[13a - 48 lines; 13b - 61 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Ga'on printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, as well as Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.

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1)[line 1]KIYAMTIHA- I have upheld [the statement of Rebbi Yochanan in such a way that his words do not pose a contradiction]

2)[line 2] V'LO DAMEHA- nor may it be redeemed

3)[line 3] V'AT AMARAT YA'US- and you [therefore] correctly said [that it has the status of Kedushas Damim]

4)[line 5] (= )L'FUM KEN TZARICH MEIMAR- therefore one must conclude

5)[line 6]CHAVRAYA- the group [of students in the Yeshivah - The commentary of TIKLIN CHADTIN to this section of Gemara appears on 12b]

6)[line 8] TA'AMA D'HEN TANYA- the reasoning of this Tana. Rebbi Yochanan is explaining a) the opinion of Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah in the name of Rebbi Shimon (12b; TIKLIN CHADTIN; KORBAN HA'EDAH); b) Rebbi Elazar in our Mishnah (PNEI MOSHE)

7)[line 10] TEME'AH B'OSO HA'SHEM- a) if it is unfit for this particular Korban [such as a female animal for an Olah] (TIKLIN CHADTIN; KORBAN HA'EDAH); b) if it is invalidated through a Mum [then it may be consecrated to Bedek ha'Bayis, but if not such as is the case with wine, oil, and birds then their value must go toward the purchase of Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach] (PNEI MOSHE).

8)[line 10] ( = ), ?B'DA KESIV, ''V'HE'EMID V'HE'ERICH''?- is regarding this case written, "he should stand it up and evaluate it?" a) Either it is fit as a Korban, or it is not Kadosh at all! (TIKLIN CHADTIN; KORBAN HA'EDAH); b) If the Pasuk is referring to blemished animals, it must even be referring to those which are unable to stand! (PNEI MOSHE; see the Pnei Moshe for how he understands the continuation of this Gemara)

9)[line 11]"... ""V'HE'EMID... V'HE'ERICH" - "He shall make it stand... He shall appraise it" (Vayikra 27:11-12) (KORBAN: PIDYON BA'AL MUM)

(a)If an animal becomes invalidated as a Korban due to a blemish, it must be evaluated by a Kohen and redeemed, as the Torah states, "v'He'emid Es ha'Behemah Lifnei ha'Kohen... V'He'erich ha'Kohen Osah..." - "He (the owner) shall stand the animal before the Kohen. The Kohen shall appraise it..." (Vayikra 27: 11-12).

(b)Rebbi Shimon is of the opinion that this law applies only to Kodshei Mizbe'ach, while Rebbi Meir maintains that it is applicable to Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis as well (Bechoros 31b).

10)[line 17] ROVE'A V'NIRBA

(a)A Rove'a refers to a male animal that had carnal relations with a person; a Nirva refers to an animal that had carnal relations with a male human.

(b)If there are two witnesses who can confirm the status of the animal, then no benefit may be derived from the animal (it is Asur b'Hana'ah), and it must be stoned by Beis Din. If there is only one witness, or if the owner reports the incident to Beis Din, then although the animal remains Mutar b'Hana'ah, it is invalidated as a Korban.

11)[line 20] TEME'AH MAMASH- a non-Kosher animal

12)[line 20] ( = ) ?B'DA KESIV,'' V'HE'EMID... V'HE'ERICH''?- a) is regarding this case written, "he should stand it up and evaluate it?" The Halachah regarding a non-Kosher animal is clearly discussed in a later verse (Vayikra 27:27); this Pasuk must be referring to a Ba'al Mum (TIKLIN CHADTIN); b) The KORBAN HA'EDAH is not Gores the word "", and therefore understands that this is the conclusion of Rebbi Ze'ira's answer.

