SUKAH 46 (14 Elul 5781) - This Daf has been dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of Yisrael (son of Chazkel and Miryam) Rosenbaum, who passed away on 14 Elul, by his son and daughter and families.

[46a - 55 lines; 46b - 53 lines]

1a)[line 11]כאן בזמן שבית המקדש קייםKAN B'ZMAN SHE'BEIS HA'MIKDASH KAYAM- here [in the Beraisa, the ruling applies] when the Beis ha'Mikdash is standing [and there is a Mitzvah mid'Oraisa to take the Arba Minim there on all seven days of Sukos]

b)[line 12]כאן בזמן שאין בית המקדש קייםKAN B'ZMAN SHE'EIN BEIS HA'MIKDASH KAYAM- here [when Rebbi Yochanan was quoted, his ruling applies] when the Beis ha'Mikdash is not standing [and there is a Mitzvah mid'Oraisa to take the Arba Minim on the first day of Sukos only]

2)[line 14]כל זמן שמניחןKOL ZMAN SHE'MANICHAN- every time that he puts them on [over the course of one day]. This is comparable to entering the Sukah numerous times over the seven days of Sukos. Just as each day is a continuous period during which one may fulfill the Mitzvah of Tefilin, the seven days of Sukos are a continuous period during which one may fulfill the Mitzvah of Sukah.

3)[line 19]מקדים וקאיMAKDIM V'KAI- he gets up early

4)[line 20]נפיקNAFIK- he goes out

5)[line 20]משי ידיהMASHI YADEI- he washes his hands

6)[line 26]דמשמשי בהוD'MESHAMSHEI BEHU- that they would [intentionally] touch them [in order to keep their mind focused on them]

7a)[line 29]מצות לולבMITZVAS LULAV- the Mitzvah of Lulav [is mid'Oraisa and primary, and a Berachah is therefore recited upon its fulfillment]

b)[line 30]מצות זקניםMITZVAS ZEKEINIM- it is a Mitzvah ordained by the elders (namely, Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai and those with him at the time) [and a Berachah is therefore not recited upon its fulfillment]

8)[line 36]המדליק נר של חנוכה...HA'MADLIK NER SHEL CHANUKAH...- one who [is about to] light Chanukah lights. Like the Mitzvah of Arba Minim over the last six days of Sukos, the lighting of Neros Chanukah is mid'Rabanan. Our Gemara seeks to prove that Rav is of the opinion that one should recite a Berachah on a Mitzvah that is mid'Rabanan from his opinion regarding the lighting of Chanukah lights.

9)[line 37]הרואה נר של חנוכהHA'RO'EH NER SHEL CHANUKAH- one who sees [another's] Chanukah lights [when he himself does not own a house and will therefore not be lighting himself]

10a)[line 39]שלשSHALOSH- three [Berachos: "... l'Hadlik Ner Shel Chanukah," "... she'Asah Nisim la'Avoseinu... ," and "... she'Hechiyanu..."]

b)[line 40]שתיםSHETAYIM- two [Berachos: "... she'Asah Nisim la'Avoseinu..." and "... she'Hechiyanu..."]

11)[line 41]ומאי מברך?U'MAI MEVARECH?- and what is the [first] Berachah [that should be recited by one who lights Chanukah lights]?

12)[line 42]"לֹא תָסוּר [מִן הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יַגִּידוּ לְךָ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאל]""... LO SASUR [MIN HA'DAVAR ASHER YAGIDU LECHA YAMIN U'SEMOL]"- "... do not swerve [from that which [the Chachamim] tell you neither right nor left]" (Devarim 17:11).

13)[line 43]"שְׁאַל אָבִיךָ וְיַגֵּדְךָ, [זְקֵנֶיךָ וְיֹאמְרוּ לָךְ]""... SHE'AL AVICHA V'YAGEDCHA, [ZEKENECHA V'YOMRU LACH]"- "... ask your father and he will relate it to you, [your elders and they will tell you]" (Devarim 32:7).

