[21a - 36 lines; 21b - 42 lines]

1)[line 1]RIDYA- the angel in charge of irrigating the earth with water from the heavens as well as that found in the depths. The sound referred to is that made when these bodies of water call out to each other, as the verse states, "the depths cry out to the depths" (Tehilim 42:8). "Ridya" is the Aramaic term for a bull plowing a field; this angel is called such due to that which it resembles a calf in appearance (Ta'anis 25b).

2)[line 4] DAMO B'ROSHO- he is responsible for what befalls him

3)[line 5] AD SHE'YESHANEH- [one should not travel] until [the rooster crows] a second time

4)[line 6] TARNEGOL BEINONI- a rooster that crows neither earlier nor later than most roosters

5a)[line 8]TZEFUFIN- packed together [to the extent that some in the crowd may sometimes leave the ground altogether]

b)[line 8]REVACHIM- widely spaced [to the extent that each individual has four Amos between himself and the next closest person]

6)[line 9] ACHAS ESREI AMAH ACHOREI BEIS HA'KAPORES- the eleven Amos between the outer wall of the Heichal and the western wall of the Azarah

7)[line 10] MAI K'AMAR?- If the confined space miraculously expanded, why were people pushed into the far reaches of the Azarah?

8a)[line 15]HIPILAH- miscarried

b)[line 15] ME'REI'ACH BASAR HEKDESH- from [desiring to eat from the Korbanos due to] the aroma of the [roasting] meat of Hekdesh

9)[line 16]HISRIACH- spoiled

10)[line 17] BEIS MITBACHAYIM- the slaughterhouse [in the Beis ha'Mikdash]

11)[line 18]KERI (BA'AL KERI)

(a)One who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not enter Machaneh Leviyah (the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser, Terumah or Kodshim. He becomes Tahor upon immersing in a Mikvah and may immediately enter Machaneh Leviyah and eat Ma'aser. Until nightfall he remains a "Tevul Yom" (see Background to 6:8), after which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim. Mid'Rabanan, he may not enter the Ezras Nashim of the Beis ha'Mikdash until nightfall.

12)[line 19]OMER

(a)It is a Mitzvah to offer the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall following the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is then kneaded and offered as a Korban Minchah on the 16th of Nisan. (This Korban is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim - Vayikra 2:14-16).

(b)A lamb is offered as an Olah along with the Minchah (Vayikra 23:12).

(c)Chadash refers to grain that begins to take root after the Korban ha'Omer is offered on the second day of Pesach. This grain may not be eaten until the following year's Korban ha'Omer is offered (Vayikra 23:14). When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, Chadash may not be eaten until after the second day of Pesach, which is when the Korban ha'Omer would have been offered.

(d)Since the barley must be prepared on the night following Yom Tov, there would be no barley to replace the Omer should it become invalidated.

13)[line 19] SHTEI HA'LECHEM

(a)On Shavu'os, a communal Korban known as the Shtei ha'Lechem is offered. It consists of two loaves of Chametz bread baked from Chadash (grain that began to take root after the Korban ha'Omer was offered on the second day of Pesach of the previous year; Vayikra 23:17). One loaf is given to the Kohen Gadol, and the other is divided among the rest of the Kohanim who are in the Mikdash at that time. They may be eaten on the day of Shavu'os as well as until midnight of the following night (RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:11).

(b)Along with the Shtei ha'Lechem, seven sheep, one bull, and two rams are offered as Olos, a goat as a Chatas, and an additional two sheep are offered as Korbenos Shelamim (known as Zivchei Shalmei Tzibor; Vayikra 23:18-19).

(c)Following the offering of the Shtei ha'Lechem, Chadash may be used in Menachos (see Background to Menachos 2:1).

(d)Since the Shtei ha'Lechem are baked on Erev Shevu'os, should they become invalidated on Yom Tov there are no others to replace them.

14)[line 19] LECHEM HA'PANIM

(a)The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) refers to the 12 loaves arranged in two stacks (Sedarim) - six loaves to a stack - on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. The loaves are one Tefach thick and may not be Chametz. Fresh loaves are arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there through the following Shabbos. The loaves are eaten by Kohanim after their removal. (Vayikra 24:5-9).

(b)A Kometz (that held between one's middle three fingers and his palm) of Levonah (frankincense) is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). The Levonah is offered upon the Mizbe'ach when the loaves are removed. Only after this stage may the Lechem ha'Panim be eaten by the Kohanim.

(c)Since the Lechem ha'Panim are baked on Erev Shabbos, should they become invalidated on Shabbos there are no others to replace them.