13)[line 22] MESHA'ARIN ES HA'LISHKAH- the price is set for [the wine, oil and flour that] Hekdesh [will purchase for Korbanos from a given merchant]

14)[line 23] KOL HA'MEKABEL ALAV L'SAPEK SELASOS ME'ARBA- any [merchant] who accepts upon himself to supply flour [for the upcoming year and receives the money in advance --] at the price of four Se'ah [per Sela]

15)[line 26] IM HISLI'AH SOLES- if the flour became wormy [even after Hekdesh received it]

16)[line 26] HISLI'AH LO- it became wormy for him; i.e., the merchant bears responsibility

17)[line 26]HECHMITZ- turned into vinegar

18)[line 27] EINO MEKABEL MA'OSAV- [for although the merchant has been paid up front, it is as if] he has not received his money; that is, it does not belong to him

19)[line 27]MERATZEH- satisfied [with Korbanos]

20)[line 29] KOHANIM ZERIZIN HEN- [for one can rely upon] the Kohanim to be very meticulous in their performance of the Avodah [and they will therefore take the utmost care to see that it will not become invalidated]


21)[line 31]MEMUNIM- who were appointed to positions

22)[line 32] YOCHANAN BEN PINCHAS- This was clearly not the name of every person who held this position; the titles of these ministries were taken from someone who had served in the position, similar to "Pharaoh," king of Egypt (TIKLIN CHADTIN).

23)[line 33]CHOSAMOS- clay vouchers with which one was entitled to receive wine, oil and flour from Hekdesh in order to offer them together with his Korban (Mishnah 14b)

24)[line 34]PAYASOS- the four lots cast each morning to determine which Kohen would perform certain of the daily Avodos (Mishnayos, second chapter of Yoma)


(a)A pair of birds is known as a Ken (plural Kinim), which means "nest." Three individuals who may be required to offer such a pair of birds as Korbanos, one an Olah and the other as a Chatas, are a Zav, a Zavah, and a woman who has given birth.


1.A man who emits Zov at least twice, whether this occurs over the course of one day or two or consecutive days, is called a Zav. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg (in contrast to semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white). Zov also may be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid component of barley dough or soft barley batter. A Zav has the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah and may not enter "Machaneh Leviyah" (see Background to Pesachim 67:6).

2.A Zav must count seven "clean" days during which he experiences no discharge in order to start his purification process. On the seventh day or following, he immerses himself in a spring during the daytime. At nightfall he becomes Tahor (assuming that he continue to experience no emissions; Zavim 2:2).

3.If a Zav emits Zov only twice, he need not bring a Korban. If he has discharged Zov three times, however whether over the course of one day or over two or three consecutive days he must offer a Korban after completing his seven clean days in order to be able to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Korbanos.

4.The Korban which a Zav must offer consists of a pair of turtle-doves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.


1.The eleven days which follow the seven days of Nidah (see Background to Pesachim 112:62) are termed days of Zivah. If a woman experiences uterine bleeding during this time for either one day or two consecutive days, she is known as a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah. As long as she does not bleed over the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. She may even immerse in the morning on the day immediately following the bleeding, although whether or not she becomes Tehorah is contingent upon whether or not she sees blood later on that day. A woman in such a situation is called a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom, for she must watch the following day in order to determine whether or not she has continued to bleed.

2.If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her eleven days of Zivah, she attains the status of a Zavah Gedolah. In order to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she experiences no further bleeding. On the morning of the seventh clean day she may immerse in a Mikvah. As long as she experiences no further bleeding over the rest of that day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. She must then offer a Korban Zavah in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or partake of Kodshim. This Korban consists of a pair of turtle-doves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. A pair of birds is known as a Ken (plural Kinim), which means "nest."


1.In discussing the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah, the Torah (Vayikra 12:1-8) states that a woman may not enter the Beis ha'Mikdash nor eat Kodshim immediately after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) How long she must wait is divided into two terms:

i.During the initial term, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood during the process). If she gave birth to a boy, this term lasts for seven days. If a girl was born, this term lasts for two weeks. At the end of this term, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.

ii.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah if she experiences bleeding, even during the period of Dam Tohar see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

2.At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

3.Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).

