[15a - 40 lines; 15b - 44 lines]

1)[line 2]נטרפה השעהNITREFAH HA'SHA'AH- the time became [too] troubled [to enact the decree, due to the political climate or Nochri persecution, etc.]

2)[line 3]לצרות הראשונותTZAROS HA'RISHONOS- (at this point the Gemara assumes that this means) those co-wives [of Arayos] who have already [performed Yibum with their brothers-in-law according to the opinion of Beis Shamai, whose children are Mamzerim according to Beis Hillel]

3a)[line 9]ליחלצו?LICHALTZU?- should they now perform Chalitzah [after they have married others without having done so]?

b)[line 9]מימאסי אגברייהו!MIM'ASEI A'GAVRAIHU!- they will become loathsome to their husbands [since they are going through a process normally reserved for unmarried widows]!

4)[line 10]"דְּרָכֶיהָ דַרְכֵי נֹעַם, וְכָל נְתִיבוֹתֶיהָ שָׁלוֹם""DERACHEHA DARCHEI NO'AM, V'CHOL NESIVOSEHA SHALOM"- "Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all of her pathways peace" (Mishlei 3:17) - This verse refers to the Torah. Since the Chachamim always enact decrees similar those of the Torah, it cannot be that they would decree that which would cause unpleasantness.

5)[line 11]תאבניTA'EVNI- I desire

6a)[line 12]אשאנהESA'ENAH- I will marry her

b)[line 12]אשיאנהASI'ENAH- I will marry her off to others

7)[line 15]אבא אחיוABA ACHIV- his brother, [whose name was] Aba

8)[line 16]רבן גמליאל מתלמידי ב"ש הוא?!RABAN GAMLIEL MI'TALMIDEI BEIS SHAMAI HI?!- that Raban Gamliel was among the students of Beis Shamai?! [He was a direct descendant of Hillel!]

9)[line 18]אילוניתAILONIS- a woman lacking a womb, and therefore incapable of conception (The word "Ailonis" is derived from the word "Ayil" - a male ram [Kesuvos 11a])

10a)[line 21]הכיר בה ולא הכיר בה איכא בינייהוHIKIR BAH V'LO HIKIR BAH IKA BEINAIHU- The Tana Kama rules like the opinion of Rav Asi (expressed on 12a), which is that an Ailonis does not affect her co-wife only if her husband did not recognize that she was an Ailonis (Lo Hikir Bah) before his death. In such a case, we may assume that he never would have married her had he known, and she was therefore never a co-wife of his other wife at all. This was the case when Raban Gamliel performed Yibum with the co-wife of his daughter who was an Ailonis. The Seifa expresses the opinion of those who disagree with Rav Asi and maintain that an Ailonis is so far removed from Yibum that she never affects her co-wife. Therefore, it is possible to understand that Raban Gamliel performed Yibum with the co-wife of his daughter who was an Ailonis even though her husband was aware of her status (Hikir Bah) and wished to remain married to her anyway.

b)[line 22]כנס ולבסוף גירש איכא בינייהוKANAS ULEB'SOF GIRESH IKA BEINAIHU- As the Gemara (13a) explained, the Tana of the first Mishnah in our Maseches maintains that an Ervah affects her co-wife only if they are both married to their husband at the time of his death (Misah Mapeles). The Tana Kama therefore explains that Raban Gamliel was able to perform Yibum with the co-wife of his daughter since his daughter had died or been divorced prior to his brother's death. Our Gemara suggests that according to the Seifa, however, if at any point he had been married to both an Ervah and another woman (Kanas uleb'Sof Giresh), then the Ervah affects her co-wife even if she had been divorced or deceased at the time of their husband's death (Nisu'in ha'Rishonim Mapilim). It was only because the daughter of Raban Gamliel had been an Ailonis that she did not affect her co-wife.

c)[line 23]יש תנאי בביאה איכא בינייהוYESH TENAI B'BI'AH IKA BEINAIHU- Our Gemara's third interpretation of the disagreement between the Tana Kama and the Tana of the Seifa assumes that Raban Gamliel's brother married his niece conditionally (e.g., on condition (Tenai) that she had no hidden disfigurements). Before determining whether or not the condition was fulfilled, however, he had intimate relations (Bi'ah) with her. Afterward it was determined that the condition was not fulfilled. The Tana Kama maintains that since the condition was not met, she had never been married to him, and therefore cannot affect the status of her supposed co-wife. The Tana of the Seifa rules that "Ein Adam Oseh Be'ilaso Be'ilas Znus" - "One is assumed to limit his intimate relations to marriage." Therefore, the fact that Aba did not bother to check to see if the condition was met before he had relations with his niece showed clearly that he no longer demanded its fulfillment. If not for the fact that the daughter of Raban Gamliel was an Ailonis, her co-wife would have been forbidden to her father.

