[10a - 49 lines; 10b - 33 lines]
1)[line 2]במילתא דקודשB'MILSA D'KODESH- with regard to Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav
2)[line 10]בר קרבן הואBAR KORBAN HU- he must bring a Korban [Oleh v'Yored]
3)[line 21]וי"ו מוסיף על ענין ראשוןVAV MOSIF AL INYAN RISHON- (lit. the letter "Vav" adds to the first topic) Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Chanina learns that the letters "Vav" in the words "u'Se'ir" from the verses that describe the Korbenos Musaf of all of the holidays (Bamidbar 28:16, 22, 30, 29:5, 11, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, 38) connect all of the goats that are sacrificed as Korbenos Chatas. Rebbi Chama's teaching provides a source for Rebbi Meir's Halachah that all of the three types of Se'irim (Rosh Chodesh, Regalim and Chitzon of Yom ha'Kipurim) accomplish all of the three atonements (Tahor she'Achal Es ha'Tamei, Ein Bah Yedi'ah Lo bi'Techilah v'Lo ba'Sof and Ein Bah Yedi'ah bi'Techilah Aval Yesh Bah Yedi'ah ba'Sof).
4)[line 22]קסלקא דעתך כל חד וחד מחבריה גמרKA SALKA DA'ATACH KOL CHAD V'CHAD ME'CHAVREI GAMAR - you might assume that each different type of Sa'ir is learned from the one next to it, as follows:
(a)The Sa'ir of Rosh Chodesh (Bamidbar 28:15) is learned from the Gezeirah Shavah Avon - Avon (Daf 9b) to teach that it atones for Tahor she'Achal Es ha'Tamei. The Sa'ir of the Regalim, including the Sa'ir of Pesach (Bamidbar 28:22), is next to and learned from the Sa'ir of Rosh Chodesh. The Sa'ir ha'Chitzon of Yom ha'Kipurim (ibid. 29:11) is learned from the Hekesh and the verses (Daf 8b) to teach that it is Mechaper on Ein Bah Yedi'ah bi'Techilah Aval Yesh Bah Yedi'ah ba'Sof. The Sa'ir of Sukos (ibid. 29:16), also a Sa'ir of the Regalim, is next to and learned from the Sa'ir ha'Chitzon of Yom ha'Kipurim.
(b)The next step in this teaching, the source for learning that the Sa'ir of the Regalim is Mechaper on Ein Bah Yedi'ah Lo bi'Techilah v'Lo ba'Sof, is not clear. TOSFOS (to Daf 10b DH Osah) learns that the source is from "l'Chatas la'Sh-m," as Rebbi Yehudah learns (Daf 9a). It is possible that RASHI (DH Ka Salka Da'atach) learns the source by the process of elimination from the verses of "Osah" and "Achas ba'Shanah," as Rebbi Shimon learns (Daf 10a) (YOSEF DA'AS). Finally, the Sa'ir ha'Chitzon is next to and learned from the Sa'ir of Sukos.
(c)Afterwards, the letters "Vav" connect each Sa'ir to the ones that are above and below it in the verses, spreading the teachings throughout the Se'irim.
5)[line 23]למידין למד מלמדLEMEIDIN LAMED MI'LAMED - one may learn a Hekesh to compare two subjects, where the Halachah from the first subject that is being applied to the second subject, was originally learned from a different Hekesh - RASHI (HEKESH)
(a)One of the methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah is Hekesh, in which two subjects that are mentioned in a verse are compared. If there are a few possible Halachos that the Hekesh teaches, we learn them all ("Ein Hekesh l'Mechtzah"). We do not say that it teaches us only one or two of the Halachos (unless we have an explicit teaching that excludes a specific Halachah).
(b)Normal questions that can invalidate a Kal va'Chomer (see Background to Bava Basra 111:6) or a Gezeirah Shavah (see Background to Sanhedrin 87:5) will not invalidate a Hekesh ("Ein Meshivin Al ha'Hekesh").