14)[line 48]דקאמר להו לכולהו אכסא דקדושאDEKA'AMAR LEHU L'CHULHU A'KASA D'KEDUSHA- a) that he [ideally] recited both of these Berachos over the cup of Kidush [since that is when he actually fulfilled the Mitzvah] (ROSH); b) that he recited both of these Berachos over the cup of Kidush [if he forgot to do so at their proper times] (RITVA)

15)[line 53]מעין ברכותיוME'EIN BIRCHOSAV- blessings that fit it [such as the recitation of "Mekadesh ha'Shabbos" on Shabbos, "Mekadesh Yisrael veha'Zemanim" on Yom Tov, and so on]

16)[last line]כלי ריקן מחזיקKLI REIKAN MACHZIK- an empty vessel holds [what is placed inside of it]


17)[line 3]אם שמוע תשמעIM SHAMO'A TISHMA- if you [become used to] listening, you will be able to hear [more and learn new things] in the future

18a)[line 4]אם שמוע בישןIM SHAMO'A B'YASHAN- if you review what you have learned

b)[line 5]תשמע בחדשTISHMA B'CHADASH- you will uncover "new" [nuggets of wisdom contained within]

19)[line 5]"וְאִם יִפְנֶה לְבָבְךָ [וְלֹא תִשְׁמָע...]""V'IM YIFNEH LEVAVCHA [V'LO SISHMA...]"- "And if you turn your heart away [and do not listen...]" (Devarim 30:17). Our Gemara interprets this dependent clause as an independent statement that means, "If you turn your heart away [and do not review what you have learned], then you will not understand [anything of it]."

20)[line 6]אתרוגESROG- an Esrog [that was used in the Mitzvah of Arba Minim]

21)[line 7]אסורASUR- may not [be eaten]

22)[line 8]אסורהASURAH- may not [be used for firewood]

23)[line 10]למצותה אתקצאי... לכולי יומא אתקצאיL'MITZVASO ISKATZA'I ... L'KULEI YOMA ISKATZA'I

(a)Muktzah literally means "set aside" or "designated." That which has been designated for use in a Mitzvah (Huktzah l'Mitzvaso) may not be used for any other purpose that detracts from its ability to be used for the Mitzvah. For example, wood in use as Sechach may not be taken down on Sukos to be burned as firewood. An Esrog used or designated for use in the Mitzvah of Arba Minim may not be eaten in the middle of Sukos. This prohibition may be prohibited by the Torah, as is the case with Sechach (Sukah 9a), and sometimes applies mid'Rabanan, due to Bizuy Mitzvah (degrading a Mitzvah) (Shabbos 22a, and Tosfos ibid. DH Sukah).

(b)One may not make use of an object that is Huktzah l'Mitzvaso in the way that is most often used, for its primary use has been designated for the Mitzvah. Therefore, one may not inhale the scent of a Hadas (myrtle branch) that is part of the Mitzvah of Arba Minim - even though this does not impair its use for he Mitzvah - since this is its primary use.

(d)Two factors are necessary for an object to receive the designation of Huktzah l'Mitzvaso. One is that it has indeed been designated for use in the Mitzvah. The second is that the time period in which the Mitzvah may be performed, if applicable, has begun. Therefore, a Sukos or Esrog is not Huktzah l'Mitzvaso until Sukos has started. There is a disagreement between the Rishonim as to whether or not a condition stipulating that the object should not become Huktzah l'Mitzvaso prior to this period is effective or not (Beitzah 32b).

(d)The discussion in our Gemara concerns when the status of Huktzah l'Mitzvaso comes to an end. Is it set aside for only as long the Mitzvah has not been performed (l'Mitzvaso Iskatza'i)? If so, then once the Arba Minim have been taken on the last day of Sukos one may use them for whatever purpose he wishes. This is the opinion of Resh Lakish. Rebbi Yochanan, however, maintains that such objects are considered set aside for the entire day during which it is possible to perform the Mitzvah (l'Kulei Yoma Iskatza'i). Therefore, one may not make use of the species until the day following.

24)[line 14]תינוקות דוקאTINOKOS DAVKA- specifically children [who are not obligated in the Mitzvah of Arba Minim, and whose Esrogim were therefore not set aside for an actual Mitzvah]

25)[line 18]אורחא דמלתאORCHA D'MILSA- what generally occurs

26a)[line 21]דאי איתרמי ליה סעודתאD'IY ISRAMI LEI SE'UDASAH- that if the opportunity for a meal should arise

b)[line 21]בעי מיתב בגווה ומיכל בגווהBA'I MEISAV B'GAVAH U'MEICHAL B'GAVAH- he would have to sit and eat in [the Sukah]

27)[line 23]מיגו דאתקצאי לבין השמשות אתקצאי לכולי יומא דשמיניMIGO D'ISKATZA'I L'BEIN HA'SHMASHOS, ISKATZA'I L'KULEI YOMA D'SHEMINI

(a)Muktzah literally means "set aside" or "designated." With regard to Shabbos, this term is used to describe items which one has no intention of using on Shabbos, such as wood stacked in a barn. Anything that a person had no intention to use during Bein ha'Shemashos (twilight) at the start of Shabbos (or Yom Tov) - for any reason - is included in the category of Muktzah and may not be moved on Shabbos.