26)[line 35] POSE'ACH DEVARIM V'DORESHAN- (etymologically) explain words and expound upon them

27)[line 36] CHOLEI ME'AYIM- intestinal illnesses

28)[line 37] CHOFER SHICHIN- [was] the digger of wells [from which those who come to Yerushalayim for the festivals are supplied with water]

29)[line 37]KAROZ- [was] the crier [who woke the Kohanim in the morning to perform the Avodah]

30)[line 38]PAKIA- a) the crafting of wicks used for the Menorah and the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah; b) the strap used to lash a Levite guard found sleeping (see BARTENURA and TOSFOS YOM TOV)

31)[line 39]TZILTZAL- the cymbal [which was struck as a signal for the Leviyim to begin singing]


Wine libations (Nesachim) accompany many of the Korbanos (Bamidbar 15:1-16). Part of the service performed by the Leviyim in the Beis ha'Mikdash is to sing chapters of Tehilim and accompany this song with musical instrumentation. They sing to accompany public Korbanos, such as the Temidin and Musafin, while the wine is being poured into the designated pipes which are located atop the Mizbe'ach ha'Olah. When the wine is poured, a signal (see previous entry) is given for the Leviyim to begin the Shirah.

33)[line 41]PAROCHES- [the weaving of] the curtain [hanging at the entrance to the Heichal]

34)[line 41]HA'MALBISH- he who dressed [the Kohen Gadol]

35)[line 42] ()KESHEREI DOR V'DOR BA LIMNOS- the names enumerated in our Mishnah are the most exemplary of those who held the position over the generations

36)[line 43]VA'CHARANAH- and the other one

37)[line 47]YIRKAV- should rot - See the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on as explained in TIKLIN CHADTIN.

38a)[last line] BEN KATIN- the name of an individual who fashioned twelve spouts for the washbasin, as well as a wheel with which to lower the washbasin into a well so that the water should not become Pasul due of Linah (see Background to 11:24) (Yoma 3:10)

b)[last line]VA'CHAVERAV- his "colleagues." The Mishnayos (Yoma 3:9-10) list them: Ben Gamla, who fashioned golden lots with which to choose the Se'irim of Yom Kipur (see Background to 32:10); King Munbaz, who fashioned golden handles for the vessels used on Yom Kipur; his mother, Queen Helene, who fashioned a golden lamp that hung over the opening of the Heichal, as well as a golden tablet upon which the Parshah of Sotah was written; and Nikanor, who commissioned and delivered the brass eastern gates of the Azarah.


39)[line 1]" , , [ , ; , ]""LACHEN ACHALEK LO BA'RABIM, V'ES ATZUMIM YECHALEK SHALAL, [TACHAS ASHER HE'ERAH LA'MAVES NAFSHO V'ES POSHE'IM NIMNAH; V'HU CHET RABIM NASA, V'LA'POSHE'IM YAFGI'A]"- "I will therefore assign him a portion from the multitudes and he will apportion the mighty as spoils [in return for having poured out his soul for death and being counted among the wicked; for he bore the sin of the masses, and prayed for the wicked]" (Yeshayah 53:12).

40)[line 2]SHE'HISKIN- who established

41)[line 3] ANSHEI KENESES HA'GEDOLAH - The Elders of the Great Assembly

An assembly of the greatest Torah leaders and prophets who lived at the beginning of the Second Beis ha'Mikdash period was convened at that time. The 120 members were called the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah (Sages of the Great Assembly). This body was responsible for ruling in matters of Halachah and enforcing them, teaching Torah, enacting decrees to strengthen observance of Torah and Mitzvos, and canonizing the prayers. The last of the prophets Chagai, Zecharyah, and Malachi were members of this illustrious group, as was Mordechai ha'Tzadik. Shimon ha'Tzadik, who lived at the time of Alexander the Great, was "from the remnants of the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah" (Avos 1:2). The Mishnah in Avos (1:1) crystallizes the message of these sages: "Be patient in judgment; have many students; and make a fence [safeguard] for the Torah."

42)[line 4] KELALOS U'PERATOS- general [Halachic] rules as well as specific [Halachic] details

43)[line 5]" () , [ ; , ]""U'MISHPECHOS SOFERIM YOSHEVEI YA'BETZ..."- "And the families of scribes who lived in Ya'betz [-- Tir'asim, Shim'asim and Shuchasim these were the descendants of the Keini who descended from Chamas, father of the house of Rechav]" (Divrei Hayamim I 2:55).

44)[line 6] SHE'ASU ES HA'TORAH SEFUROS SEFUROS- for they categorized the Torah and numbered [the relevant Halachos]


(a)Once a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). Although the Torah does not specify how much to give, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop. Kohanim and their wives, unmarried daughters, and Nochri slaves may eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim.