6)[line 25]כולהו מקמא גמריKULHU MI'KAMA GAMREI- [for each of the three Halachos,] all of the Se'irim are actually learned from the first one, i.e. the paradigm Sa'ir in each Halachah (see above, entry #4:a-b)
7)[line 28]"אֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַה' בְּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם""ELU TA'ASU LA'SH-M B'MO'ADEICHEM"- "These [Korbanos] you shall offer to (lit. do for) HaSh-m on your holidays" (Bamidbar 29:39) - The Hekesh of Rebbi Yonah is learned in conjunction with the Hekesh of Rebbi Chama bar Chanina, and both teachings serve as the source for Rebbi Meir's Halachos (see RITVA).
8)[line 29]איבראIVRA- indeed, in truth
9)[line 31]תמוז דההיא שתא מלויי מליוהוTAMUZ DEHA'HI SHATA MELUYEI MALYUHU- the month of Tamuz during that year (when Benei Yisrael were in the desert) had (lit. they "filled" it with) thirty days
10)[line 32]"קָרָא עָלַי מוֹעֵד לִשְׁבֹּר בַּחוּרָי""KARA ALAI MO'ED LISHBOR BACHURAI"- "He proclaimed a set time against me to crush my young men" (Eichah 1:15) - Abaye interprets this verse to mean "He proclaimed a festival (the added 30th day of Tamuz) in order to crush my young men." The added day caused the spies to return on the inauspicious day of the 9th of Av.
11)[line 41]שיירה (וכפרתן) [וכפרתו] נמי שיירהSHAIRAH (V'KAPARASAN) [V'KAPARASO] NAMI SHAIRAH- it was left out and its atonement (i.e. the sin for which it atones) was also left out
12a)[line 21]תמידין שלא הוצרכו לצבור נפדין תמימיםTEMIDIN SHE'LO HUTZRECHU L'TZIBUR NIFDIN TEMIMIM- [animals allocated to become] Korbenos Tamid (see next entry) that are not needed for the [communal sacrifices of the] public are redeemed [even though they are] unblemished
b)[line 21]תמידיןTEMIDIN (KORBAN TAMID)
(a)The Korban Tamid, a communal offering (Korban Tzibur) consists of two male sheep that were less than one year old. One sheep was offered at dawn and the second sheep was offered in the afternoon, ideally 2 1/2 Halachic hours before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of flour was brought with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering), which was mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approximately 0.9, 1.04 or 1.8 liters) of hand pressed olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep was brought as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b)To insure that at least two sheep would be available for the Korban Tamid each day, six sheep were kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the Chamber of Lambs (also known as the Lishkas ha'Korban or Lishkas Tela'ei Korban). The lambs were checked to ensure that they had no Mum (blemish). Normally, on the last day of the month of Adar, four sheep were left over from the previous year's Terumas ha'Lishkah (see below, entry #21). Rebbi Yochanan rules that these sheep may be redeemed from Hekdesh, even though they are unblemished (see next entry).
13)[line 22]נפדין תמימיםNIFDIN TEMIMIM (PIDYON HEKDESH)
(a)If a person consecrates (is "Makdish") an object to the Beis ha'Mikdash and that object is of no benefit to the Mikdash "as is," the object may be sold by the appointees of Hekdesh (Gizbarim), who determine its selling price based on the estimate of a group of experts. When a person buys the object from Hekdesh, the object loses its Kedushah and its value becomes Kodesh in its stead. This is called "Pidyon Hekdesh," redeeming from Hekdesh.
(b)If the object that is consecrated to Hekdesh is an object that can acquire intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is," it becomes Kadosh with Kedushas ha'Guf (see below, entry #14b). An animal that has Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed without a Mum (blemish).
14a)[line 25]קדושה שבהן להיכן הלכהKEDUSHAH SHEBAHEN L'HEICHAN HALCHAH?- Where did their sanctity go? (That is, how is it possible to redeem them from Hekdesh when we learn that anything animal with Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed if it is unblemished?)
b)[line 25]קדושה שבהןKEDUSHAH SHEBAHEN (KEDUSHAS HA'GUF / KEDUSHAS DAMIM)
(a)An object with Kedushas ha'Guf is an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5) or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is." An animal that has Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed without a Mum.
(b)An object with Kedushas Damim is an object the value of which is consecrated to Hekdesh; e.g. an animal that a person consecrated to be sold in order to buy another animal as a Korban with its value.
