PESACHIM 113 (7 Cheshvan) - Dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of ha'Gaon Rav Meir Shapiro (n. 5694/1933), founder of the renowned Yeshivas Chachmei Lublin, representative of the Jewish community in the Polish parliament, and creator of the DAFYOMI STUDY CYCLE (see for more) - may he entreat before Hash-m's holy throne for the complete redemption of Klal Yisrael, speedily in our days!. Dedicated by Mr. and Mrs. Shmuel Kovacs of Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel; may the great Gaon be a Melitz Yosher for the Kovacs children, including their newborn baby, to grow up with love of Torah and Yir'as Shamayim and succeed in all that they do.

[113a - 32 lines; 113b - 49 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 113a [line 25]:

The words "Al Tarbeh b'Ganos" אל תרבה בגנות

should be "Al Tarbeh b'Gagos" אל תרבה בגגות

This is the Girsa of the manuscripts and of the manuscript of the Rashbam (Dikdukei Sofrim #300); see also Rashbam DH Mishum (at the end) (Oz v'Hadar edition of Maseches Pesachim).

[2] Hagahos ha'Bach 113b #1:

The words "Tosfos Yoma Daf 22b"

should be "Tosfos Yoma Daf 52b"


1a)[line 1]גזייתאGAZYASA- [when the Sheidim are traveling upon] the paths [through the vineyards]

b)[line 1]דשמטי סוסיאD'SHAMTI SUSAYA- when their horses break away

c)[line 1]דברי להוDABRI LEHU- and collect them

2)[line 3]צניףTZANIF- neigh

3)[line 3]נבחNAVACH- bark

4)[line 4]דריש מתא אסיאD'REISH MASA ASYA- whose mayor is a doctor [for he will be too busy with his medical practice to see that the city is run properly]

5)[line 5]נסיב תלתNASIV TELAS- marry a third [wife, who will inform you when the advice given you by the other two is poor]

6a)[line 6]הפוך בנבילתאHAFOCH B'NEVEILTA- [it is better to] turn over a carcass

b)[line 6]ולא תיפוך במיליV'LO TEIFOCH B'MILEI- [than to] go back on your words

7)[line 7]פשוטPESHOT- skin

8)[line 8]אגראAGRA- a wage

9)[line 8]כהנא אנאKAHANA ANA- (a) I am a Kohen (RASHBAM to Bava Basra 110a); (b) I am Rav Kahana (TOSFOS 49b)

10)[line 9]סניא בי מלתאSANYA BI MILSA- such a thing is loathsome to me; i.e., it is beneath my dignity

11a)[line 9]סלקת לאיגראSELEIKAS L'IGRA- if you [leave your house, even just to] go up to the roof

b)[line 9]שירותך בהדךSHEIRUSACH BA'HADACH- [take] your provisions with you

12a)[line 10]מאה קרי במתא בזוזאME'AH KAREI B'MASA B'ZUZA- [even if] one hundred gourds [are sold] for one Zuz in the city

b)[line 10]תותי כנפיך ניהווTUSEI KANFICH NIHAVU- they should be under the corners [of your clothing]

13)[line 12]לא תשתי סמאLO TISHTEI SAMA- do not take drugs (a) even for their medicinal properties if there is another option, since they are addictive and you will end up wasting money on them (RASHBAM, RASHI); (b) since — although they cure one malady — they may cause another (second explanation of RASHI)

14)[line 12]לא תשוור ניגראLO TESHAVAR NIGRA- (a) do not take large steps [since this causes one's eyesight to become dimmed (Berachos 43b)]; (b) do not [take a shortcut by] jumping over a channel of water

15)[line 12]לא תעקר ככאLO TE'AKAR KACHA- do not pull out a tooth [if it aches, since it will eventually heal]

16)[line 13]לא תקנא בחיויאLO TEKANEI B'CHIVYA- do not provoke a snake

17)[line 14]מלכותייהו אחורי אודנייהו קאיMALCHUSAIHU ACHOREI UDNAIHU KA'I- lit. their majesty lies behind their ears; they will grow up and be able to take revenge

