[8a - 48 lines; 8b - 45 lines]
1)[line 1]נשא מת ואחר כך נשא חיNASA MES V'ACHAR KACH NASA CHAI- the dead [brother] had married [his wife] prior to the live [brother] marrying [her sister]
2)[line 6]חזיא ליה דביני ביניCHAZYA LEI D'BEINI BEINI- she was fit for him [to marry] in between [his brother's death and his own marriage to her sister]
3)[line 10]שלא יצא בשעה שהיא ראויה להביא בה קרבןLO YATZA B'SHA'AH SHE'HI RE'UYAH L'HAVI BAH KORBAN- [that which he is a Tevul Yom] did not occur at a time when he could have offered his Korban [Asham]
4)[line 13]היקישאHEIKEISHA (HEKESH)
(a)One of the methods employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah is Hekesh. A Hekesh entails comparing two subjects that are mentioned together in a verse.
(b)A Hekesh is a powerful way of determining Halachah. When two subjects are compared through a Hekesh, all possible parallels are drawn between them, unless a different Derashah teaches us otherwise ("Ein Hekesh l'Mechetzah"). Additionally, Pirchos (logical differences) that would impede a Kal va'Chomer (see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:22) or a Gezeirah Shavah (see Background to Zevachim 103:30) do not stand in the way of learning one subject from another through a Hekesh ("Ein Meshivin Al ha'Hekesh").
5)[line 15]"כִּי כָּל אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה מִכֹּל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה; וְנִכְרְתוּ [הַנְּפָשׁוֹת הָעֹשֹׂת מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם]""KI KOL ASHER YA'ASEH MI'KOL HA'TO'EVOS HA'ELEH; V'NICHRESU [HA'NEFASHOS HA'OSOS MI'KEREV AMAM]"- "For all who carry out any of these abominations; and [the performing souls] will be severed [from amongst their nation]" (Vayikra 18:29) - This verse appears at the end of the list of forbidden conjugal relationships.
6)[line 21]מאי חזית דאקשת לאחות אשה?MAI CHAZIS D'AKSHAS L'ACHOS ISHAH?- why is it that [the Tana of the Beraisa cited on 3b chose to] compare [all other Arayos] to Eshes Ach [thus exempting them from Yibum and Chalitzah]? Although the Tana appears to derive this Halachah utilizing a Mah Matzinu (see Background to 6:21), he is in reality utilizing the Hekesh ascribed here to Rebbi Yonah, which is impervious to Pirchos (TOSFOS to 3b DH Mah).
7a)[line 24]הכא תרי איסוריHACHA TREI ISUREI- here [in the case of one's brother's wife who is also one's wife's sister] there are two prohibitions
b)[line 25]והכא תרי איסוריV'HACHA TREI ISUREI- and here [in the case of one's brother's wife who is also any other Ervah, e.g. one's daughter] there are two prohibitions
8)[line 30]אין לי אלא היאEIN LI ELA HI- "I would only know that [the Ervah herself is exempt from Yibum and Chalitzah from the word 'Aleha']" (This is a quote from the Beraisa cited on 3a.)
9)[line 30]משום צרתהMISHUM TZARASAH- [the above was written in the Beraisa] because of [the derivation that follows exempting] her co-wife; [it was intended only as a lead-in]
10)[line 32]ולקח ולקחה, ויבם ויבמהV'LAKACH U'LEKACHAH, V'YABEM V'YIBMAH- The verse states, "... her brother-in-law should come upon her and take her (u'Lekachah) for a wife, and perform Yibum with her (v'Yibmah)" (Devarim 25:5). It could just as easily have written, "... and take (v'Lakach) for a wife and perform Yibum (v'Yabem)." The extra "Heh" denoting "her" in each word implies that there is another to whom these laws do not apply.
11)[line 34]קנסיב ליהKANASIV LEI- he adduced support from
12)[line 37]שלא במקום מצוהSHE'LO B'MAKOM MITZVAH- in a non-Yibum situation (e.g. the former co-wife of one's daughter)
13)[line 44]צרה נמי לא תיבעי קרא...TZARAH NAMI LO TIBA'I KERA...- Our Gemara at this point assumes that since the co-wife of an Ervah is alluded to by the word "li'Tzror" in the verse that discusses Achos Ishto (see below, entry #17), it is included in the verse that ascribes the punishment of Kares to all Arayos (see above, entry #5).
14)[line 1]מאי טעמא?MAI TAIMA?- how does [this verse] imply [that the co-wife of an Ervah in a non-Yibum situation is permitted?]
15)[line 2]במקום עליהB'MAKOM ALEHA- when "Aleha" applies; i.e., in a Yibum situation (see 3b)
16)[line 5]ולאו קל וחומר הוא?V'LAV KAL VA'CHOMER HU?- (the Gemara answers,) is it not all the more obvious [that an Ervah is forbidden when Yibum does not apply]?
17)[line 9]"[וְאִשָּׁה אֶל אֲחֹתָהּ לֹא תִקָּח; לִצְרֹר, לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ עָלֶיהָ] בְּחַיֶּיהָ"[V'ISHAH EL ACHOSAH LO SIKACH; LI'TZROR, L'GALOS ERVASAH ALEHA] B'CHAYEHA"- "[Do not marry a woman in addition to her sister; to be her fellow wife, to uncover her nakedness upon her --] as long as she (the first sister) is yet alive" (Vayikra 18:18).