(c)An object with Kedushas Bedek ha'Bayis is an object the value of which is consecrated to Hekdesh so that it should be used for filling the day-to-day needs of the Beis ha'Mikdash, and not to be used for Korbanos.
15)[line 27]מותר הקטורתMOSAR HA'KETORES - the leftover incense of the Beis ha'Mikdash (KETORES)
(a)The Ketores is the incense that was offered on the golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It was offered twice each day, in the morning when the Kohen cleaned out the lamps of the Menorah, and before evening when the Kohen lit the Menorah. It consisted of the following eleven ingredients:
1.70 Maneh (99.12 or 119 kilograms, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of Tzari, which is "Seraf ha'Notef me'Atzei ha'Ketaf" - sap of the balsam tree (Shabbos 26a, Kerisus 6a).
2.70 Maneh (99.12 or 119 kilograms) of Tziporen ("Shecheles") - a kind of root/annual plant. Some identify this plant with a species of rock-rose, Cistus ladaniferus, which has fingernail-like petals. Alternatively, Tziporen may be onycha, a type of flower.
3.70 Maneh (99.12 or 119 kilograms) of Chelbenah - (a) galbanum; a yellow-brown gum resin obtained from a plant that presently grows in Persia; (b) According to some, Chelbenah is the gum of the common storax tree.
4.70 Maneh (99.12 or 119 kilograms) of Levonah - frankincense or oliban; a gum resin from trees of present-day Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter nauseous taste. It is hard and capable of being pulverized, producing a strong aromatic odor when burned.
5.16 Maneh (22.656 or 27.2 kilograms) of Mor - myrrh.
6.16 Maneh (22.656 or 27.2 kilograms) Ketzi'ah - cassia.
7.16 Maneh (22.656 or 27.2 kilograms) Shiboles Nerd - spikenard.
8.16 Maneh (22.656 or 27.2 kilograms) Karkom - saffron.
9.12 Maneh (16.992 or 20.4 kilograms) Kosht - costus.
10.3 Maneh (4.248 or 5.1 kilograms) Kilufah - cinnamon bark.
11.9 Maneh (12.744 or 15.3 kilograms) Kinamon - cinnamon.
(b)In addition, the following ingredients were added to make it burn well:
1.One quarter Kav (0.3, 0.345 or 0.6 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of Melach Sedomis - Sodomite salt.
2.A small amount of Ma'aleh Ashan - probably Leptadenia Pyrotechnica, which contains nitric acid, causing the smoke to rise up in a straight column.
(c)The following two ingredients were used to prepare the Tziporen:
1.9 Kabin (10.8, 12.42 or 21.6 liters) of Boris Karshinah - vetch lye to polish the Tziporen.
2.3 Se'in and 3 Kabin (= 21 Kabin or 25.2, 28.98 or 50.4 liters) of Yein Kafrisin - (a) the fermented juice of the caper-berry; (b) wine made from grapes that grow in Cyprus. The Tziporen was soaked in the Yein Kafrisin. If Yein Kafrisin was not available, the Ketores was compounded instead with Chamar Chivaryan Atik - very old strong white wine.
(d)Rebbi Nasan ha'Bavli says that a small amount of Kipas ha'Yarden, probably cyclamen, was also added.
(e)The total amount of Ketores that was prepared each year weighed 368 Maneh. One Maneh was burned every day, half in the morning and half before evening. Three Maneh were reground on Erev Yom ha'Kipurim for the Kohen Gadol to use on Yom ha'Kipurim, when he took out "Melo Chafnav" of Ketores to burn in the Kodshei ha'Kodashim (see Background to Yoma 49:15b). The Gemara (Kerisus 6b) records that after 60 or 70 years, the extra Ketores would reach the weight of half of the required amount, or 184 Maneh, which could be reconsecrated for the coming year.
(f)It is prohibited to prepare incense with the intention of burning it for one's own purposes (as opposed to donating it to the Beis ha'Mikdash) according to the exact quantities of spices with which the Ketores was prepared (Shemos 30:38). One who prepares such incense b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned) is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he prepares it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid). One who smells this incense for his personal pleasure transgress the prohibition of Me'ilah (see Background to Sanhedrin 83:22) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #110).