18a)[line 15]טרחי בך בשמעתא ולא מסתייע מילתאTARCHI BACH B'SHEMAITA V'LO MISTAYE'A MILSA- you toiled to learn [Torah] unsuccessfully

b)[line 15]תא, אגמרך מילי דעלמאTA, AGMERACH MILEI D'ALMA- come, I will teach you worldly matters; i.e., the proper way to conduct business

19)[line 16]אדחלא אכרעיך, זבינך זביןAD'CHALA A'KAR'ICH, ZEVINEICH ZAVIN- while the sand is [still] upon your feet [after a journey], sell your merchandise [in order to immediately return and purchase more]

20a)[line 16]תחרטTEICHERET- you [may] regret [that you sold it if the price rises]

b)[line 17]לא תחרטLO TEICHERET- you will not regret [that you sold it, since it may have turned into vinegar before you had done so]

21a)[line 17]שרי כיסיךSHARI KISEICH- open your wallet [and place the money inside]

b)[line 17]פתח שקיךPESACH SAKICH- [and only then] open your sack [and withdraw the merchandise]

22)[line 17]קבא מארעא ולא כורא מאיגראKAVA ME'AR'A V'LO KORA ME'IGRA- lit. a Kav from the ground, and not a Kor (180 Kav) from the roof; better to earn a smaller profit close to home than to earn a larger profit far away

23)[line 18](תמרא) [תמרי] בחלוזך, לבית סודנא רהיט(TAMRA) [TAMREI] B'CHALOZECH, L'VEIS SUDNA RAHIT- if you have dates in the container [used to store them once they are picked], run immediately to the brewer [lest you eat them]!

24)[line 19]אי לא דרמאי שכרא, לא איעתריIY LO D'RAMA'I SHICHRA, LO IA'TRI- had I not been a brewer of beer, I would not have become wealthy

25a)[line 20]סוד נאהSOD NA'EH- sound advice [as one can easily become wealthy through brewing beer]

b)[line 20]וגמילות חסדיםU'GEMILUS CHASADIM- and [an easy way to give] charity [as the raw materials necessary to brew beer are not costly]

26a)[line 21]כל אגב, גביא בעיKOL AGAV, GAVYA BA'I- any transaction that requires a legal document (such as a loan) requires [the further trouble of] collection [before it can be considered completed]

b)[line 21]אשראיASHRAI- credit

27)[line 22]מעות רעותMA'OS RA'OS- bad money; that is, money paid back incrementally

28)[line 23]תכנסTIKANES- you will return [in the event that it is necessary to flee]

29a)[line 25]אל תרבה (בגנות) [בגגות]AL TARBEH (B'GINOS) [B'GAGOS]- do not accustom yourself [to take care of your needs] in [a public area such as] the roof

b)[line 26]משום מעשה שהיהMISHUM MA'ASEH SHE'HAYAH- due to the incident which occurred [when King David observed Bas Sheva taking a bath on her roof] (see Shmuel II 11:2 - 12:23 and Shabbos 53a)

30)[line 27]חתנה הראשוןCHASANAH HA'RISHON- her first son-in-law

31)[line 28]משום ממוןMI'SHUM MAMON- because [she may spend much of your] money [on him]

32)[line 28]איתנהוISNEHU- occurred

33)[line 28]נוחליNOCHALEI- those who inherit

34)[line 31]רווקRAVAK- a bachelor

35)[line 31]כרךKRACH- a village


36)[line 1]צהבו פניוTZAHAVU PANAV- his face shone [from happiness]

37)[line 3]אושכפיUSHKEFEI- shoemakers

38)[line 5]ועיילי להוV'AILI LEHU- and they would enter [their shop]; the Dikdukei Sofrim mentions a Girsa which has V'AILI U'MESANI LEHU - and they would enter [their shop] and [Rav Chanina and Rav Oshiya] would place shoes on their [feet]

39)[line 5](אינהו) [אינהי] מסתכלי בהו(INHU) [INHI] MISTAKLI BEHU- they (the harlots) looked upon them

40)[line 6]מדלןMADLAN- raise

41)[line 7]מומתייהו הכיMOMASAIHU HACHI- [when (a) the Zonos (RABEINU CHANANEL); (b) the Rabanan who lived then (MENORAS HA'MA'OR) would take an oaths,] their oaths [were worded] as follows

42)[line 10]משתכרMISHTAKER- become intoxicated

43)[line 10]מעמיד על מדותיוMA'AMID AL MIDOSAV- insist that his honor be upheld

44)[line 15]נגדיהNAGDEI- he gave him lashes

45)[line 28]מהו למימרא ליה לרביה למשנייה?MAHU L'MEIMRA LEI L'RABEI L'MISNAYEI?- should one tell his Rebbi in order that he hate him?

