[7a - 49 lines; 7b - 22 lines]
1)[line 1]עבודהAVODAH- the Divine service performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash [which is performed on Shabbos, notwithstanding the fact that it includes actions normally prohibited on Shabbos, such as the slaughtering of animals]
2)[line 2]רציחהRETZICHAH- lit. murder; the positive commandment fulfilled when Beis Din administers the death penalty
3)[line 2]"[וכי יזד איש על רעהו, להרגו בערמה] מעם מזבחי, תקחנו למות""... ME'IM MIZBECHI TIKACHENU LA'MUS"- "[And should a man plot against his fellow to kill him slyly,] take him [even] from my Mizbe'ach to die" (Shemos 21:14) - This verse teaches that if a Kohen who is liable for the death penalty is on his way to perform the Avodah - even if he is the only Kohen available to do so (TOSFOS DH she'Ne'emar) - he is intercepted and put to death.
4)[line 5]מת מצוהMES MITZVAH - a corpse with no relatives
If the corpse of a Jew is found and there are no known relatives to attend to it, it is termed a Mes Mitzvah. He who comes across a Mes Mitzvah is obligated to see to its burial (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 3:8).
5)[line 9]מ''ולאחותו''ME'VELA'ACHOSO- After commanding a Nazir (see Background to 5:11) to refrain from becoming Tamei, the Torah then specifies a number of relatives for whom he may not become Tamei. Since there would have been no reason to assume that they were not included in the general prohibition, each relative specified is extraneous and therefore teaches a new Halachah. The SIFRI (Bamidbar 6) derives that a Nazir, even if he is a Kohen Gadol on his way to perform the Avodah, may become Tamei for a Mes Mitzvah. That which a Mes Mitzvah takes preference over Avodah is derived from the word "vela'Achoso" - "and for his sister."
6)[line 20]לא תעשה חמור מיניהLO'SA'ASEH CHAMUR MINEI- a negative Mitzvah is more stringent than it (as one who transgresses a positive Mitzvah must repent, but one who transgresses a negative Mitzvah receives lashes in Beis Din as well)
7a)[line 21]חומרא זוטאCHUMRA ZUTA- a small stringency (namely, lashes)
b)[line 22]חומרא רבהCHUMRA RABAH- a large stringency (namely, Kares or the death penalty)
8)[line 23]דבר שהיה בכלל ויצא מן הכלל ללמדDAVAR SHE'HAYAH BI'CHLAL V'YATZA MIN HA'KLAL L'LAMED - a law included in the generalization, and then singled out in order to teach
9)[line 27]"והנפש אשר תאכל בשר מזבח השלמים אשר לה' וטמאתו, עליו[ונכרתה הנפש ההוא, מעמיה]""VEHA'NEFESH ASHER TOCHAL BASAR MI'ZEVACH HA'SHELAMIM..." - "And if one eats meat of a Korban Shelamim belonging to HaSh-m while he is Tamei, [then that soul shall be cut off from his nation]" (Vayikra 7:20) (KORBAN SHELAMIM)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as the Torah states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37), or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim offered by an individual may consist of male or female sheep, cows, or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim (in a lighter category of Kedushah), and may therefore be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah (as opposed to Kodshei Kodshim, which are limited to the northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner places his hands on the head of his animal and leans on it with all of his might (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is sprinkled on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shetayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (meal offerings consisting of flour, oil, and a wine libation) are brought along with the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil, and wine required depends upon the animal offered (see Bamidbar ibid.).
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim are given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban are offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (both men and women) eat the rest of the Korban within the borders of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion, and may be eaten for two days and the intervening night.
(c)One may not partake of this Korban while he is Tamei (Vayikra 7:20). As the verse makes clear, one who transgresses this injunction receives Kares (see Background to 3:27).
10)[line 28]כל קדשיםKOL KODASHIM- anything designated as "Hekdesh" (consecrated) [which may not be eaten while one is Tamei under penalty of Kares (Vayikra 22:3)]
11)[line 30]קדשי מזבח... קדשי בדק הביתKODSHEI MIZBE'ACH / KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS (KEDUSHAS HA'GUF / KEDUSHAS DAMIM)
(a)There are two classifications into which all items consecrated to Hekdesh fall. These are:
1.KEDUSHAS HA'GUF - that which holds intrinsic Kedushah, such as an animal fit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach, or a utensils fit to be used in the performance of the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5). This is also termed KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH.