16)[line 28]מפרישין ממנה שכר האומניןMAFRISHIN (MIMENAH) SECHAR HA'UMNIN- we separate the value of the wages of the craftsmen [in coins, from the Terumas ha'Lishkah (see below, entry #21), and the coins become Chulin - unsanctified] (RASHI)
17)[line 29]האומניןHA'UMNIN- the craftsmen, the family of the house of Avtinas, who were Kohanim who compounded the Ketores (and were the only ones who could identify the Ma'aleh Ashan, an herb that caused the smoke of the Ketores to rise in a column) (Yoma 38a)
18)[line 29]ומחללין אותה על מעות האומניןU'MECHALELIN OSAH AL MA'OS HA'UMNIN- and they transfer the sanctity of the Ketores to the money that was separated for the craftsmen
19)[line 30]ונותנין אותה לאומנין בשכרןV'NOSNIN OSAH LA'UMNIN BI'SECHARAN- and they give the [now unsanctified] Ketores to the craftsmen as their wages
20)[line 31]וחוזרין ולוקחין אותה מתרומה חדשהV'CHOZRIN V'LOKCHIN OSAH MI'TERUMAH CHADASHAH- and they then buy back the Ketores from the Terumah Chadashah (see next entry)
21)[line 31]תרומה חדשהTERUMAH CHADASHAH (TERUMAS HA'LISHKAH)
(a)Every year, one half Shekel was collected from every Jew to fund the Korbenos Tzibur that were offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Beis Din placed the money that was collected in a room in the Mikdash reserved for that purpose (see Background to Bava Metzia 57:16).
(b)The half Shekalim were collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan so that the Korbanos of the new year (which starts with the month of Nisan) would be offered from the money that was collected for the new year. On the first of Adar, Beis Din announced that the Shekalim should be collected, in order to ensure that all of the Shekalim would be collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan (see Insights to Shekalim 2a). Some commentaries contend that a portion of the Shekalim would not arrive until after Rosh Chodesh Nisan, while others claim that all of the Shekalim arrived by Rosh Chodesh Nisan, since the Shekalim were collected from the regions further from Yerushalayim earlier in the year. (This latter opinion appears to be the conclusion of the Yerushalmi, Shekalim 2a - see Mishnas Eliyahu ibid. 2b.)
(c)The amount that was collected from each Jew was not fixed at half a Shekel. Rather, the amount given was always half of the "Matbe'a ha'Yotzei" (the primary coin in use at the time), provided that it was not less than the value of half a Shekel.
(d)The word "Shekel," as used in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel," refers to the Shekel that was in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu, which was equivalent to the "Sela" of the times of the Gemara. Machatzis ha'Shekel is half of a Sela, or two Dinarim. People became accustomed to calling the coin that was valued at half of a Sela, "Shekel," since it was "paid out" ("Shoklim" Oso) in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel each year (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:13).
(e)At three times during the year (before each of the three festivals), Beis Din filled three boxes, each of which held three Se'in (approximately 21.6, 25 or 43.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) with Shekalim from that room. The portion that was set aside in the boxes was called the "Terumas ha'Lishkah," while the remainder of the Shekalim were called "Sheyarei ha'Lishkah" (Shekalim 7b, 8a). (See Insights to Shekalim 9:2)
(f)There is a difference of opinion as to why the Terumas ha'Lishkah was done three times a year rather than just once. One opinion states that the reason was only to publicize the Terumas ha'Lishkah (Shekalim 2b, see Insights there). According to others, Beis Din was concerned that the Terumas ha'Lishkah should also be collected from the Shekalim that arrived later in the year (this opinion is also mentioned in the Yerushalmi, ibid.).
(g)The Shekalim from the Terumas ha'Lishkah were used to purchase the animals needed for public sacrifices and for the wages of certain laborers and appointees of Hekdesh (as described in our Gemara). The Shekalim from the Sheyarei ha'Lishkah were used to buy other goods necessary for the upkeep of the Mikdash and the entire city of Yerushalayim (Shekalim 4a-b).