[92a - 41 lines; 92b - 33 lines]

1)[line 13]אישתקדISHTAKAD- last year

2)[line 25]ואיזמלIZMEL- a knife

3)[line 26]ובית הפרסBEIS HA'PERAS

(a)Beis ha'Peras is a general term referring to a field or an area that the Rabanan decreed to be treated as though it were Tamei, in certain respects. The Mishnayos in Ohalos (18:1-4) explain that there are three specific types of Beis ha'Peras:

1.A field in which a grave was plowed over, scattering the bones in all directions. Such a field may be planted with trees, but not with vegetables or grains. Its earth can make a person Tamei through Maga or Masa.

2.A field (that is a Reshus ha'Rabim; TOSFOS to Kesuvos 24b; RASH to Ohalos 18:3) in which a grave is known to exist but it became lost and cannot be located. In such a field, trees may not be planted but vegetables or grains may be planted. It can make a person Tamei through Ohel (and according to some Girsa'os, through Maga and Masa as well).

3.A field on the edge of a town where a corpse was brought [and mourned] before burial. Such a field may neither be planted nor sown with vegetables or grains (but its earth is not Tamei if removed from its place). There are a number of reasons why the Rabanan might have made such a field Tamei:

i.Part of a corpse may have become dislodged and fallen there (RASHI to Moed Katan 5b DH Mishum Ye'ush) [or that an entire corpse may have inadvertently been left behind there - MEIRI ibid.].

ii.Alternatively, since a corpse is commonly found there, the Rabanan instituted that the area not be sown or planted, so as not to attract people to the area who will become Temei'im and spread Tum'ah. (PERUSH HA'MISHNAYOS of the Rambam to Ohalos 18:4)

iii.The prohibition against planting or sowing such a field has nothing to do with Tum'ah whatsoever. Rather, it involves a question of ownership. Since the community has made it their practice to mourn for and eulogize the dead in this field and the original owner did not protest this practice, he loses all rights to the land. The former owner cannot later decide to plant the field and deny the community the right to use it as a place for public mourning. (RITVA, RASH to Ohalos 18:4 and many Rishonim — see VILNA GA'ON to Choshen Mishpat 377:2)

(b)The Bartenura offers three explanations as to why the word "Peras" was used to describe these fields: 1. Tum'ah spreads (Pores) out in all directions from the field; 2. Bones that are broken (Perusim) are strewn in the field. (These first two explanations only apply to the first of the three types of Beis ha'Peras mentioned above, 1); 3. People's feet (Parsos) stay away from the area because of its Tum'ah.

(c)In the first type of Beis ha'Peras (a field with a burial plot that has been plowed), the Rabanan decreed that the field is Metamei in every direction from the grave for the length of the furrow of a plow, which is 50 Amos. This results in an area 100 Amos by 100 Amos around the grave (RASH to Ohalos 17:1). The Rabanan instituted a way to remove the Tum'ah from the area that was plowed (in certain cases) by blowing the dirt of each section of the field to check for small pieces of bone.

4)[line 31]קרפיפותKARPIFOS

(a)Karpifos are enclosed areas that are located outside of a settlement, used for storage and other such purposes. Since it is fully enclosed, a Karpaf is a Reshus ha'Yachid even though it was not enclosed for residential purposes.

(a)King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid owned by one person or group to a Reshus ha'Yachid owned by another person or group is forbidden, unless an Eruv Chatzeros (lit. a mixing of the courtyards, Rambam Hil. Eruvin 1:6; or fraternization of the courtyards, Eruvin 49a) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b).

(b)Aside from houses, there are three categories of Reshus ha'Yachid: Gagos (privately owned roofs), Chatzeros (jointly owned courtyards), and Karpifos (privately owned fenced-in areas that are used for storage or corrals, but not lived in). Tana'im argue as to whether it is permitted to carry from one of these types of Reshus ha'Yachid to another when they are owned by different people. Rebbi Meir (Mishnah Eruvin 89a) rules that it is prohibited to transfer between these different types of Reshuyos, the Rabanan (ibid., and Gemara 91a) prohibit transferring from a Karpaf to one of the other two, and Rebbi Shimon (ibid.) rules that it is permitted to transfer between all of these Reshuyos. According to Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi Meir, an Eruv Chatzeros is necessary only to carry from the houses in the Chatzer into the Chatzer, not to carry from one Chatzer to another. (All of these opinions agree that it is prohibited to carry from houses into courtyards, Karpifos, or roofs and houses owned by another person, since houses are used on a regular basis and are therefore considered separate from all other Reshuyos ha'Yachid; RASHI Eruvin 91a DH v'Karpifos.)

(c)The above argument only applies to utensils that were in a roof, courtyard, or Karpaf when Shabbos began ("she'Shavsu l'Sochan"). Utensils that were in a house when Shabbos began and then brought out to a Chatzer on Shabbos through the use of an Eruv Chatzeros may not be transferred to either of the other two types of Reshuyos even according to Rebbi Shimon.

5)[line 38]"ויעמד יהושפט בקהל יהודה וירושלם בבית ה' לפני החצר החדשה""VA'YA'AMOD YEHOSHAFAT BI'KEHAL YEHUDAH V'YERUSHALAYIM B'VEIS HASH-M, LIFNEI HE'CHATZER HA'CHADASHAH" - "And Yehoshafat stood in the congregation of Yehudah and Yerushalayim, in the house of HaSh-m before the new courtyard." (Divrei ha'Yamim II 20:5) - Har ha'Bayis, which is classified as Machaneh Leviyah, was called "the new courtyard" since Yehoshafat and his court issued a new decree that a Tevul Yom was not permitted to enter Har ha'Bayis. (YEHOSHAFAT'S DECREE)

(a)Under attack from Mo'av, Amon, Se'ir (who seemed to be attacking independently) and frightened by the size of the attacking armies, Yehoshafat ordered the inhabitants of Yehudah to fast. They then assembled in the Beis ha'Mikdash, men, women, and children, to pray to HaSh-m for salvation.

(b)A prominent Levi from the sons of Asaf received a Divine message to pass on to the people. He duly instructed them to go to war and, as at Yam Suf, they were to march to the battle-front and watch the salvation of HaSh-m, but not to participate.

(c)Early next morning, after exhorting the people to have faith in HaSh-m, the troops marched out towards the enemy, singing praises to HaSh-m as they marched. The moment they began their exuberant song, HaSh-m set up ambushers against Amon, Mo'av, and Se'ir, who began to strike them down. Amon and Mo'av, who attributed the ambushes to Se'ir, first set about destroying Se'ir, before they began killing each other.

(d)Yehoshafat and his army arrived on the scene only to find countless corpses lying on the ground. They subsequently spent three days stripping them of all their valuables and gathering all the booty from their camp.

(e)When the surrounding nations heard that HaSh-m was fighting on behalf of Yisrael, they became afraid, and there was peace in Yisrael for many years.

(f)Commenting on the expression "the new Chatzer," Chazal explain that the courtyard was not new at all, but that Yehoshafat and the Sanhedrin had just issued a new decree, forbidding a Tevul Yom (who had immersed in a Mikvah and who, if he was a Kohen, was waiting for nightfall to eat Terumah) from entering the Azarah.


6)[line 3]מנפחMENAPE'ACH- one should blows

7)[line 5]שנידשSHE'NIDASH- that was trampled


8)[line 15]מיחס הוא דחס רחמנא עליוMEICHAS HU D'CHAS RACHMANA ALAV- the Torah had pity on him (and did not require that he send a Korban Pesach)