2.KEDUSHAS DAMIM - that which is not fit to be used in its present state in the Beis ha'Mikdash, but whose value is consecrated to Hekdesh. Such items are sold, and the proceeds go toward any day-to-day needs of Hekdesh. This is also termed KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS.
12)[line 37]דבר שהיה בכלל ויצא לידון בדבר החדשDAVAR SHE'HAYAH BI'CHLAL V'YATZA LIDON B'DAVAR HE'CHADASH - a law included in the generalization, and then singled out as an exception to the rule
In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatza Lidon b'Davar he'Chadash, Iy atah Yachol l'Hachziro li'Chlalo Ad she'Yachzirenu Lecha ha'Kasuv b'Feirush. This means that when a verse teaches the Halachos of a specific example of a general rule that has already been taught, and the Halachos specified contradict those that apply to the rest of the category, one may not assume that the Halachos applicable to the entire generalization still apply to the example that has been singled out unless the Torah clearly returns that example to the rule.
13)[line 42]"ושחט את הכבש במקום אשר ישחט את החטאת ואת העלה במקום הקדש כי כחטאת האשם הוא לכהן [קדש קדשים, הוא]""V'SHACHAT ES HA'KEVES..."- "And he shall slaughter the sheep in the place that he slaughters the Korban Chatas and the Korban Olah, in the holy place; for the Korban Asham is like the Korban Chatas to the Kohen, [it is holy of holies]" (Vayikra 14:13) - This verse describes the sheep offered as a Korban Asham (see next entry) by a Metzora on the eighth day of his purification process (see Background to 5:4).
14)[line 47]אשם מצורעASHAM METZORA (KORBAN ASHAM)
(a)The Torah specifies five cases in which a Korban Asham must be offered. One of these is a Metzora on the eighth day of his purification process (see Background to 5:4). This Korban consists of a male lamb in its first year of life.
(b)The offering of an Asham is similar to that of a Chatas. The main distinction between them is that the blood of an Asham is applied to the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only (Shtayim she'Hen Arba).
15a)[line 47]בהן ידBOHEN YAD- the thumb (see Background to 5:4:g)
b)[line 48]בהן רגלBOHEN REGEL- the big toe (see Background to 5:4:g)
16)[last line]מתן דמיםMATAN DAMIM - applying the blood of a Korban to the Mizbe'ach (ZERIKAS HA'DAM)
(a)The Dam ha'Nefesh (lifeblood) that exits the body of every Korban (sacrifice) following its slaughter is collected in a bowl (Kabalas ha'Dam). It is then applied to the Mizbe'ach. Depending upon the Korban, there are three possible ways that the blood is applied:
1.In the case of a Korban Chatas, it is applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The Kohen accomplishes this by dipping his finger into the bowl and then applying it to each corner.
2.The blood of Korbenos Olah (see Background to Kidushin 55:3), Asham, Shelamim (see Background to Kidushin 55:4), and Todah (see Background to Kidushin 51:7) is applied in a manner known as "Shtayim she'Hen Arba" - "two that are four." This means that the blood is applied twice, but to four sides of the Mizbe'ach. First the Kohen walks to the northeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and applies the blood to the eastern and northern sides of the Mizbe'ach with a single swipe, and then he walks west and then south until he reaches the southwestern corner, at which point he applies the blood to the western and southern sides with a single swipe. This blood is applied below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line that horizontally divides the Mizbe'ach in half), whereas that of a Chatas is applied to the Keranos above the Chut ha'Sikra.
3.The blood of a Korban Pesach (see Background to Sukah 42:39), Bechor (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 28:41), or Ma'aser Behemah (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 18:15) is applied only once to the Mizbe'ach. This is accomplished through dashing it from the bowl within which it was collected against any side of the Mizbe'ach below the Chut ha'Sikra, with the exception of the southeastern corner.
(b)It is through this service that atonement is gained for he who offers the Korban (Vayikra 17:11).
