[47a - 38 lines; 47b - 33 lines]
1)[line 4]איקלעוIKLA'U- happened to be
2a)[line 8]גמיריGEMIRI- I learned from my teachers
b)[line 8]דמאפר אתוD'ME'AFAR ASU- that they came from the meadow [where their animals were grazing, where they had been for all of Sukos and as such had not yet sat in a Sukah that year] (see Insights)
3)[line 12]דמרא דשמעת' מניD'MARA D'SHEMAITA MANI?- for who is the author of the teaching [in the name of Rav that one should sit in the Sukah on Shemini Atzeres in Chutz la'Aretz]?
4)[line 14]לברL'BAR- outside
5)[line 16]זמןZMAN- the Berachah of she'Hechiyanu
6)[line 19]חלוקCHALUK- it is different
7)[line 1]לולבLULAV (ARBA MINIM)
(a)Every adult Jewish male must hold four types of branches or fruits on the first day of Sukos. These four species consist of Pri Etz Hadar (an Esrog; a citron, which is closely related to the lemon), Kapos Temarim (a Lulav; a branch from a palm tree cut prior to the opening and spreading of its leaves), Anaf Etz Avos (Hadasim; myrtle branches) and Arvei Nachal (Aravos; willow branches) (Vayikra 23:40). It is customary to hold one Esrog, one Lulav, three Hadasim, and two Aravos. The Esrog is held in the left hand, whereas the other three species are held together in the right.
(b)According to Torah law, these species must be taken only on the first day of Sukos anywhere but in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Once the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed, Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai decreed that all of Klal Yisrael should take them for all seven days of Sukos in commemoration of the way in which they were taken in the Mikdash.
8)[line 19]ניסוך המיםNISUCH HA'MAYIM
(a)A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai teaches us that on Sukos in the Beis ha'Mikdash there is a Mitzvah of Nisuch ha'Mayim (lit. pouring of the water). Three Lugim (approx. 1.5 liter) of water are drawn from the Shilo'ach spring, which is located to the south of the Temple Mount. This water is then brought to the Azarah amidst a joyous procession, in fulfillment of the Pasuk, "u'She'avtem Mayim b'Sason..." ("and you shall draw water with rejoicing..." - Yeshayah 12:3).
(b)The Kohen who is chosen to pour the water ascends the Mizbe'ach and pours the water from a golden flask into one of the Sefalim (silver libation pipes located in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). The Nisuch ha'Mayim takes place each day of Sukos at the time of the morning Tamid sacrifice amidst much rejoicing.
(c)Every night of Sukos, the nation gathered at the Beis ha'Mikdash to sing HaSh-m's praises. The Leviyim played more musical instruments than they usually did. The greatest Torah Scholars and Tzadikim danced, juggled, or otherwise celebrated. Many torches and fires were lit, until the streets of Yerushalayim were bright as they were during the day. This celebration, called the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah, continued all night long until it was time to draw the water in the morning. The Mishnah (Sukah 51a) states that "one who has not seen the rejoicing of the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah has never seen rejoicing in his life!"
(d)Rebbi Yehudah disagrees with the opinion of the Chachamim, which has been described thus far, on two points. He maintains that the Nisuch ha'Mayim was performed with only one Log of water instead of three, and he further maintains that it was performed on Shemini Atzeres as well.
9)[line 20]בלוגB'LOG- with [only] one Log [instead of three; see previous entry, (d)]
10a)[line 23]חובהCHOVAH- [it is] an obligation [to eat at least one k'Zayis of Matzah]
b)[line 24]רשותRESHUS- one may [eat Matzah if he wishes to eat bread, but he does not have to eat bread at all]
11a)[line 24]מלילה חלוקMI'LAILAH CHALUK- [the last night of Pesach] is different from the [first] night
b)[line 24]מיום אינו חלוקMI'YOM EINO CHALUK- [the last day of Pesach] is no different from the [first] day
12a)[line 26]זה חלוק משלפניוZEH CHALUK MISHEL'FANAV- [Shemini Atzeres] is different from [the day immediately] preceding it
b)[line 26]וזה חלוק משלפני פניוZEH CHALUK MISHELI'FNEI FANAV- [the last day of Pesach] is different from [only the first day of Pesach, which] precedes it by many [days]
13)[line 27]הכא כתיב "פר", התם כתיב "פרים"HACHA KSIV "PAR," HASAM KSIV "PARIM" (KORBANOS MUSAF OF SUKOS)
(a)Following the Korban Tamid, The Torah requires additional (Musaf) animals to be offered as public offerings on Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh, and the festivals. These are purchased with public funds, and are generally Korbenos Olah. Many of them atone for specific sins.