(b)The following five people lack the ability to separate Terumah: a deaf-mute, a deranged individual, a minor, one who does not own the produce, and a Nochri (Terumos 1:1).

(c)The following five people should not separate Terumah l'Chatchilah: one who is mute, drunk, unclothed, blind, or a Ba'al Keri (see Background to Pesachim 67:14) (Terumos 1:6).

46)[line 8]CHALAH

(a)With regard to the Mitzvah of Chalah, the verses state, "... b'Vo'achem El ha'Aretz...Reishis Arisoseichem Chalah Tarimu Serumah..." - "[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them,] 'When you come into the land [where I shall bring you, when you eat of the bread of the land, you shall separate a Terumah (tithe) to HaSh-m]. You shall separate the first of your dough for a Terumah; [as you do with the Terumah separated from the grain of the threshing floor, so, too, shall you present this [to the Kohanim]" (Bamidbar 15:18-20).

(b)When a person makes dough from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion which must be given to the Kohen before he may eat from the dough. This portion is called Chalah. (The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah applies to a volume of dough made with at least 43.2 Beitzim of flour [about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters]. One who makes a dough that is at least approximately half of that size must separate Chalah without a Berachah.) A professional baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while one baking bread for his or her own household must separate 1/24. If one did not separate Chalah from his dough before it was baked, it must be separated after it is baked before the bread may be consumed. Before Chalah is separated, the dough is called "Tavul l'Chalah," and anyone who eats it b'Mezid (intentionally) is liable to receive the punishments of Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Makos 13a).

(c)Chalah has the same status of Terumah; it may be eaten by Kohanim and their households while they are Tehorim. A non-Kohen who eats Chalah b'Mezid is liable to receive Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 5:14 and Hilchos Terumah 6:6).


(a)If a man dies childless, his wife is bound (Zekukah) to her husband's brothers. She may not marry any other man until one of the brothers either fulfills the Mitzvah of Yibum and marries her, or performs Chalitzah, a manner of dissolving the Zikah between them.

(b)There are certain women who never fall to Zikah, since, as relatives, they are prohibited to marry their husband's brother. Not only are these women free to marry whomever they choose, but they permit their Tzaros (co-wives) to do so as well. The fifteen women who fall into this category are: the brother's daughter, his daughter's daughter, his son's daughter, his wife's daughter, her daughter's daughter, her son's daughter, his mother-in-law, his mother-in-law's mother, his father-in-law's mother, his half-sister from his mother's side, his mother's sister, his wife's sister, the [former] wife of his half-brother from his mother's side, the wife of a brother who died before he was born, and his [former] daughter-in-law.

48)[line 9]KERISOS (KARES AND MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM: Heavenly Punishment of Untimely Death)

(a)Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death. There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments: Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts, but through Divinely administered justice.

(b)One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.

(c)The TIF'ERES YISRAEL, in his commentary to Sanhedrin 9:6, lists a number of differences between Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and Kares:

1.One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim 2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60 but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)

2.When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children (Yevamos 55a and RASHI there; see, however, RIVA in Tosfos to Yevamos 2a DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be referring to the death of children who are not minors.)

3.Some add that when punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, the sinner's cattle and possessions slowly expire until he is left destitute see Insights to Yevamos 73:2 and Insights to Pesachim 32:2.

4.In addition to the above, in certain instances a form of Kares is prescribed in which the sinner not only dies before his time but is also 'severed' (Nichras) from receiving a portion in the World to Come (see Sanhedrin 64b, 90b).

(d)As stated in the Tosefta at the beginning of Kerisus (cited in Sanhedrin 83a), nine sins are punishable with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim:

1.A Kohen who serves in the Mikdash ...without washing his hands and feet

2....or without wearing the Priestly Garments

3....or while intoxicated

4....or with long hair

5....or while Tamei, or even after immersing in a Mikvah from his Tum'ah but before nightfall (or after nightfall but before bringing the Korbanos he is required to bring - Sanhedrin ibid; however Rambam Bi'as Mikdash 4:4 exempts from Misah in such a case.)

