[12a - 37 lines; 12b - 39 lines]

1)[line 5] AMATU L'HACHI- because of this

2)[line 10] GEMARA GAMIR LAH- we know it from the tradition that Moshe received on Mount Sinai (Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai)

3)[line 13] MEKAITZIN BAHEN ES HA'MIZBE'ACH

See Background to Shevuos 11:20.

4)[line 27]VEHA'SHENI - and the other (lit. second) one, i.e. the Sa'ir la'Sh-m (SE'IR YOM HA'KIPURIM SHE'AVAD)

(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, a Goral (lot) is performed by the Kohen Gadol to choose between two identical goats (Vayikra 16:7-10). One (the Sa'ir la'Sh-m) is offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf and its blood is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:15); the other (the Sa'ir la'Azazel) is dispatched (Mishtale'ach) to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death (Vayikra 16:21-22).

(b)The blood of the Sa'ir la'Sh-m is also sprinkled on the Paroches and on the Mizbach ha'Ketores (Vayikra 16:16, 18-19). Its flesh is entirely burned in the place outside of the city where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Vayikra 16:27).

(c)A strip of crimson wool was tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach before it was led to Azazel. The person who takes the goat to Azazel becomes Tamei and is required to immerse his body and clothes in a Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26).

(d)Our Gemara brings the Mishnah (Yoma 62a) that discusses the possibility of one of the Se'irim dying or getting lost. Specifically, if the lots were drawn and subsequently the Sa'ir la'Azazel dies, a new pair of Se'irim is taken and the lots are drawn again. The original Sa'ir la'Sh-m is sacrificed and the second one is put out to pasture until it develops a Mum, at which point it may be redeemed (Yoma 64a, RAMBAM Hilchos Avodas Yom ha'Kipurim 5:15).

5)[line 31] ASHAM SHE'MESU BE'ALAV O SHE'NISKAPRU BE'ALAV - the animal of the Korban Asham, the owner of which died or achieved atonement [using another animal] (ASHAM SHENITAK L'RE'IYAH)

(a)Rebbi Yehoshua rules that an Asham animal that is in one of the five categories for which an animal that is a Korban Chatas is put to death, is put out to pasture until it develops a Mum, after which it is redeemed. Its value is used to purchase an Olas Nedavah for the Tzibur. (Rebbi Eliezer argues, ruling that the Asham animals are likewise put to death.)

(b)The five Chata'os that are put to death by being locked up without food until they die are:

1.The offspring of a Chatas

2.The Temurah (see Background to Temurah 2:1) of a Chatas

3.A Chatas whose owner has died

4.A Chatas of a sheep or goat that became a year old (and is therefore invalid as a Korban Chatas), whose owner brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins

5.A Chatas that was lost and was later found with a Mum, whose owner brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins (Temurah 21b)

6)[line 34] YAVI B'DAMAV OLAH- he shall bring with its value a Korban Olas Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach (see Background to Shevuos 11:20)

7)[last line]MOSAROS- the extra [Korbenos Tamid that are left over at the end of the "Kobanos year," which ends with the last day of the month of Adar - see Background to Shevuos 10:12a-b]

12b----------------------------------------12b

8)[line 1] KAYITZ, KI'VENOS SHU'ACH LA'MIZBE'ACH- "Dessert," like cut "Benos Shu'ach" figs for the Mizbe'ach. Usually, Benos Shu'ach are identified with a species of inferior white figs, the trees of which produce fruits over a 3-year period (Berachos 40b, Rosh Hashanah 15b, Bechoros 8a). However, the figs to which our Gemara refers are a superior strain. (See a similar case in the Gemara Nedarim 27a and ROSH there, and see TOSFOS to Bechoros 8a DH Benos, where Tosfos differentiates between them, calling the inferior dates Benos Shu'ach and the superior dates Benos Sheva, which is also his Girsa in Nedarim ibid. See also the MEFARESH to Nedarim ibid.)

9)[line 1]" [ ']""... KI CHOL SE'OR V'CHOL DEVASH [LO SAKTIRU MIMENU ISHEH LA'SH-M]"- "[No flour offering, which you shall bring to HaSh-m, shall be made with leaven;] for [you shall not burn] any leaven, nor any honey, [in any fire-offering of HaSh-m]" (Vayikra 2:11).

10)[line 4] OLAS HA'OF

The offering of the Olas ha'Of (e.g. in Vayikra 1:14-17) consists of four procedures:

1.MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Yoma 22:13) of the Mizbe'ach, on the southeastern corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is crowded with Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of Korbanos are offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)

2.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.

3.HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.

4.HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines - Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiya), salts it, and throws it into the fire.