17)[last line]אימורים לגבי מזבחEIMURIM L'GABEI MIZBE'ACH - burning the fats and limbs of a Korban on the Mizbe'ach (HEKTER CHALAVIM V'EVARIM)
(a)All of the service performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash must be performed during the day. This includes the slaughter of the Korban and all of the subsequent Avodos up to and including the application or dashing of its blood upon the Mizbe'ach. If there was no time to burn its Chalavim and Pedarim (certain fats) or Evarim (limbs) during the day, however, then they may be placed on the fire atop the Mizbe'ach for the entire following night. All parts of a Korban burned upon the Mizbe'ach are collectively termed "Eimurim." As long as the Zerikas ha'Dam was performed before nightfall, the Korban is valid.
(b)The limbs burned upon the Mizbe'ach depend upon the type of Korban offered. The fats burned include the layer of fat covering the stomachs as well as all other fat attached to the stomachs, the two kidneys, the fat on the kidneys, and the Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or a certain lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON) (Vayikra 3:3-4).
18)[line 2]חטאתCHATAS (KORBAN CHATAS)
(a)Should one transgress a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to receive the punishment of Kares (see Background to 3:27) b'Mezid (intentionally), he must offer a Korban Chatas. This Korban consists of a female goat or sheep.
(b)One who offers a Korban Chatas first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern part of the Azarah (inner courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking HaSh-m for forgiveness. The animal is then immediately slaughtered. The blood of the Chatas is applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts on the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The remaining blood is then spilled onto the Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach. Certain parts of the Korban is eaten by Kohanim in the Azarah; it must be consumed before the day following its offering (Vayikra 4:27-31).
19)[line 4]אי לא אהדריה קראIY LO AHADREI KRA- if the verse had not returned it [to the generalization]
20a)[line 4]למאי דנפק נפקL'MAI D'NAFAK, NAFAK- regarding that which it was removed [from the generalization] (namely, the application of blood to the right thumb and right big toe of the Metzora as well as that which it must be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah), it was removed
b)[line 5]ולמאי דלא נפק לא נפקUL'MAI D'LO NAFAK, LO NAFAK- regarding that which it was not removed [from the generalization] (namely, the application of blood to the Mizbe'ach as well as the burning of its fats upon the Mizbe'ach), it was not removed
21)[line 7]מה מצינוMAH MATZINU - Applying the Halachah of One Subject to a Similar Subject
One method of deriving Halachos is a "Mah Matzinu" - literally, "just as we have found." This entails comparing one area of Halachah to another, and applying what is stated clearly regarding one to the other. This method, however, is very vulnerable to "Pirchos" - questions. If any difference can be shown between the two subjects, then the comparison is negated.
22)[line 10]הואיל ואישתרי אישתריHO'IL V'ISHTERI ISHTERI- since [the prohibition against marrying one's brother's wife] has been permitted [where Yibum is applicable], [the prohibition against marrying one's wife's sister] has [also] been permitted [where Yibum is applicable]
23)[line 11]מנא תימרא...?MINA TEIMRA...?- how do we know to say...?
See Background to 5:4.
25)[line 13]קריKERI - a seminal emission (BA'AL KERI)
One who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah (the third-highest level of Tum'ah). He may not enter the Machaneh Leviyah (see below, entry #27), nor may he eat Ma'aser Sheni, Terumah (see Background to 15:12), or Kodshim (meat of Korbanos). He becomes Tahor upon immersing in a Mikvah and may immediately enter Machaneh Leviyah and eat Ma'aser. Until nightfall he remains a "Tevul Yom" (see next entry); afterwards he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim. Mid'Rabanan he may not enter the Ezras Nashim of the Beis ha'Mikdash until nightfall.
26)[line 14]טבול יוםTEVUL YOM - One who has Immersed in a Mikvah, but is Not Yet Tahor
A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that was Tamei and then immersed in a Mikvah. This is the first stage in the process of purification from any Tum'ah. The second stage requires waiting for the following night to fall, at which point the person or utensil will become completely Tahor. The Tum'ah level of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is only considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah. This means that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh become Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches does not become Tamei whatsoever.
27)[line 15]נכנסNICHNAS (BI'AS MIKDASH: SHALOSH MACHANOS)
(a)There are three Machanos (areas of designated holiness) within the city of Yerushalayim, which correspond to the three Machanos (encampments) in the Midbar.
1.MACHANEH YISRAEL - The entire area within the walls of Yerushalayim - excluding Har ha'Bayis (the Temple Mount) - is termed the Machaneh Yisrael. This area corresponds to the encampment of the twelve tribes in the Midbar. The Machaneh Yisrael is off-limits to Metzora'im (lepers), who are may not enter any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.