(b)Should that which was Muktzah at Bein ha'Shemashos prove to be useful at a later point on Shabbos, Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon disagree as to its status. Rebbi Yehudah rules that Migo d'Iskatza'i l'Vein ha'Shemashos, Iskatza'i l'Chulei Yoma. This means that since it was set aside as Muktzah during twilight, it remains categorized as such for all of Shabbos, even if the reason for why it was Muktzah then no longer applies. Rebbi Shimon maintains that if one realized during Bein ha'Shemashos that the object may become useful on Shabbos, then he may utilize or move the object at the point at which it becomes usable (Shabbos 44a, 46b). The Halachah follows Rebbi Yehudah.

(c)This same reasoning applies to the discussion of Huktzah l'Mitzvaso in our Gemara. Since a Sukah may not be used for anything other than the Mitzvah of Sukah during Bein ha'Shemashos of Shemini Atzeres, it remains with that status for the remainder of Yom Tov.

28)[line 27]אתרוג אפילו בשמיני אסורESROG AFILU B'SHEMINI ASUR- Levi agrees with Rebbi Yochanan in prohibiting the eating of an Esrog used in the Mitzvah of Arba Minim for all seven days of Sukos. He takes this concept one step farther, however. Since the Esrog may not be eaten during Bein ha'Shemashos of Shemini Atzeres, it may not be eaten for the entire eighth day due to Migo d'Iskatza'i l'Vein ha'Shemashos, Iskatza'i l'Chulei Yoma (see previous entry).

29)[line 29]קם אבוה דשמואל בשיטתיה דלויKAM AVUHA D'SHMUEL B'SHITSEI D'LEVI- Avuha d'Shmuel changed his mind and] took on the opinion of Levi

30)[line 32]ליקניLIKNI- transfer ownership to

31)[line 33]הושענאHOSHANA- the Lulav bundle (i.e., any of the Arba Minim)

32)[line 33]ינוקאYENUKA- a child [under the age of Bar Mitzvah]

33)[line 34]מקנא קניMAKNA KANI- is able to acquire [mid'Rabanan]

34)[line 34]אקנויי לא מקניAKNUYEI LO MAKNI- [but] is unable to transfer ownership

35)[line 35]אשתכח דקא נפיק בלולב שאינו שלוISHTACHACH D'KA NAFIK B'LULAV SHE'EINO SHE'LO- and the result is that he will [attempt to] fulfill [his Mitzvah of Arba Minim] with a Lulav that is not his [if he does so after receiving his Arba Minim back from the child]

36)[line 36]דיהיבנא לך מידיD'YAHIVNA LACH MIDI- that he will give him something

37)[line 37]לאגמוריהL'AGMUREI- to teach him

38)[line 38]"... לִמְּדוּ לְשׁוֹנָם דַּבֶּר שֶׁקֶר...""... LIMDU LESHONAM DABER SHEKER..." - "[And each man mocks his friend, and they do not speak the truth;] they train their tongues to speak falsehood, [they exhaust themselves in their crookedness]" (Yirmeyahu 9:4) (WHY THE BEIS HA'MIKDASH WAS DESTROYED)

(a)Yirmeyahu ha'Navi explains that the reason why Klal Yisrael deserved the destruction of Beis ha'Mikdash and the resulting exile was due to sins that fractured interpersonal relations.

39)[line 39]ובפלוגתא דר' יוחנן ור"ש בן לקישUB'PLUGTA D'REBBI YOCHANAN V'REBBI SHIMON BEN LAKISH- and [dependant] upon the disagreement between Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Shimon Ben Lakish [is the following one between Rav and Rav Asi]

40)[line 41]לאלתרL'ALTER- immediately

41)[line 45]ואנן דאית לן תרי יומיV'ANAN D'IS LAN TREI YOMEI- and we [in Bavel], who have two days [of Yom Tov]

42)[line 48]סוראSURA- Syria

43a)[line 52]שביעי לסוכהSHEVI'I L'SUKAH- is [Halachically considered to be] the seventh day of Sukos [with regard to certain laws]

b)[line 52]ושמיני לברכהU'SHEMINI L'BERACHAH- and is [Halachically considered to be] Shemini Atzeres with regard to [referring to the festival as Shemini Atzeres in the] blessings [of Shemoneh Esrei, Birkas ha'Mazon, and Kidush]

44)[last line]מיתבMEISAV- [as far as] sitting [in the Sukah goes]