11)[line 4] HA BURCHA- that is (a) a fabrication (RASHI); (b) improper (RASHI to Kesuvos 63b); (c) ignorance (ARUCH)

12)[line 11] SAKIN MOSHCHASAN L'MAH SHE'HEN- the slaughtering knife "drags them" to (i.e. makes them fit for) what they are supposed to be

13)[line 22]MERADIM- acts of rebellion which are performed to anger HaSh-m

14)[line 22]" ""MELECH MOAV PASHA BI"- "The king of Moav rebelled against me" (Melachim II 3:7).

15)[line 23]"[ ;] ""[VA'YIFSHA EDOM MI'TACHAS YAD YEHUDAH AD HA'YOM HA'ZEH;] AZ TIFSHA LIVNA BA'ES HA'HI"- "[And Edom rebelled against [being] under the hand of the Yehudah to this day;] then Livnah rebelled at that time" (Melachim II 8:22).

16)[line 24]SHEGAGOS- unintentional sins (performed due to lack of knowledge)

17)[line 26]ZEDONOS- intentional sins (performed due to temptation)

18a)[line 27]ASEH- positive commandments

b)[line 27] LO SA'ASEH- negative commandments

c)[line 28]KERISOS (KARES AND MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM: Heavenly Punishment of Untimely Death)

(a)Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death. There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments: Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts, but through divinely administered justice.

(b)One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.

(c)The Tif'eres Yisrael, in his commentary to Sanhedrin 9:6, lists a number of differences between Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and Kares:

1.One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim 2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60 but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)

2.When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children (Yevamos 55a and RASHI there; see, however, RIVA in Tosfos to Yevamos 2a DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be referring to the death of children who are not minors.)

3.Some add that when punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, the sinner's cattle and possessions slowly expire until he is left destitute - see Insights to Yevamos 73:2 and Insights to Pesachim 32:2.

4.In addition to the above, in certain instances a form Kares is prescribed in which the sinner not only dies before his time but is also 'severed' (Nichras) from receiving a portion in the World to Come (see Sanhedrin 64b, 90b).

(d)As stated in the Mishnah at the beginning of Kerisus, there are 36 sins listed in the Torah for which one receives Kares: the sixteen forbidden conjugal relations listed in the Torah (Vayikra 18); one who curses G-d; an idol worshipper; one who worships Molech (see Background to Sanhedrin 53:5); one who practices Ov (see Background to Pesachim 113:62); one who desecrates Shabbos; one who ate Kodshim or entered the Mikdash while in a state of Tum'ah; one who consumed blood, Nosar (see Background to Pesachim 120:9), or Pigul (see Background to 6:60); one who slaughters or offers a sacrifice outside of the Mikdash; one who eats Chametz on Pesach; one who eats or performs Melachah on Yom Kipur; one who compounds Shemen ha'Mishchah (the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu to anoint the Mishkan and its vessels, Kohanim Gedolim, and the kings of the Davidic dynasty) or the Ketores (see Background to 11:25) for his own use; one who anoints himself with Shemen ha'Mishchah; one who neglects to give himself a Bris Milah; and one who neglects to offer a Korban Pesach.

d)[line 28] "MISOS BEIS DIN MISOS (ARBA MISOS BEIS DIN)

(a)Arba Misos Beis Din, the four death penalties administered by Beis Din, in their order of stringency are:

1.Sekilah (stoning, whereby the transgressor is thrust down from the height of two stories, and then (if he is still alive) a large rock is thrown down upon him). Some examples of sins for which Sekilah is administered: desecrating the Shabbos; idol worship; cursing (Chas v'Shalom) G-d; bestiality; sodomy; certain illicit relations (Sanhedrin 53a).

2.Sereifah (burning with molten lead, which is poured down the throat). Sereifah is administered of certain illicit relations (Sanhedrin 75a).

3.Hereg (killing with a sword) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #50). Hereg is administered for Avodah Zarah, when performed along with most of the inhabitants of an Ir ha'Nidachas, and for murder (Sanhedrin 76b).

4.Chenek (strangulation) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #47) - Chenek is administered for wounding one's parents; Zaken Mamrei; Navi Sheker; certain illicit relations (Sanhedrin 84b).

(b)According to the Rebbi Shimon (Mishnah Sanhedrin 9:3, Gemara Sanhedrin 49b), the order of their stringency is Sereifah, Sekilah, Chenek and Hereg.

e)[line 29]MEZID- intentional sins (performed due to temptation)

f)[line 29]SHOGEG- unintentional sins (performed due to lack of knowledge)

19)[line 36]" ""ZEVACH RESHA'IM TOE'AVAH"- "the sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination" (Mishlei 21:27).

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