2.MACHANEH LEVIYAH - The area between the Azarah (the inner courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash) and the wall surrounding Har ha'Bayis, including the Ezras Nashim (the outer courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash), is termed the Machaneh Leviyah. This corresponds to the area in the desert around the Mishkan, where the Leviyim camped. This area has a higher level of Kedushah; not only may Metzora'im not enter, but neither may Zavin, Zavos, Nidos, Yoldos (see Background to Moed Katan 14:2-6) or Ba'alei Keri (see above, entry #25).
3.MACHANEH SHECHINAH - The entire area contained within the Azarah is termed the Machaneh Shechinah. This includes the Ezras Yisrael (in between the Ezras Nashim and Azarah), the Ezras Kohanim (containing the Beis ha'Mikdash, the Mizbe'ach, and various Lishkos [chambers]), and the area under the gate to the Azarah known as Sha'ar Nikanor - but not the Ezras Nashim. This area corresponds to the part of the Mishkan in the desert that was within the Kela'im (curtains). This area has an even higher level of Kedushah; even a Temei Mes (see Background to Sukah 20:5) or Temei Sheretz (see Background to Ta'anis 16:30) may not enter the Machaneh Shechinah.
28a)[line 15]עשה שיש בו כרתASEH SHE'YESH BO KARES (KORBAN PESACH)
(a)It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 12:6), "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening." The Pesach is an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year that is roasted in its entirety.
(b)An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable to the Kares punishment (see Background to 3:27). The Mitzvah of Korban Pesach is one of only two positive commandments that are punishable by Kares.
(c)In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat at least a k'Zayis of the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single Pesach may be split into many Chaburos eating in different places - Pesachim 86a.) No bones of the Pesach are allowed to be broken (Shemos 12:46).
(d)The verses limit the people who are permitted to eat the Korban Pesach. Nochrim, people who are Teme'im and men who are uncircumcised are prohibited from eating the Korban Pesach (Shemos 12:43-44).
b)[line 16]עשה שאין בו כרתASEH SHE'EIN BO KARES- the positive Mitzvah not punishable by Kares (namely, that requiring a Ba'al Keri to remain outside of Machaneh Leviyah)
29)[line 18]"ויעמד יהושפט בקהל יהודה וירושלם בבית ה' לפני החצר החדשה""VA'YA'AMOD YEHOSHAFAT BI'KEHAL YEHUDAH V'YERUSHALAYIM B'VEIS HASH-M, LIFNEI HE'CHATZER HA'CHADASHAH" - "And Yehoshafat stood in the congregation of Yehudah and Yerushalayim, in the house of HaSh-m before the new courtyard" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 20:5) - Har ha'Bayis, which is classified as Machaneh Leviyah, was called "the new courtyard" since Yehoshafat and his court issued a new decree that a Tevul Yom was not permitted to enter Har ha'Bayis (THE DECREE OF YEHOSHAFAT)
(a)The nations of Amon and Moav, together with some members of Amalek, declared a war against Yisrael. Yisrael is forbidden to initiate an attack against these three nations. King Yehoshafat called upon all the men, women, and children of Yisrael together to pray that HaSh-m help them in their time of need.
(b)In our Gemara, Rebbi Yochanan explains that the courtyard under discussion was actually the Azarah, the inner courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash, and it was not new at all. Rather, it was regarding that courtyard that Yehoshafat and the Sanhedrin issued a new decree, forbidding a Tevul Yom (see above, entry #26) from entering the Azarah.
(c)Following their deep and fervent prayer, Yehoshafat was informed that he had nothing to fear, and that HaSh-m would fight for them in a miraculous manner.
(d)See Background to Pesachim 92:5.
30)[line 21]מה טעם?MAH TA'AM?- what is the reason that a Metzora who is a Tevul Yom due to Keri is allowed to place his right thumb and big toe into the Azarah? Ula is of the opinion that one who may not enter the Azarah may not cause any part of his body to do so. An exception is made for a Metzora, who must place his right thumb and big toe into the Azarah so that some of the blood of his Korban Asham may be placed upon them (see Background to 5:4:g). (The blood itself may not leave the Azarah, since an Asham has the status of Kodshei Kodshim (see Background to Yoma 36:1) and therefore must remain in the Azarah.) No such exception exists, however, for a Ba'al Keri.