(b)The Korbenos Musaf offered on Sukos consist of two rams and fourteen sheep as Korbenos Olah, along with one goat as a Chatas. Additionally, thirteen bulls are offered the first day as Korbenos Olah, twelve bulls on the second, eleven bulls on the third, ten on the fourth, nine on the fifth, eight on the sixth, and seven on the seventh.
(c)On Shemini Atzeres, the Korban Musaf is similar to that of Sukos, although fewer animals of each kind are offered. Only one ram and seven sheep are offered as Korbenos Olah, and just one goat is offered as a Chatas. Instead of six bulls as Korbenos Olah, which would fit the pattern, only one bull is offered (Bamidbar 28:12-39).
(d)The Midrash Rabah and the Zohar explain that the bulls offered on the seven days of Sukos total seventy, and these represent the seventy nations of the world. On Shemini Atzeres, HaSh-m wishes to be secluded with Klal Yisrael in a private celebration, as it were. The one bull offered represents only His nation.
(e)Rav Papa offers this dichotomy between the pattern of the bulls offered on Sukos and the one single bull offered on Shemini Atzeres as proof that Shemini Atzeres is enough of a separate Yom Tov to require its own Berachah of she'Hechiyanu.
14a)[line 28]הכא כתיב "ביום"HACHA KSIV "BA'YOM"- here [when introducing the Korbanos of Shemini Atzeres] it is written, "On the day..." (Bamidbar 28:35)
b)[line 29]התם כתיב "וביום"HASAM KSIV "UVA'YOM "- there [when introducing the Korbanos of each of the last six days of Sukos] it is written, "And on the day..." (Bamidbar 28:17-32) [which implies that they are connected to one another]
15a)[line 30]הכא כתיב "כמשפט"HACHA KESIV "KA'MISHPAT"- here [a) when discussing the Korbanos of Shemini Atzeres (RASHI); b) when discussing the Korbanos of each of the first six days of Sukos (TOSFOS)] it is written, "[and their Korbenos Minchah and their Nesachim (wine libations; see Background to Yoma 61:26)... according to their number,] conforming to the law" (Bamidbar 28:18-37).
b)[line 30]התם כתיב "כמשפטם"HASAM KESIV "K'MISHPATAM"- there [when discussing the Korbanos of seventh day of Sukos] it is written, "[and their Korbenos Minchah and their Nesachim (wine libations; see Background to Yoma 61:26)... according to their number,] conforming to their law" (Bamidbar 28:34) [which implies that the Korbanos of the seven days of Sukos comprise a set, from which those of Shemini Atzeres are excluded].
16)[line 31]לימא מסייע ליהLEIMA MESAYEI'A LEI- let us suggest the following as a proof [to Rebbi Yochanan who maintains that the Berachah of she'Hechiyanu is recited on Shemini Atzeres]
17a)[line 31]הפרים האילים והכבשיםHA'PARIM VEHA'EILIM VEHA'KEVASIM- the bulls, rams, and sheep [that are offered as a Korban Musaf on Sukos (see above, entry #13)]
b)[line 32]מעכבין זה את זהME'AKVIN ZEH ES ZEH- prevent one another [from being offered if any one of them is missing]
18)[line 33]שהרי מתמעטין והולכיןSHE'HAREI MISMA'ATIN V'HOLCHIN- for they diminish [in quantity] from day to day [revealing that the Torah is not as particular about their number]
19)[line 37]שירSHIR (SHIR SHEL YOM)
(a)Shir refers to the song of the day. The Leviyim sing chapters of Tehilim as the Nesachim (wine libations; see Background to Yoma 61:26) of a Korban Tzibur are poured. These correspond to those chapters that we currently recite as the Shir Shel Yom [Tamid 6:7]). Musical instruments are played by the Leviyim to accompany their singing.
