was unaware that the day was Shabbos, needs to bring a Korban Chatas to atone for the sin. If he had full intent to do the Melachah, he may be liable to Kares or Sekilah. Kares applies if he was not warned, and two witnesses did not see the act. Sekilah applies if he did the Melachah after receiving a proper warning not to do it, and two witnesses saw him do it.
14)[line 5]מחוסרי כפרהMECHUSREI KAPARAH
(a)There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora: 1. Tevilah (immersing in a Ma'ayan for a Zav, or a Mikvah for the others), 2. He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after the Tevilah) and 3. a Korban.
(b)The above Teme'im may not eat Terumah until nightfall after the Tevilah. They may not eat Kodshim until they have brought their Korbanos the following morning. A Tamei who has only immersed is called a Tevul Yom until nightfall. After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah until he brings his Korban.
(c)If a Kohen who is Mechusar Kaparah performs the Divine Service, he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as the Gemara learns from the verse in Vayikra 12:8 (Daf 83b, see below, entry #36).
15)[line 8]גר מחוסר כפרה עד שיזרק דם עליוGER MECHUSAR KAPARAH AD SHE'YIZAREK DAM ALAV - a convert is considered "Mechusar Kaparah" until the blood of his Korban is sprinkled for him (GERUS)
When a Nochri converts, a male must be circumcised, and a male and a female must immerse in a Mikvah, and bring an animal or two birds as a Korban Olah (today, when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, it is not necessary for a Ger to bring a Korban). Three Jews must be present when the convert immerses, and they must inform him of the Mitzvos.
16)[line 11]שבועת הפקדוןSHEVU'AS HA'PIKADON
(a)If a person claims that a fellow Jew owes him money or is unjustly holding onto an item that belongs to him, the claimant has the right to force the accused to take an oath that he holds no such money. The oath that the accused takes to assert that he is not harboring someone else's money or item is called Shevu'as ha'Pikadon.
(b)If the accused later admits to his sin, he must return what he stole, pay a fine of Chomesh (a fifth of the ensuing total, or a fourth of the original value of the money he withheld) and bring a Korban Asham (a ram worth at least two Sel'aim) to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26). However, he does not pay the fine of Chomesh, nor does he bring a Korban Asham, unless he admits to having sworn falsely, whether he admits before witnesses come and attest that he stole the item, or whether he admits after witnesses come. However, if witnesses testify that he swore falsely, and he does not admit to it, he does not pay a Chomesh and he does not bring a Korban Asham as atonement for his false Shevu'ah. (In certain circumstances he is even exempt from paying the principle of the item that he stole, see Background to Bava Kama 106a.)
(c)For further discussion of this topic, see Background to Shevuos 31:18.
(d)The verse states, "v'Kichesh ba'Amiso," - "and [he] lies to his neighbor" (Vayikra 5:21), teaching that objects of Hekdesh are excluded from the laws of Shevu'as ha'Pikadon. Rebbi Yosi ha'Glili, however, learns from the words, "u'Ma'alah Ma'al ba'Sh-m" (ibid.), that Kodshim Kalim are considered the personal property of their owner. Consequently, a person may betroth a woman with them, and one who steals Kodshim Kalim and swears falsely about them can become obligated to bring a Korban Asham Gezeilos.
17)[line 31]אבות נזיקיןAVOS NEZIKIN
The Torah delineates specific laws of damages that describe in which case, by which method and how much a Jew is obligated to pay when he or his possessions cause damage to others. The Mishnah in the beginning of Bava Kama (2a) lists four basic types (Avos) of damaging agents for which the offender must pay the person that was damaged. There are other situations that obligate a person to pay which are sub-divisions (Toldos) of these main categories. For a description of the Avos Nezikin, see Background to Bava Kama 2:1.
18)[line 35]מסורMASUR (MOSER)
A Moser is an informer, who causes his friend's possessions to be expropriated by a Nochri. The Gemara (Bava Kama 119a) discusses the liability of a Moser to pay for the damages that he caused.