15)[line 21]AKRAV- a scorpion

16)[line 22] TZAR LI MAKOM SHE'ALIN- the place where I am to sleep is too narrow

17)[line 25] ATZEI HA'MA'ARACHAH- the wood arranged atop Mizbe'ach

18)[line 26]MENASHVOS- blow

19)[line 27]KALNEVO- a city in Bavel, named for the idol Nevo (see Yeshayah 46:1)


(a)Any meat of a Korban which remains after the time within which it may be eaten must be burned, as the Torah states: "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel, umi'Macharas; veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref" - "It shall be eaten on the day that you slaughter it and on the next; and that which remains until the third day shall be burned in fire" (Vayikra 19:6).

(b)Regarding the Korban Pesach, the Torah writes, "v'Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker..." - "And do not leave over anything from it until the morning; anything left over from it until the morning must be burned in fire" (Shemos 12:10). If someone transgresses this prohibition, he also transgresses the Lav of "Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker" (Vayikra 22:30), which refers to all Korbanos (Pesulei ha'Mukdashin 18:9; Sefer ha'Chinuch #142 and Minchas Chinuch).

(c)If someone eats at a k'Zayis of Nosar intentionally, he is Chayav Kares, as the Torah states "... v'Ochlav Avono Yisa... v'Nichresah ha'Nefesh ha'Hi me'Ameha" - "... and one who eats it shall bear his sin... and that soul will be cut off from its nation"(ibid. 19:8). If he eats it unintentionally, he must bring a Korban Chatas (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 215).

(d)Parts of Kodshei Kodashim that may be eaten, such as a Chatas which is consumed by the Kohanim, must be eaten in the Azarah. They are cooked in earthenware vessels, and these vessels then absorb the taste of the Korbanos. This absorbed taste becomes Nosar when the time within which that particular Korban must be eaten is up. Therefore, these vessels must be broken after use (Vayikra 6:21).

21)[line 28]NIVLA'IN- sink [into the ground]

22a)[line 28]MUR'AH- the crop [of an Olas ha'Of]

b)[line 28]NOTZAH- feathers [of an Olas ha'Of]

23)[line 28]DISHUN- the removal of ashes [from]

24)[line 28] MIZBE'ACH HA'PENIMI- the golden Mizbe'ach located in the Heichal upon which the Ketores is burned; also knows as the Mizbach ha'Ketores

25)[line 29]BI'MEKOMAN- where they are placed [namely, alongside the ramp of the Mizbe'ach together with the Terumas ha'Deshen (see Background to 22:2)]

26)[line 29]TELASA- [the] three [irreplaceable Korbanos mentioned above; namely, the Omer, the Shtei ha'Lechem, and the Lechem ha'Panim]

27a)[line 29] APIK TREI- remove two [from the previous reckoning]

b)[line 30] V'AYIL TREI- and add [the] two [that were just mentioned]

28)[line 31] SILUKO K'SIDURO- [the Lechem ha'Panim were as fresh] when they were removed [from the Shulchan nine days after they were baked] as [they were] when they were arranged [upon the Shulchan immediately following their removal from the oven]

29)[line 32]"[ ; ',] ""... LA'SUM LECHEM CHOM B'YOM HILAKCHO" - "[And the Kohen [Achimelech, the Kohen Gadol] gave him Kodesh; for there was no bread there other than the Lechem ha'Panim which had been removed from [the Shulchan] before HaSh-m], in order to [re]place [it with] hot bread on the day which it is taken" (Shmuel I 21:7) (KING DAVID IS GIVEN LECHEM HA'PANIM)

(a)David was the son-in-law and close advisor of Sha'ul ha'Melech. There came a time, however, when Sha'ul developed an antipathy toward his confidant. Yehonasan, Sha'ul's son and close friend of David, devised a method to test how deep his father's hostility to David ran. After determining that it was no longer safe for David to remain in the palace, he relayed this information and sent David, now a fugitive, on his way.

(b)David sought refuge in Nov, a city of Kohanim wherein the Mishkan was located. He did not divulge the circumstances of his visit, and pretended that he had been sent on a mission by the king. He had fallen ill on the way with a malady called Bulmus, and desperately needed nourishment.

(b)There was no bread available other than the Lechem ha'Panim. Although David was prohibited from consuming bread of Hekdesh since he was a Zar (non-Kohen), he was permitted to do so then since his condition was otherwise life-threatening.

30)[line 33] EINO MIN HA'MIDAH- did not occupy any space

31a)[line 34]KERUVIM- the ten-Amah tall golden statues that stood to the north and south of the Aron in the Beis ha'Mikdash

b)[line 34] B'NES HAYU OMDIM- stood miraculously. The verse (Melachim I 6:24) states that each wing of each Kruv was five Amos wide. The Kodesh ha'Kodashim was twenty Amos wide. Since the Keruvim stood wing to wing, there was no room for the bodies of the Keruvim. From this we see that the Keruvim themselves, like the Aron, did not occupy any space.