(b)On festivals, other chapters of Tehilim whose subject matter was connected to the Chag were substituted (Maseches Sofrim 18:2-3, 19:2). On Sukos, the subject of the chapters of Tehilim sung is that of the harvest and the obligation to give gifts to the poor.
(a)Regarding the Korban Pesach (see Background to 42:39), the verse states, "... and you shall leave in the morning, and return to your tent" (Devarim 16:7). This clearly cannot refer to the morning of Yom Tov, when it is forbidden to travel. It must mean that one has to remain overnight following the day after Pesach, when one must offer an Olas Re'iyah (see Background to Yoma 21:36). From this Chazal determine that one who offers any Korban must sleep in Yerushalayim overnight.
21)[line 1]מאי לאוMAI LAV- it must be [that the "Berachah" referred to by Rebbi Yehudah]
22)[line 1]ברכת המזון ותפלהBIRKAS HA'MAZON U'TEFILAH- [it refers to mentioning the festival of Shemini Atzeres in] Birkas ha'Mazon and [the] prayer [of Shemonah Esrei]
23)[line 3]האידנאHA'IDNA- now [on the first day of Sukos, if one did not sit in a Sukah]
24)[line 4]מ"מ כוס בעינןMI'KOL MAKOM KOS BA'INAN- [even if one did not recite the Berachah of she'Hechiyanu on Yom Tov, how can it be recited on subsequent days of Sukos?] a cup [of wine] is still necessary [which most people do not have readily available on Chol ha'Mo'ed]!
25)[line 7]דאיקלע ליה כוסD'IKLA LEI KOS- that he happened to have a cup [of wine] available
26)[line 9]פסח שניPESACH SHENI
(a)In the Midbar, after Klal Yisrael were instructed regarding the Korban Pesach (see Background to 42:39), those who were Tamei and therefore unable to offer it complained to Moshe Rabeinu. They, too, wished to participate in the Korban. HaSh-m responded with, "Any man who is Tamei Mes, or who is far away... [who wishes to] make a Pesach for HaSh-m; In the second month, on the fourteenth day in the afternoon they shall make it; together with Matzah and Maror they shall eat it" (Bamidbar 9:10-11).
(b)The Gemara explains that this verse refers not only to one who was Tamei with Tum'as Mes, but also to one who cannot eat a Korban Pesach due to Tum'ah of any kind. The Gemara defines one who is "far away" as one who is more than fifteen Mil away from the walls of Yerushalayim on midday of Erev Pesach. The Gemara concludes that the Halachah of Pesach Sheni applies to nearly anyone who is unable to offer the Korban Pesach on Pesach Rishon (the fourteenth of Nisan; see Pesachim 93a-b).
(c)As the above verse states, the Korban Pesach Sheni is offered on the fourteenth of Iyar. There is discussion among the commentaries whether the Pesach Sheni should be offered specifically after the afternoon Korban Tamid, or whether it may be offered even before the Korban Tamid. (See Tosfos to Yoma 29a, DH Ela, and Sha'ar ha'Melech 3:9.)
27)[line 10]"... וּפָנִיתָ בַבֹּקֶר, וְהָלַכְתָּ לְאֹהָלֶיךָ""... U'FANISA VA'BOKER, V'HALACHTA L'OHALECHA"- "... and you shall leave in the morning, and return to your tent" (Devarim 16:7). This verse refers to Korban Pesach; see above, entry #20.
28)[line 13]מאי לאו למעוטי נמי שמיני של חגMAI LAV L'ME'UTEI NAMI SHEMINI SHEL CHAG- it must be that this [exegesis of Rebbi Yehudah] also excludes Shemini Atzeres [which is a one-day Yom Tov]
29)[line 15]דכוותיהD'KAVASEI- that is similar to [the Korban Pesach, about which the verses quoted are written]
30)[line 16]קרבןKORBAN- a Korban [Shelamim (see below, entry #37) to be offered along with them]
(a)The Mitzvah of Bikurim involves bringing those fruits which were the first to emerge in one's field at the beginning of the season to the Beis ha'Mikdash. After arriving in the Beis ha'Mikdash, while the basket is still on his shoulder, the owner of the fruit recites specific verses from Devarim (26:3,5-10), thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Mitzrayim and granting us the land of Eretz Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (Bikurim 2:3, RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12), and bows down before HaSh-m. The Bikurim are afterward given to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1).