6.A Kohen who is Tamei and eats Terumah that is Tahor

7.A non-Kohen ...who serves in the Mikdash

8....or who eats Terumah (or Bikurim - Mishnah Bikurim 2:1).

9.A person who eats Tevel (food that has not been tithed properly).

10.Rebbi (ibid.) adds two more sins that are punishable with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim:

i.A Kohen who serves in the Mikdash with a Mum

ii.A person who intentionally exploits Hekdesh for personal use.

(e)Additional sins punishable with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim are:

1.One who does not heed - or does not transmit - a prophetic command (Sanhedrin 89a).

2.According to some, a Levi or a Kohen who performs service in the Mikdash that has not been assigned to him (Erchin 11a according to Abaye; however RAMBAM in Sefer ha'Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh #72 and Klei ha'Mikdash 3:11 exempts a Kohen from Misah b'Yedei Shamayim).

49)[line 10] NIVLAS HA'OF HA'TAHOR

(a)The carcass of a Kosher bird that died through any means other than Halachically acceptable Shechitah (Neveilah) has a unique status. Generally, items that are Tamei spread Tum'ah through contact (Maga) or being carried (Masa). The only Tamei item that causes Tum'ah mid'Oraisa in any other fashion is a Nivlas Of Tahor, which causes a person to become Tamei at the time that he swallows a k'Zayis of it.

(b)A Nivlas Of Tahor also confers Tum'ah upon any clothing or utensils that one is in contact with at the time that that he swallows it, giving them the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah. After one swallows the Neveilah, he himself remains a Rishon l'Tum'ah.

(c)The Mishnah (Taharos 1:1) lists twelve other qualities of a Nivlas Of Tahor; among them:

1.One must have considered it food in order for it to be Metamei;

2.It does not require Hechsher (see Background to Shekalim 9:23);

3.Nivlas Of Tahor the size of a k'Beitzah receives Tum'as Ochlin (ibid.);

4.One who becomes Tamei through eating it must wait until nightfall after going to the Mikvah to become completely Tahor;

5.One who enters the Mikdash while Tamei from eating Nivlas Of Tahor is Chayav Kares;

6.Terumah which comes into contact with it must be burned (i.e. the Nivlas Of Tahor is considered a Rishon l'Tum'ah);

7.One who eats a limb of such a bird that was detached while the animal was still alive (Ever Min ha'Chai; see Background to Chulin 8:31) receives thirty-nine lashes;

8.If a bird is properly slaughtered outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash or if Melikah (see Background to Pesachim 59:6) is performed upon it when it is offered as a Korban then it is no longer Metamei, even if found to be a Tereifah (see Background to Chulin 42:3).

50)[line 10] AVOS NEZIKIN

The Mishnah (Bava Kama 2a) lists the four categories of those who damage:

1.an ox;

2.a pit;

3.Mav'eh (Rav explains this to mean a person who damages; Shmuel explains that it is an animal who consumes produce);

4.fire. All damages fall into one of these categories.

51)[line 11] AVOS MELACHOS

(a)There are thirty nine acts of labor which are prohibited on Shabbos (Mishnayos Shabbos 7:2) They are:

1.HA'ZORE'A - planting; causing plants to grow

2.HA'CHORESH - plowing; preparing the earth for planting

3.HA'KOTZER - harvesting; detaching a plant from the ground

4.HA'ME'AMER - gathering; collecting natural produce into a bundle

5.HA'DASH - threshing; separating a natural product from its natural receptacle (such as wheat from chaff)

6.HA'ZOREH - winnowing; separating desired from undesired objects thorough use of the wind

7.HA'BORER - selecting; separating desirable items in a mixture from undesirable ones (or vice versa)

8.HA'TOCHEN - grinding; breaking down a substance into smaller, usable pieces

9.HA'MERAKED - sifting; separating mixed objects using a strainer

10.HA'LASH - kneading; combining dry ingredients with liquid to form a dough or paste

11.HA'OFEH - baking; changing the physical state of a substance by heating it

12.HA'GOZEZ ES HA'TZEMER - shearing wool; detaching non-living parts of a person or animal

13.HA'MELABNO - bleaching; freeing material from unwanted dirt, stains, dust, etc.