32a)[line 34]D'VARAI- that [occurred] outside [in the Azarah, where everyone was able to witness them]

b)[line 34]D'GAVAI- that [occurred] inside [the Heichal or Kodesh Kodashim, where they were not witnessed by anyone other than Kohanim]

33)[last line] SHE'HU TAMEI- that it is able to become Tamei (see next entry)



(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)A metal utensil can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b); a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes become a Sheni l'Tum'ah); Earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah; food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah; Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well; and Hekdesh can also become a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

(d)Wooden utensils receive Tum'ah only if they share certain qualities with Sak (a sack), since the verse compares the two materials (Vayikra 11:32). These qualities include:

1.The utensil must have a receptacle. A flat wooden board is not Mekabel Tum'ah.

2.The receptacle may not be large enough to contain forty Se'ah, since it is then too large to be transported when full. A sack is transportable both empty and full.

3.The object itself must be sometimes moved. A wooden utensil that is intended to remain in place forever is termed a "Kli he'Asuy l'Nachas," and is not Mekabel Tum'ah.

35)[line 2] CHOTZETZ (TUM'AS OHEL)

(a)A covered space one Tefach cubed is Halachically considered an "Ohel" (tent). If a k'Zayis from a corpse is anywhere in an Ohel, Tum'ah spreads out in all directions to fill the entire Ohel (Mevi Es ha'Tum'ah) but does not rise above the Ohel (Chotzetz Mipnei ha'Tum'ah).

(b)A space that is less than a Tefach high and a Tefach wide and deep is not considered an Ohel even if it is covered. Tum'as Mes in such an area is called "Tum'ah Retzutzah" (compressed Tum'ah) or "Tum'ah Temunah" (hidden Tum'ah). Such Tum'ah does not spread throughout the Ohel, but "breaks through" (Boka'as) the Ohel and is Metamei anything directly above or below it, as if it were in the open.

(c)Certain objects have only certain qualities of an Ohel. Some, when they cover Tum'ah, are Mevi but not Chotzetz. Others are Chotzetz but not Mevi. Some objects are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz when placed above Tum'ah (Ohalos 8:5). An object that is itself Mekabel Tum'ah spreads Tum'ah beneath it, but does not prevent Tum'ah from affecting what is above it.


(a)Every Jewish male is commanded to visit the Beis ha'Mikdash three times a year, on the festivals of Pesach, Shevu'os, and Sukos (Shemos 23:17).

(b)While there, one must offer a Korban Shelamim called a Korban Chagigah and a Korban Olah known as an Olas Re'iyah. Additionally, if he does not have enough meat for his family to fulfill the Mitzvah of Simchas Yom Tov, he offers Shalmei Simchah.

37)[line 4]CHIBASAM- [to what extent] you are beloved

38)[line 8]MEGADIM- delicacies

39)[line 10]NOSHRIN- fall off

40)[line 10]"... ...""... YIR'ASH KA'LEVANON PIRYO..."- "... may its produce rustle as [cedars in] Levanon... " (Tehilim 72:16). Our Gemara interprets Levanon to be referring to the Beis ha'Mikdash (Yoma 39b, Rashi to Devarim 3:25).

41)[line 12]"... ""... U'FERACH LEVANON UMLAL"- "... and withers the flower of Levanon" (Nachum 1:4).

42)[line 13]" , , ...""PARO'ACH TIFRACH V'SAGEL, AF GILAS V'RANEN, KEVOD HA'LEVANON NITAN LAH..."- "It shall flower and rejoice - even rejoice and sing!; the glory of Levanon will be given to her..." (Yeshayah 35:2).

43)[line 14]D'KEVI'EI- that occur perpetually

44)[line 16] REVUTZAH K'ARI- [the coal which fell from heaven when Shlomo ha'Melech built the Beis ha'Mikdash was shaped like a] crouching lion

45)[line 17]VARAH- bright

46)[line 17]MAMASH- substantiality

47)[line 22]"[ , ;] (), [ ']""... V'ERTZEH BO V'EKAVDA(H), [AMAR HASH-M]"- "[Climb the mountain, bring wood, and build the house;] and I will be pleased with it and I will be honored, [says HaSh-m]" (Chagai 1:8). This verse relates HaSh-m's command to build the second Beis ha'Mikdash.

48)[line 24] ARON V'KAPORES U'KERUVIM- These three objects were not present in the second Beis ha'Mikdash; this is one of the five differences between the first and second Beis ha'Mikdash.

49)[line 24]SHECHINAH- that which HaSh-m causes his presence to dwell

50)[line 24] RU'ACH HA'KODESH- prophecy

51)[line 24] URIM V'TUMIM- the breastplate of the Kohen Gadol. TOSFOS explains that as this is one of the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol, it most certainly existed in the second Beis ha'Mikdash. However, the letters comprising the names of the tribes written upon it did not light up in answer to questions asked of it by the Kohen Gadol, as it did in the first Beis ha'Mikdash.

