YOMA 17 (28 Sivan) - dedicated to the memory of Hagaon Rav Yisroel Zev (ben Rav Avrohom Tzvi) Gustman, ZT'L, Rosh Yeshiva of "Yeshivas Netzach Yisrael-Ramailes" (in Vilna, Brooklyn, and then Yerushalayim), author of "Kuntresei Shi'urim," and renowned Dayan in pre-war and post-war Vilna, on his 15th Yahrzeit. Dedicated by Harav Eliezer Stern and Harav Zalman Stern of Brooklyn NY, and Reb Yechiel Wachtel and Reb Michoel Starr of Yerushalayim, who merited to study under Rav Gustman ZT'L

[17a - 8 lines; 17b - 24 lines]

1)[line 3]האי לשכהHAI LISHKAH- that Chamber [of the Lambs; see Background to 15:34)

2)[line 3]אקצויי מקציאAKTZUYEI MEKATZYA- a) stretched along the western wall of the Beis ha'Moked such that it was near to both southwestern and northwestern corners (RASHI); b) was set off of (Muktzah) both the southwestern and northwestern corners (ARUCH Erech Katz #6 in the name of RABEINU MOSHE HA'DARSHAN MI'NARVONA); see Insights

3)[line 3]ודאתי מצפון מתחזיא ליה בדרוםUD'ASI MI'TZAFON MISCHAZYA LEI BA'DAROM- and it appears to be in the south[western corner] to one who approaches from the north

4)[line 5]ומסתברא דבמערבית דרומית הואיU'MISTABRA DEB'MA'ARAVIS DEROMIS HAVA'I- and it is logical that [even the author of the Mishnah in Tamid - who says that it is in the northwestern corner - agrees that] it is located [closer to] the southeastern corner

5a)[line 6]לחם הפניםLECHEM HA'PANIM- [the location of the chamber in which the] Lechem ha'Panim [were baked according to the Mishnah in Tamid]. Although this is not specified, it is logical that the four chambers are listed in order. Counting to the right from the northwestern corner, which the Mishnah states is the location of the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the order proceeds to the southwest, southeast, and northeast corners. This implies that the Chamber of the Lechem ha'Panim is in the northeastern chamber off of the Beis ha'Moked.

b)[line 6]אלחם הפניםA'LECHEM HA'PANIM- to [the location of the Chamber of] the Lechem ha'Panim [according to the Mishnah in Midos, which states that it was the southeastern chamber]

6a)[line 7]מר קא חשיב דרך ימיןMAR KA CHASHIV DERECH YEMIN- the author [of the Mishnah in Midos] reckons from left to right

b)[last line]ומר קא חשיב דרך שמאלU'MAR KA CHASHIV DERECH SEMOL- the author [of the Mishnah in Tamid] reckons from right to left


7)[line 2]היינו דמתרץ לחם הפנים אלחם הפניםHAINU D'METARETZ LECHEM HA'PANIM A'LECHEM HA'PANIM- that explains the answer to the contradiction in the location of the Chamber of the Lechem ha'Panim [since reckoning the fourth chamber from right to left starting from the southwestern corner results in that situated in the southeastern corner]

b)[line 4]מאי תירוצא דלחם הפנים?MAI TIRUTZA D'LECHEM HA'PANIM?- what is the answer to the contradiction in the location of the Chamber of the Lechem ha'Panim [since reckoning the fourth chamber from right to left starting from the northwestern corner results in that situated in the southwestern corner]

8)[line 6]כל פינות שאתה פונהKOL PINOS SHE'ATAH PONEH- every turn that you make

9)[line 7]דרך ימין למזרחDERECH YEMIN L'MIZRACH- to the right, eastward. This applies to the service performed upon the Mizbe'ach, which is approached from its ramp on the southern side of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

10)[line 8]חושבנאCHUSHBENA- a reckoning

11)[line 11]עולהOLAH (KORBAN OLAH)

(a)An Olah sacrifice is one that is burned in its entirety upon the Mizbe'ach. Any kosher animal or bird, as well as a Korban Minchah, can become a Korban Olah. An Olah may either voluntary(Olas Nedavah, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6) or obligatory. Individual as well as communal Olos, such as the Temidim (Bamidbar 28:1-8) and Musafim (Bamidbar 28:9-29:39), are offered.

(b)Only male animals may be offered as Olos. If a bird is offered as an Olah, however, it may be female as well.

(c)Korbenos Olah are Kodshei Kodashim and are therefore slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah. Prior to its slaughter, the owner of an Olas Nedavah leans on the head of his animal (Semichah). Korbenos Tzibor do not require Semichah (Menachos 92a). The blood of the Olah is applied to the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shetayim she'Hen Arba), below the Chut ha'Sikra. Nesachim, a wine libation along with a flour offering consisting of flour and oil, are offered together with the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12; see Background to Shekalim 14:78) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1).

(d)The hide of the Olah is given to the Kohanim, and the rest of the animal is dismembered and must be entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach on the same day that it is slaughtered.

12)[line 11]מנחהMINCHAH (KORBAN MINCHAH)

(a)Korbenos Minchah are offerings that contain flour. In most Menachos, a Kometz of the offering is burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim in the Azarah, since the Korban Minchah is in the category of Korbanos known as Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Zevachim 104:29). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah must be consumed by the Kohanim prior to the following sunrise (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7).