19)[line 36]מפגלMEFAGEL- and a Kohen who disqualifies someone else's Korban by having a thought of Pigul (see above, entry #6)
20)[line 37]פטור לגמרי לא מצית אמרתPATUR L'GAMREI LO MATZIS AMRAT- you cannot say that he is entirely exempt. The Gemara does not mean to suggest that a person who sins with one Ervah will be Chayav Kares while one who sins with all of the Arayos will be Patur, since there is absolutely no logical basis for such a suggestion. Rather, the Gemara means to suggest that one should not be punished at all until he sins with all of the Arayos. The Gemara retorts that this cannot be, since the verse punishes one for transgressing "mi'Kol ha'To'evos," i.e. even some of them. (ROSH, quoted by Shitah Mekubetzes #14)
21)[line 42]לחלקL'CHALEK- to separate; i.e. to give a punishment for each Ervah individually
22)[line 42]מתקיף לה רב ביבי בר אביי אימא אחותו דפרט קרא ניחייב חדא עלהMASKIF LAH RAV BIVI BAR ABAYE, ACHOSO D'FARAT KRA, NICHAYEV CHADA ALAH- That is, in a situation where one has forbidden relations with his sister and also with other Arayos, he should be Chayav one Chatas for his sister and another one for all the other Arayos combined.
23)[line 45]דבר שהיה בכלל ויצא מן הכלל ללמדDAVAR SHE'HAYAH BI'CHLAL V'YATZA MIN HA'KLAL L'LAMED
(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is "Kol Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatza Min ha'Klal l'Lamed, Lo l'Lamed Al Atzmo Yatza, Ela l'Lamed Al ha'Klal Kulo Yatza." Accordingly, if an action or object was included in a general category of Halachah and was then singled out by the verse in order to tell us that certain Halachos apply to it, the Halachos that apply to that object are applicable to everything in the general category. There are three applications of this rule:
1.When a new Halachah is explicitly written in the Parshah discussing the object that was singled out.
2.When there is no new Halachah written there, then we look for some new law that the Torah may be teaching us by the fact that it singled it out (for example, l'Chalek — to differentiate all of the actions so that each one will be Mechayav a separate Korban or a separate set of Malkus).
3.If we cannot say that the object was singled out to teach us l'Chalek, we say that it comes to limit the general category only to those members that are similar to and share the characteristics of the object that was singled out (this is similar to the rule of "Kelal u'Ferat u'Chelal" — see Background to Shevuos 4:13). (This rule should not be confused with "Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatzah li'Don b'Davar he'Chadash" (see Background to Temurah 13:6a), which refers to a case where the new law that is mentioned with regard to the object that was singled out is in contradiction to the general rule of the Klal.)
24a)[line 47]קדשי מזבחKODSHEI MIZBE'ACH- objects dedicated to be offered on the Mizbe'ach as sacrifices
b)[line 51]קדשי בדק הביתKODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS- objects dedicated to the property of the Mikdash
25)[line 51]הוקשו כל העריות כולן לאחותוHUKSHU KOL HA'ARAYOS KULAN LA'ACHOSO- all of the Arayos are compared to Achoso. At this point, the Gemara's conclusion is that we learn from Achoso that if a person sins with many Arayos in one He'elem (period of forgetfulness), he must bring a separate Chatas for each of the Arayos of the type that are not permitted during the lifetime of the one who causes the prohibition (b'Chayei Osrah). We learn from the Hekesh that he must even bring a separate Chatas for the type of Ervah that is permitted during the life of the one who causes the prohibition (i.e. a married woman).
26a)[line 55]שמות מוחלקיןSHEMOS MUCHLAKIN- they are different titles of prohibitions
b)[line 55]גופים מוחלקיםGUFIN MUCHLAKIN- they are different objects/people