18)[line 14]תרי קראי כתיביTREI KERA'EI KESIVEI- there are contradictory implications written [in this verse]
19)[line 15]לצרורLI'TZROR- The word "li'Tzror" - "to be her fellow wife" (see above, entry #17), in the context of that which this verse is understood to be referring to a Yibum situation, implies that both an Ervah and her co-wife are forbidden.
20)[line 18]איפוך אנא!EIPOCH ANA!- why not switch it around [especially considering that the word "Aleha," which refers to a Yibum situation, is written immediately following the singular terminology of "to uncover her nakedness"]?
21)[line 20]אם כן לא יאמר עליהIM KEN, LO YOMAR ALEHA- if that were true, then the verse need not have written the word "Aleha" [since logic dictates that more allowances should be made in a Mitzvah situation than a non-Mitzvah situation]
22)[line 30]מידי צרות כתיבא הכא?!MIDI TZAROS KESIVA HACHA?!- is anything regarding co-wives written here!?
23)[line 31]לכדרבי שמעוןLICHD'REBBI SHIMON- for the derivation of Rebbi Shimon. In a case in which two brothers married to two sisters die childless, the Rabanan rule that the remaining brother(s) must perform Chalitzah with the two Yevamos. This is because Zikah - the relationship binding a Yavam to his Yevamah/os - is similar to Kidushin (betrothal). Were one to perform Yibum with one of these two sisters, he would be, in a sense, married to two sisters, which is forbidden (see above, entry #17). Rebbi Shimon maintains that even Chalitzah is unnecessary. He derives this Halachah from the word "li'Tzror"; if two sisters are co-wives - even in Zikah - then no Zikah exists.
24)[line 34]נסיבNASIV- he may marry
25)[line 40]שמגרשה בגט ומחזירהSHE'MEGARSHAH B'GET U'MACHZIRAH- that he may divorce [his Yevamah] with a document of divorce and then remarry her [and the prohibition against marrying one's brother's wife does not return]
26)[line 40]על כרחהAL KORCHAH- [that if he has relations with her] against her will [then he has fulfilled the Mitzvah of Yibum, and she is his wife in all respects] (see Insights)
27)[line 41]מ''לאשה'' נפקאMI'L'ISHAH NAFKA- derives from the word "l'Ishah" - "for a wife" (see above, entry #10) [that he may remarry her following a divorce]
28)[line 42]"... יבמה יבא עליה...""YEVAMAH YAVO ALEHA..."- "... her Yevamah should come upon her..." (Devarim 25:5) - see above, entry #10
29)[line 44]חייבין ב"דCHAYAVIN BEIS DIN - Beis Din is obligated [to bring an offering to atone for their mistaken ruling] (PAR HE'ELEM DAVAR SHEL TZIBUR)
(a)If the Sanhedrin (Supreme Court) issues a ruling in error, permitting a transgression punishable by Kares had it been transgressed intentionally; and those in Eretz Yisrael - either the majority of Klal Yisrael or most of the Shevatim - act upon their ruling, then the Sanhedrin must offer a Par He'elem Davar to atone for the nation. This Korban consists of a bull offered as a Korban Chatas. Rebbi Meir rules that the Sanhedrin must offer a single bull. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that each Shevet (tribe) offers a bull, for a total of twelve bulls. Rebbi Shimon is of the opinion that both are true, and a total of thirteen bulls are offered (Mishnah, Horayos 4b). If the sin committed was one of idolatry, then the Korban differs (see Background to 9:1) (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
(b)After their slaughter, the blood of the bulls is sprinkled seven times in the Heichal in the direction of the Paroches. It is then applied to the Keranos (cubic Tefach posts placed upon the corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores (the smaller altar located in the Heichal upon which incense is burned daily). The Sheyarei ha'Dam (remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach, whereas the Emurim (innards and certain fats) are burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon (outer Mizbe'ach).
(c)The flesh and remaining parts of the bulls are burned outside of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:12-21). The clothing of those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah become Tamei. (According to Rebbi Shimon [Yoma 67b], those involved with burning the Paros are also Metamei Begadim.)
30a)[last line]זדונוZEDONO- the punishment for transgressing it intentionally
b)[last line]שגגתוSHIGEGASO- the punishment for transgressing it unintentionally
31)[last line]כרתKARES (KARES AND MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM: Heavenly Punishment of Untimely Death)
See Background to 3:27.
See Background to 7:18.
33)[last line]המשיחHA'MASHI'ACH - [the atonement offering of] the Kohen Gadol (PAR KOHEN MASHI'ACH)
(a)If a Kohen Gadol issues a ruling in error, permitting a transgression punishable by Kares had it been transgressed intentionally, and he acts upon his ruling, then he must offer a Par Kohen Mashi'ach to atone for his sin. This Korban consists of one bull offered as a Korban Chatas (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1). If the sin committed was one of idolatry, then his Korban is identical to that offered by any individual in such a situation, and consists of a female goat.
(b)After its slaughter, the blood of the bull is sprinkled seven times in the Heichal (Sanctuary) of the Beis ha'Mikdash in the direction of the Paroches (curtain dividing the Heichal from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim). It is then applied to the Keranos (cubic Tefach posts placed upon the corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores (the smaller altar located in the Heichal upon which incense is burned daily). The Sheyarei ha'Dam (remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach, whereas the Emurim (innards and certain fats) are burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon (outer Mizbe'ach).
(c)The flesh and remaining parts of the bull are burned outside of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:1-12, Bamidbar 15:22-26). The clothing of those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah become Tamei. (According to Rebbi Shimon (Yoma 67b), those involved with burning the Paros are also Metamei Begadim.)
(d)See Background to Horayos 6:11.