14.HA'MENAPTZO - combing; untangling clumps of raw material into separate strands

15.HA'TZOV'O - dyeing; changing or reinforcing color

16.HA'TOVEH - spinning; twisting a strand of fiber into thread

17.HA'MEISACH - threading a loom; reattaching thread from the front to the back roller

18.HA'OSEH SHTEI BATEI NIRIN - threading the harness (of the loom) with two threads; inserting two threads through the rings (one in each harness)

19.HA'OREG SHNEI CHUTIN - weaving two threads; pulling the thick latitudinal thread across the longitudinal threads, adding a row to the material

20.HA'POTZE'A SHNEI CHUTIN - (a) thinning threads (RASHI); (b) untwisting threads (RE'AH cited by the Ran); (c) undoing a weave (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 9:20); (d) cutting or removing the cloth from the loom rollers (RA'AVAD)

21.HA'KOSHER - tying; making a permanent or professional knot

22.HA'MATIR - untying; undoing a permanent or professional knot

23.HA'TOFER SHTEI TEFIROS - sewing two stitches; attaching two pieces of materials to one another

24.HA'KORE'A AL MENAS LITFOR SHTEI TEFIROS - tearing in order to sew two stitches; ripping material for a useful purpose

25.HA'TZAD TZEVI - trapping a deer; restricting the movement of an undomesticated living creature in order to benefit from it

26.HA'SHOCHATO - slaughtering; shortening the life of a living creature in order to benefit from it

27.HA'MAFSHITO - skinning; separating the hide from the flesh of a dead animal

28.HA'MOLCHO - salting hide (see next Melachah)

29.HA'ME'ABED ES ORO - tanning; processing raw material physically or chemically [since this is identical to the previous Melachah, salting, the Gemara substitutes SIRTUT - marking hide; outlining a surface for a useful purpose in place of one of them.]

30.HA'MEMACHAKO - smoothing; rubbing an object in order to even its surface or to form a shape

31.HA'MECHATCHO - cutting to shape; altering the size or shape of an object for a useful purpose

32.HA'KOSEV SHTEI OSIYOS - writing two letters; creating meaningful images

33.HA'MOCHEK AL MENAS LICHTOV SHTEI OSIYOS - erasing in order to write two letters; preparing a surface for writing

34.HA'BONEH - building; constructing or improving a structure

35.HA'SOSER - demolishing; destroying a structure in order to enable new construction

36.HA'MECHABEH - extinguishing [to produce charcoal]; snuffing out a fire or reducing its intensity

37.HA'MAV'IR - kindling a fire; igniting or prolonging combustion

38.HA'MAKEH B'PATISH - (a) banging a hammer on an anvil to smooth it at after completing one's work (RASHI); (b) delivering the final blow with a hammer; applying the finishing touches to complete an object (TOSFOS 102b DH Makeh b'Patish); (c) striking a stone in a quarry to detach it after it has been nearly hewn (RASHI 102b)

39.HA'MOTZI ME'RESHUS LI'RESHUS - transferring an object from a private domain to a public domain or vice versa

52)[line 12]"[ , ] , [ ' ]""[V'ZEH PARSHEGEN HA'NISHTEVAN ASHER NASAN HA'MELECH ARTACHSHAST] L'EZRA HA'KOHEN HA'SOFER; [SOFER DIVREI MITZVOS HASH-M V'CHUKAV AL YISRAEL]"- "[And this is the content of the letter that King Artachshast gave] to Ezra the Kohen the scribe; [the scribe of the commandments of HaSh-m and his laws upon Yisrael]" (Ezra 7:11).

53)[line 12] ?MAH TALMUD LOMER SOFER?- why is the word "Sofer" written [twice]?