52a)[line 25] MIHEVAH HAVAH- it was there

b)[line 25] SIYU'EI LO MESAYA- it did not contribute [to the burning of the sacrifices]

53)[line 28]D'CHOLIN- [a fever contracted] by those who are sick [which causes them to desire liquids, but eschew food]

54)[line 29]"[ ', , , ;] ""... V'ES HA'MAYIM ASHER BA'TE'ALAH LICHECHAH" - "[A G-dly fire descended and consumed the Olah, the wood, the stones, and the dirt;] and it licked up the water in the trench" (Melachim I 18:38) (ELIYAHU AND THE PROPHETS OF BA'AL)

(a)In the times of King Achav, a wicked idol-worshipper, the nation reverted to worshipping the Avodah Zarah of Ba'al. Eliyahu ha'Navi decreed a famine in the land in retaliation for this desertion of HaSh-m. Achav then scornfully referred to Eliyahu as "Ocher Yisrael" - the destroyer of Yisrael. In response, Eliyahu suggested a confrontation with eight hundred and fifty "prophets" of Ba'al on Mount Carmel. All of Yisrael was invited to witness the event, at which Eliyahu intended to demonstrate that HaSh-m was the true and only G-d.

(b)Eliyahu challenged Yisrael to decide between the worship HaSh-m or that of Ba'al. He then invited the prophets of Ba'al to choose one of two bulls, leaving him with the other. Both parties were to prepare an altar and firewood, upon which they would place their slaughtered and quartered bull as an offering. Each party would then beseech his deity to send fire from Heaven to consume the animal. Whomever responded would prove Himself to be the true G-d.

(c)Eliyahu taunted the prophets of Ba'al for most of the day as they ranted and raved, pranced upon their altar, and even maimed themselves in their frenzied attempt to arouse their god. in the afternoon, Eliyahu called upon Yisrael to carefully observe. He rebuilt a Mizbe'ach that had been used by Sha'ul ha'Melech, and dug a trench around it. He then ordered four large jugs of water to be poured over his bull and the wood atop the altar. The water flowed into the ditch, filling it.

(d)The preparations were complete at Minchah time. Eliyahu beseeched HaSh-m to answer his prayers and demonstrate His omnipotence. As he finished his prayer and the great miracle transpired, the assemblage was so moved that they cried in unison, "HaSh-m - He is the G-d! HaSh-m - He is the G-d"!


(a)Nevuchadnetzar, king of Babylonia, decreed that anyone who did not bow down to a certain golden statue would be thrown into a fiery furnace. Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah were righteous Jews who refused to do so.

(b)HaSh-m responded to their self-sacrifice by sending the angel Gavriel to save them. Gavriel not only cooled the furnace down so that Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah were unharmed, but he heated the fire outside of it so that those who threw them in were burned and died. (Daniel 3)

56)[line 31] HOSHIT YADO BEINEIHEM V'SARFAN- [when the angels, who are composed of fire, said, "What is man that you should remember him (Tehilim 49:8)?" HaSh-m] extended his finger among them and burnt them up (Sanhedrin 38b)

57)[line 33]CHAG- Sukos [upon which the world is judged as to how much rainfall it shall receive over the following year]

58)[line 33]TZOFIN- look

59)[line 35]MARKIVIN- rot [meaning that the prices of produce would drop, as the stores needed to be sold immediately]

60a)[line 36] HA'KOL SEMECHIN- everyone rejoiced [as a westerly wind portends a medium amount of rain]

b)[line 36] HA'KOL ATZEVIN- everyone was saddened [as an easterly wind portends little to no rain, resulting in a famine]

61a)[line 37] D'AZIL V'ASI K'DIKLEI- it would sway in the manner of palm trees

b)[line 37] V'AVDUREI LO HAVAH MIVDAR- yet it would not dissipate

62)[line 39] SHE'HEVI'U SHELISH- that have grown [to] a third [of their mature growth]

63)[line 40]CHONTIN- are budding

64a)[last line] HAI MARBEH DIDEI- a northerly wind is beneficial to the growth of wheat, which is the main ingredient of the Lechem ha'Panim placed upon the Shulchan in the north of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

b)[line 40] V'HAI MARBEH DIDEI- a southerly wind is beneficial to the growth of olives, from which oil used to light the Menorah in the south of the Beis ha'Mikdash is pressed.

65a)[last line] HA LAN- that [which an easterly wind, which is dry, proves beneficial] is true concerning Bavel [which always has a supply of water available]

b)[last line] V'HA LEHU- that [which an easterly wind proves detrimental] is true concerning Eretz Yisrael [which is dependent upon rainwater]