(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael is blessed (Devarim 8:8) - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2). (Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are the only species of produce truly indigenous to Eretz Yisrael. Other "immigrant" species may be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these seven will always grow in the land; heard from a leading botanist [MK].)
(c)In certain instances, one does not recite the verses when bringing Bikurim (Mevi v'Eino Korei). For example, if one brings Bikurim between Sukos and Chanukah, he does not recite the verses (see 36b and Rashi there).
(d)The Bikurim must be eaten by Kohanim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If one eats Bikurim outside of Yerushalayim once they have entered Yerushalayim according to the RAMBAM or once they have entered the Azarah according to RASHI (Makos), then he receives Malkus (lashes). In such an instance, the Bikurim must be returned to Yerushalayim and eaten there.
(a)Certain Korbanos and Minchah offerings (see Background to Menachos 2:1), as well as Bikurim (see previous entry), are waved by a Kohen. This process, called Tenufah, involves the waving of the offering in the four directions of the compass, upward, and downward. (RASHI Menachos 62a DH Molich). TOSFOS to 37b DH Kedei discusses whether all Tenufos are performed in this fashion, or if certain Tenufos require only upward and downward motions.
33)[line 19]"והנחתו" זו תנופה"V'HINACHTO" ZU TENUFAH- [the verse which states] "... and he shall place it (the basket of Bikurim)..." (Devarim 26:10) refers to [replacing the Bikurim next to the Mizbe'ach after he lifted them to] wave them
34)[line 20]הנחה ממשHANACHAH MAMASH- [the Mitzvah] to place [the basket of Bikurim at the base of the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach] to begin with
35)[line 23]הטנאHA'TENEH- the basket [of Bikurim]
36)[line 25]אתיאASYA (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Gezeirah Shavah, through which two identical words (or two words that share the same root) appearing in two different sections of the Torah teach us that Halachos of one apply to the other and vice versa.
(b)One may apply a Gezeirah Shavah only if he has received a tradition from his teachers that the connection between the two words exists. Once the connection is established, however, then one may apply it to derive Halachos that one did not necessarily receive a tradition for.
(c)A Gezeirah Shavah is unlimited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply to the other connected subject. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah." This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.
(d)There are three possible configurations for a Gezeirah Shavah:
1.MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If both words are seemingly unnecessary and are not used in the derivation of any other teaching, then all of the rules described above apply.
2.MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If the word in only one of the sections is available, some maintain that such a Gezeirah Shavah is no more limited than one that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim. Others rule that Halachos may be derived from such a Gezeirah Shavah only if there is no argument against them. This status is known as "Lemedin u'Meshivin."
3.EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If neither word is free, then those opinions who maintain that a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Tzad Echad is unlimited grant such a Gezeirah Shavah the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin. Those who applied Lemedin u'Meshivin to a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim rule that this one may not be used to determine any Halachos whatsoever.
37)[line 25]שלמיםSHELAMIM (KORBAN SHELAMIM)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as the Torah states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim which are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah (and are not limited to the northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner places his hands on the head of his animal and leans on it with all of his might (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is sprinkled at the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (meal offerings consisting of flour, oil, and a wine libation) are brought along with the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine required depends upon the animal offered (see Bamidbar ibid.).
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim are given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban are offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban within the borders of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion, and may be eaten for two days and the intervening night.
38a)[line 29]כהן מניח ידוKOHEN MENI'ACH YADO- the Kohen places his hand [underneath the bottom of the basket]
b)[line 29]תחת יד בעליםTACHAS YAD BE'ALIM- [which is] underneath [the sides of the basket, where] the hands of the owner [of the fruit are placed]
39)[line 30]מאי הוי עלה?MAI HAVEI ALAH?- what is the final ruling [regarding whether or not the Berachah of she'Hechiyanu is recited on Shemini Atzeres]?