54)[line 15]HA'RISHONIM- [the accomplishments in Torah learning of] the Tzadikim of earlier generations [can be compared to]

55a)[line 15]CHARESHU- they ploughed, etc. see above, entry #51

b)[line 15]NIKESHU- weeded

c)[line 15]KISECHU- cut and cleared from thorns

d)[line 15]ADERU- hoed

e)[line 16]KITEFU- shaped their loaves

56)[line 17] () [] EIN LANU (MAH) [PEH] LE'ECHOL- we have no mouth with which to eat it; i.e., we are unable to learn Torah on the same level

57)[line 18]KADMA'IN- the Tzadikim of earlier generations

58)[line 18] BENEI ENASH- human

59)[line 19] B'HA'HI SHA'ATA AMERIN- at that time they said

60)[line 20]KA'CHAMARTEI- like the donkey of

61)[line 21] LO IDMINUN- we are not comparable to

62)[line 21] GENAVTAH LISTA'EI B'LEILYA- thieves stole her at night

63)[line 22] AVDAS TEMIRA GABON- it was hidden at their [house]

64)[line 23]TA'AMA- tasted

65)[line 23] IMLECHUN MACHZARTAH- they changed their mind, [and decided] to return her

66)[line 24]APEKINUN- let us remove her

67)[line 25] AZLAS V'KAMAS LAH AL TAR'A D'MARAH- she went and stood by the gate of her master

68)[line 25] SHARYAS MENAHAKAS- she began to bray

69)[line 26] PASCHUN L'HADA ALUVTA- open up for that unfortunate [creature]

70)[line 27] V'ALAS LAH- and she came in (lit. went up)

71)[line 28]KELUM- something

72)[line 29]BA'IS- desire

73)[line 30] MESAKENIN INUN?- (lit. are they prepared?) has all of the waste been removed from the barley?

74)[line 31] VA'ARIMTUN DAMEYAN?- did you separate the tithes that must be removed from Demai (produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz; see Background to Pesachim 114:20)?

75)[line 31] LO KEN ALEFUN REBBI?- did you, our teacher, not teach us [the following]?

76)[line 32]L'OROS- for [tanning of] hides

77)[line 34] D'HI MACHMERA AL GARMAH SAGIN- for she is very stringent with herself

78)[line 34] VA'ARIMAN DAMEYAN- and they took off the tithes that must be taken from Demai

79)[line 35]V'ACHLAS- and she ate

80)[line 37]SANHEDRIN- a 23-member court that may rule in matters of life and death

81a)[line 38] SHE'YECHOLIN L'DABER- who are able to speak [seventy languages]

b)[line 38]LI'SHMO'A- to understand [seventy languages]

82)[line 42]HA'OMER (KORBAN HA'OMER)

(a)It is a Mitzvah to offer the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall following the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is then kneaded and offered as a Korban Minchah on the 16th of Nisan. (This Korban is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim Vayikra 2:14-16).

(b)A lamb is offered as an Olah along with the Minchah (Vayikra 23:12).

(c)Chadash refers to grain that begins to take root after the Korban ha'Omer is offered on the second day of Pesach. This grain may not be eaten until the following year's Korban ha'Omer is offered (Vayikra 23:14). When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, Chadash may not be eaten until after the second day of Pesach, which is when the Korban Ha'Omer would have been offered.

(d)Many Rishonim rule that the prohibition of Chadash applies mid'Oraisa even in Chutz la'Aretz.

83)[line 43]ILEM- a mute

84)[line 44]TZERIFIM- teepee-shaped huts made of reeds (and the like)

85)[line 44]AYSUNEI- they brought him

86)[line 45] IS ASAR D'MISKARYA- is there a place called ...?

87)[line 46]V'ASHKECHAN- and they found [there barley for the Korban Omer]

88)[line 47]NISHDAF- blighted (a disease affecting grains)

89)[line 49]SUCHRA- the hole in the door post into which a bolt slides

90a)[line 52]L'EINASI- for my fountain

b)[line 53]L'YAMASI- for my ocean

c)[line 53]L'ZIVASI- for my flow of Zivus (see above, entry #24c)

91)[line 54] SAVRIN MEIMAR- they thought that [she meant]

92)[line 54] B'EINA SAKANT- [she pledged a Korban Olah when] she contracted a dangerous eye disease

93)[line 58]YECHEFIM- barefoot

94a)[line 60] HAI DEIN CHAMAR TAV L'ME'AYA- what type of wine is beneficial for intestinal distress

b)[last line] SAMAM L'ME'AYA- is harmful for intestinal distress. The Girsa of TIKLIN CHADTIN is Memasmes - it softens and dissolves - which would be harmful.