11)[line 25]ליקטLIKET- picked


(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to one's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). Although the Torah does not specify how much of one's crop must be separated for Terumah, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the yield.

(b)After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi (Bamidbar 18:21). The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26).

(c)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).

(d)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity Devarim 14:22-27).

(e)When is the cutoff point for the years of the Shemitah cycle? For fruit that grows upon trees, it is in Shevat. Beis Shamai rule that it is the first of Shevat. Beis Hillel maintain that it is the fifteenth (T"U bi'Shevat). In the story related by our Gemara, Rebbi Akiva picked an Esrog between these two dates in the second year of the Shemitah cycle heading into the third year. According to Beis Shamai, it was necessary to separate Ma'aser Ani. According to Beis Hillel, it was still the year of Ma'aser Sheni.

13)[line 28]גמריה אסתפק ליהGEMAREI ISTAPEK LEI- he was unsure of what he had learned

14)[line 30]ילדה כלתוYALDAH KALASO- his daughter-in-law gave birth

15)[line 31]פיחת את המעזיבהPICHES ES HA'MA'AZIVAH- he removed the plaster [of the ceiling until the size of a minimum Sukah was uncovered]

16)[line 31]סיכךSICHECH- he placed Sechach (the covering of a Sukah)

17)[line 32]בשביל קטןBI'SHVIL KATAN- on behalf of the infant (since Shamai ruled that one must begin to train even a one-day-old in Mitzvos)

18)[line 33]לאפושי אויר קעבידL'APUSHEI AVIR KA'AVID- he [only] acted as he did in order to increase the amount of air [in the house, and it therefore was not obvious that he was carrying out a Halachic ruling in contradiction to that of Beis Hillel]

19)[line 34]שוקת יהואSHOKES YEHU- the stone trough of Yehu [that was filled with water piped in from the mountains]

20)[line 35]נקובהNEKUVAH- pierced with a [connecting] hole

21)[line 35]מקוהMIKVAH - a ritual immersion pool (MIKVAH)

(a)If a person (or utensil) becomes Tamei (spiritually impure), then he (or it) must be immersed in either a Mikvah (a cavity of gathered rainwater) or a spring as part of the purification process.

(b)A Mikvah must contain at least forty Se'ah of rainwater for it to be Metaher (have purifying properties). This is equal to approximately 288, 331.78 or 576 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(c)The water trough of Yehu discussed by our Gemara did not have the requisite Shi'ur (amount) of water. It was therefore connected through a hole to a full Mikvah next to it, so that it would be considered part of that Mikvah. See Insights for a fuller discussion of this topic.

22)[line 35]טהרותTAHAROS- items that were to remain Tahor

23)[line 36]נעשים על גבהNA'ASIM AL GABAH- were [placed in vessels] that had been immersed in it

24)[line 37]הרחיבוהHIRCHIVUHA- widened [the hole]

25)[line 37]עד שתיפחת ברובהAD SHE'TIPACHES B'RUBAH- [two Mikva'os are not considered joined] until [the partition dividing them] is mostly removed

26)[line 38]עירובEIRUV- the [hole required to] join

27a)[line 38]כשפופרת הנוד בעובייה ובחללהKI'SHEFOFERES HA'NOD B'OVYAH UV'CHALALAH- must be equal to the diameter of the thickness of the walls plus the hollow middle of a reed [used to draw liquid from] a leather skin

b)[line 39]כשתי אצבעות חוזרות למקומןKI'SHTEI ETZBA'OS CHOZROS LI'MEKOMAN- [which is] equal to [the space in which] (a) the index finger and the middle finger (RAMBAM, BARTENURA); (b) two index fingers (BEIS YOSEF to Yoreh De'ah 201:40 DH u'Mah she'Kasav ube'Tzedadin, based upon the RASH and ROSH) can turn around easily


28)[line 3]ר' יוחנן החורניREBBI YOCHANAN HA'CHORANI (alt. HA'CHAVRANI)- Rebbi Yochanan from Choran (or Choron) (alt. from Chavran (also known as Auran) mountains from which fires were lit signaling that Rosh Chodesh had been declared (Rosh Hashanah 22b). These mountains are located in the area east of the Jordan River known as Aurantis.)

