[14a - 52 lines; 14b - 48 lines]
1a)[line 1]מטפחות הידיםMITPECHOS HA'YADAYIM- hand towels (that are used when eating)
b)[line 1]ומטפחות הספריםMITPECHOS HA'SAPARIM- barbers' aprons
c)[line 2]ומטפחות הספגMITPECHOS HA'SAPAG- bath towels
(a)A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Shabbos 84:1), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are: 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. jumping; 4. being sick, etc. (see Zavim 2:2).
(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah.
(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(c)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. (The current practice is to consider all women who have a show of blood to be a Zavah and therefore they must have seven clean days before they go to the Mikvah.)
5)[line 3]והיולדותYOLDOS (YOLEDES)
(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:
1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom - see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.
2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).
(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
6)[line 6]אנשי משמרANSHEI MISHMAR
(a)The Kohanim were divided into 24 shifts according to their families (Mishmaros), each of which served in the Mikdash for two weeks out of a year. The Mishmaros changed on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar did the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar did the Avodah in the afternoon.
(b)Every Mishmar was further divided into six Batei Avos, with the Kohanim of each Beis Av serving on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, all the Batei Avos of the Mishmar did the Avodah together (RASHI Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros were divided into seven, and not six, groups, and only one group served on Shabbos (RASHI Ta'anis 26a - for more on this, see Insights to Shekalim 18:1).
(c)On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos) all of the Mishmaros Kehunah came to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar were permitted to do the Avodah of the Regel.
7)[line 6]ואנשי מעמדANSHEI MA'AMAD
(a)The Mishnah in Ta'anis 26a states that the early prophets divided Bnei Yisrael into 24 groups, or Ma'amados. Each Ma'amad consisted of Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim, and it was their duty to make sure that the Korbanos were sacrificed properly. The Ma'amados worked in a rotation and took responsibility for the Korbanos of one week, twice each year.
(b)When each Ma'amad's turn arrived, the Kohanim and Leviyim would travel to the Beis ha'Mikdash to do the divine service. Some of the Yisraelim traveled to Yerushalayim, also, but most of them stayed in their own cities. It was the job of the Yisraelim to pray that the week's Korbanos should be accepted by HaSh-m. They gathered together to fast, read special portions of the Torah (discussing the creation of the world) and recite the special Shemoneh Esreh of Ta'aniyos (see Background to Shabbos 24:1).
8)[line 11]מנווליןMENUVALIN- ugly, unsightly
9)[line 15]הסריקיןSARIKIN- cakes that had figures etched into them
10)[line 15]סריקי בייתוסSARIKEI BAISUS- the cakes of the baker Baisus (who made the figures by baking the cakes in a mold)
11)[line 17]חלוקCHALUK- a cloak
12)[line 21]איזורו מוכיח עליוEIZORO MOCHI'ACH ALAV- his belt [that is worn over his Miktoren (mantel, a loose outer garment without sleeves that covers most of the body)] proves to everyone that he has only one cloak
13)[line 27]כשיצא שלא ברשותSHE'YATZA SHE'LO BI'RESHUS- (a) not for a necessary purpose (RASHI); (b) against Halachah; he left Eretz Yisrael in a prohibited manner since it is Asur to leave Eretz Yisrael for no purpose (RA'AVAD cited by the ROSH)
14)[line 28]לשוטLASHUT- to travel, to tour (as in Iyov 1:7)
15)[line 29]להרויחאL'HARVEICHA- for profit
16)[line 22]ואי לא ציית דינאV'IY LO TZAYIS DINA- if he does not obey the court decision (this is the conclusion of Rav Yosef and is no longer a quote from the Tosefta)
17)[line 23]משמתינן ליהMESHAMTINAN LEI- we excommunicate him; we make him a Menudeh
18)[line 28]דקטלין ליהD'KATLIN LEI- they kill him?!
19)[line 33]מענה את דינוME'ANEH ES DINO- put off the verdict (which is forbidden)
20)[line 33]מצפראTZAFRA- morning
21)[line 45]"והצרוע [אשר בו הנגע בגדיו יהיו פרמים וראשו יהיה פרוע ועל שפם יעטה וטמא טמא יקרא]""VEHA'TZARU'A [ASHER BO HA'NEGA, BEGADAV YIHEYU FERUMIM, V'ROSHO YIHEYEH FARU'A, V'AL SAFAM YA'TEH; V'TAMEI TAMEI YIKRA]"- "And the Tzaru'a [who is afflicted with the mark - his clothing should be torn, his head should be uncovered, and wrapped until his upper lip; and he shall call, 'Tamei, Tamei!']" (Vayikra 13:45).
22)[line 46]אונןONEN (ANINUS)
(a)A person is called an Onen mid'Oraisa on the day of death of one of his seven closest relatives for whom he is required to arrange for burial (i.e. father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter, and wife). Chazal (Zevachim 101a) learn the Halachah of Aninus from the verse, "v'Achalti Chatas ha'Yom, ha'Yitav b'Einei HaSh-m?" (Vayikra 10:19). Among the Halachos that apply to an Onen is that a Kohen who is an Onen is prohibited from doing the Avodah (divine service) in the Beis ha'Mikdash unless he is the Kohen Gadol (Vayikra 10:7, 21:1-4). Moreover, an Onen (even the Kohen Gadol) may not eat Kodshim and Ma'aser Sheni.
(b)For a further discussion of Aninus and the difference between Aninus mid'Oraisa and Aninus mid'Rabanan, see Background to Yoma 13:5.
23)[last line]"ראשיכם אל תפרעו...""ROSHEICHEM AL TIFRA'U..." - "[And Moshe said to Aharon, and to Elazar and to Isamar, his sons,] 'Do not let [the hair on] your heads grow long, [nor tear your clothes; lest you die, and lest anger come upon all the people; but let your brothers, the whole house of Yisrael, mourn the burning that the Lord has kindled.]" (Vayikra 10:6)