(b)A Kometz is defined as that which can be held between the middle three fingers and the palm. The Kohen places his hand in the mixture and removes one handful. He then wipes away the excess extending beyond his three middle fingers using his thumb and pinky until only the Kometz remains.

(c)Kemitzah is only performed when a Minchah is brought by a non-Kohen. A Minchah offered by a Kohen is entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.

(d)A Kometz of Levonah (frankincense or oliban, a gum resin that comes from trees found in present-day Arabia and India) is placed on top of most Menachos and is later offered upon the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(e)All Korbanos may be offered jointly by more than one person, with the exception of the Korbenos Minchah. This is due to the verse which states, "v'Nefesh Ki Sakriv Korban Minchah..." - "And when a soul (singular) will offer a flour offering..." (Vayikra 2:1; Menachos 104b).

(f)The Torah describes thirteen distinct varieties of Minchah; see Background to Menachos 2:1.

13)[line 13]חטאת... אשםCHATAS... ASHAM

(a)KORBAN CHATAS - If a person transgresses a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to receive the punishment of Kares (see Background to Pesachim 32:16) b'Mezid (intentionally), he must offer a Korban Chatas. This Korban consists of a female goat or sheep. Korbenos Chatas are Kodshei Kodashim and are therefore slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah. Prior to its slaughter, the owner of the Chatas leans on the head of his animal (Semichah). The blood of the Chatas is applied to each of the four Keranos, cubic Amah posts placed upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach (Arba she'Hen Arba). The Eimurim - fats and other parts of the Korban that are burned on the Mizbe'ach - are removed from the animal and burned upon the Mizbe'ach. The rest of the Chatas Behemah is eaten by the Kohanim in the Azarah.

(b)KORBAN ASHAM VADAI - The Torah specifies five cases in which a Korban Asham Vadai must be offered. This Korban usually consists of a ram which is worth a minimum of two Sela'im. The first three cases involve transgressions:

1.ASHAM ME'ILOS: One who benefits from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must offer a Korban Asham, aside from that which he is obligated to repay 125% of the value of that which he benefited (Vayikra 5:14-16; see Background to Kidushin 55:5a).

2.ASHAM GEZEILOS: If one steals money from his fellow Jew, swears in Beis Din that he holds no such money, and later admits to his sin, then he must first repay 125% of the value of that which he stole, and then offer a Korban Asham in order to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26).

3.ASHAM SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH: If one had relations with a Shifchah Charufah (see Background to Yevamos 55:5), then he must offer a Korban Asham whether he transgressed this sin b'Mezid or b'Shogeg (Vayikra 19:20-22).

4.ASHAM NAZIR: If a Nazir (see below, entry #41) becomes Tamei during his period of Nezirus, he must offer a sheep within its first year as an Asham (Bamidbar 6:12; see also Background to Nazir 60:2).

5.ASHAM METZORA: When a Metzora completes his Taharah process (see Background to 3:9), he must offer a sheep within its first year as an Asham (Vayikra 14:12).

(c)ASHAM TALUY - If one is in doubt as to whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must offer a Korban Chatas, he offers a ram worth two Sela'im as a Korban Asham Taluy (dependant; Vayikra 5:17-19). Should he later discover that he did indeed sin, he must then offer a proper Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy provides only temporary atonement as long as he is unsure of his requirement (see Background to Nazir 23:2b).

(d)Similar to a Korban Chatas, most of a Korban Asham is consumed by the Kohanim in the Azarah.

14)[line 14]שתי חלותSHTEI CHALOS (SHTEI HA'LECHEM)

(a)On Shavu'os, a communal Korban known as the Shtei ha'Lechem is offered. It consists of two loaves of Chametz bread baked from Chadash (grain that began to take root after the Korban ha'Omer was offered on the second day of Pesach of the previous year; Vayikra 23:17). One loaf is given to the Kohen Gadol, and the other is divided among the rest of the Kohanim who are in the Mikdash at that time. They may be eaten on the day of Shavu'os as well as until midnight of the following night (RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:11).

(b)Along with the Shtei ha'Lechem, seven sheep, one cow, and two rams are offered as Olos, and an additional goat and two sheep are offered as Korbenos Shelamim (these last two are known as Zivchei Shalmei Tzibor - see below, entry #31; Vayikra 23:18-19).

(c)Following the offering of the Shtei ha'Lechem, Chadash may be used in Menachos (see Background to Menachos 2:1).

15)[line 15]לחם הפניםLECHEM HA'PANIM

(a)The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) refers to the 12 loaves arranged in two stacks (Sedarim) - six loaves to a stack - on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. The loaves are one Tefach thick and may not be Chametz. Fresh loaves are arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there through the following Shabbos. The loaves are eaten by Kohanim after their removal. (Vayikra 24:5-9).

(b)A Kometz (that held between one's middle three fingers and his palm) of Levonah (frankincense) is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). The Levonah is offered upon the Mizbe'ach when the loaves are removed. Only after this stage may the Lechem ha'Panim be eaten by the Kohanim.

16)[last line]בפרוסהB'PERUSA- regarding a piece of a loaf

17)[last line]אורח ארעאORACH AR'A- Derech Eretz; proper conduct

18)[last line]למיתבהL'MEISVAH- to give