29)[line 4]חריבהCHAREIVAH- dry

30)[line 4]שני בצורתSHNEI BATZORES- years of famine [caused by lack of rainfall]

31)[line 5]הודעתיHODATI- I informed

32)[line 5]הולךHOLECH- bring

33)[line 6]לחיןLACHIN - damp (HECHSHER OCHLIN L'TUM'AH)

(a)Food becomes Tamei when it comes into contact with a source of Tum'ah - but only if it had first come into contact with one of the seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei. From then on, even after it dries, it can still become Tamei. The seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei are: water, dew, olive oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. Wetting foods in a manner which enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher."

(b)Food can only become Tamei if the owner of the food is pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse (Vayikra 11:38) "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei." The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, like the word "Yiten" - "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" - "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food, as it is when he himself applies them.

(c)It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. Therefore, even if the owner desired the liquid for an entirely different purpose and only at a later point did it come into contact with food, that liquid will enable the food to become Tamei. If, however, the owner intended to dispose of the liquid, then it will not enable the food to become Tamei, for such a liquid is not considered valuable.

(d)Rebbi Yochanan ha'Chorani saw that the olives sent to him by Rebbi Tzadok were glistening with olive oil, and he therefore assumed that they were Huchshar l'Kabel Tum'ah.

34)[line 9]סתמוה שמריםSASMUHA SHEMARIM- it was stopped up with sediment

35)[line 10]מגולגליםMEGULGALIM- (a) tightly packed [so as to soften them] (RASHI); (b) pickled [so as to remove their bitterness] (BARTENURA to Eduyos 4:6)

36)[line 11]צריכה לנקבTZERICHAH L'NAKEV- one must make a hole [in the bottom of the barrel to demonstrate that he does not desire the oil; otherwise, olive oil is so precious that one is assumed to desire it]

37)[line 13]תלמיד שמאי היהTALMID SHAMAI HAYAH- (a) Rebbi Tzadok (TOSFOS, TOSFOS HA'ROSH); (b) Rebbi Yochanan ha'Chorani (RIVAN) was a student of Shamai (see Insights)

38)[line 15]רבותיהRABUSEI- [why it is meaningful to teach] the additional information [that although he was a student of Shamai, he acted stringently according to the opinion of Beis Hillel]

39)[line 21]מתיירא אני שמא ירוצו גלגלתיMISYAREI ANI SHEMA YARUTZU GALGALTI- I am afraid that [the descendants of those whom I will declare to be of illegitimate lineage] will shatter my skull

40)[line 25]בני צרותBNEI TZAROS- the descendants of co-wives [who married others without receiving Chalitzah, according to the opinion of Beis Hillel]

41)[line 26]שמשוSHIMSHU- served [as part of the Avodah (the Divine Service in the Beis ha'Mikdash)]

42)[line 30]ר' יהושעREBBI YEHOSHUA- Rebbi Yehoshua (who is the very one expressing concern)

43)[line 31]חייבי מיתות בית דיןCHAYVEI MISOS BEIS DIN- those liable to a death penalty administered by Beis Din (see Background to 6:18)

44)[line 32]פגוםPAGUM- tainted [to the point that if he is a male Kohen he may not perform the Avodah (Divine Service) in the Beis ha'Mikdash, and if she is a female then she may not marry a Kohen]

45)[line 33]אין איסורה נוהג בכלEIN ISURAH NOHEG BA'KOL- she is not prohibited to everyone [but rather only to a Kohen Gadol]

46a)[line 34]קבעוKA'BA'U- they asked

b)[line 35]קפשיטKA'PASHIT- he answered

47)[line 37]בני צרות דבית הללBNEI TZAROS D'BEIS HILLEL- the descendants of co-wives [who married others without receiving Chalitzah] according to the opinion of Beis Hillel

48)[line 38]למיפשט ולד מחזיר גרושתוL'MIFSHAT VLAD MACHZIR GERUSHASO- to determine the Halach[ic status of the descendants of those use union is forbidden due to a Lav (a negative prohibition not punishable by Kares or Misas Beis Din, such as] the child of a woman remarried by her first husband after she was married to another in the interim

49)[last line]מתחללתMISCHALELES- becomes a Chalalah ("profaned"; she may not marry a Kohen nor eat Terumah from that point onward)