46)[line 29]בי תריBEI TREI- two [witnesses]

47a)[line 30]הרחמניןHA'RACHMANIN- those who are [overly] empathetic

b)[line 30]והרתחניןHA'RASCHANIN- those who become angry [overly easily]

c)[line 30]אניני הדעתANINEI HA'DA'AS- those who are easily disgusted

48)[line 31]החבריןHA'CHAVERIN- the members of a certain nation in Persia

49)[line 32]אף תלמידי חכמים שבבבלAF TALMIDEI CHACHAMIM SHEB'BAVEL- see Insights

50)[line 3]עורביןORVIN- ravens

51)[line 33]אין הדעת סובלתןEIN HA'DA'AS SOVALTAN- (a) people cannot abide (RASHBAM); (b) even they cannot abide themselves (RASHI) (lit. the mind cannot tolerate them)

52a)[line 33]דל גאהDAL GE'AH- one who is destitute and haughty

b)[line 33]עשיר מכחשASHIR MEKACHESH- a wealthy individual who denies [debts]

c)[line 34]זקן מנאףZAKEN MENA'EF- a debauched old man

d)[line 34]פרנס מתגאה על הציבור בחנםPARNES MISGA'EH AL HA'TZIBUR B'CHINAM- a self-appointed governor who deserts his constituents in their time of need

53)[line 35]זימנא דכתובתה מרובהZIMNA D'KESUBASAH MERUBAH - sometimes [the amount he owes for] her Kesuvah is very great (KESUVAH)

(a)A Kesuvah is a document which must be given by a groom to his bride upon their marriage. The Kesuvah records the time and place of the marriage, the names of the Chasan and Kalah, the sum guaranteed by the Chasan to the Kalah in case of his death or divorce, any personal belongings which the bride brings into the marriage, certain obligations which the Chasan and Kalah have to each other, and the signatures of the witnesses to the marriage. Some of the clauses in a Kesuvah have their source in Torah law, while others are Rabbinic in nature. Yet other parts of the Kesuvah were integrated into the standard Kesuvah based upon accepted custom.

(b)There are many intricate Halachic details involved in the writing of a Kesuvah; not everyone who is able to read and understand the text of a Kesuvah is qualified to write one. For an explanation and commentary on each clause in the standard Kesuvah, see Nisu'in k'Hilchasam (vol. 1, 11:108-154).

(c)The most important part of the Kesuvah is the clause requiring the husband to remunerate his wife in case of his death or divorce. Unless the Kesuvah specifies otherwise, a virgin bride (Besulah) is guaranteed the sum of two hundred Zuz, and a widow (Almanah) or divorcee (Gerushah) one hundred Zuz. The Kesuvah of an Almanah or a Gerushah is mid'Rabanan; whether that which a Besulah receives two hundred Zuz has its source in the Torah or whether it is a Rabbinic decree is a Machlokes Tana'im (Kesuvos 10a; see Shulchan Aruch E.H. 66:6 and Yabi'a Omer vol. 3, EH #12 for a discussion of this subject).

(d)Sometimes a Kesuvah specifies a larger sum of money than the standard two hundred Zuz. It is due to this possibility that the Tana Kama of our Beraisa disagrees with the Yesh Omrim.

54)[line 36]לא מצי מגרש להLO MATZI MEGARESH LAH- he is unable to divorce her (MAHARSHA)

55)[line 36]צוה כנען את בניוTZIVAH KENA'AN ES BANAV- Kena'an, son of Cham, son of Noach raised his children to act in the following ways. It is important for us to recognize their poor character traits in order to take the necessary precautions.

56)[line 37]הזמהZIMAH- immorality

57)[line 37]אדוניכםADONEICHEM- your masters. Noach cursed Cham that his son Kena'an should be a slave to his brothers (Bereishis 9:25).

58)[line 38]גסהGASAH- haughty

59)[line 39]מוציא קמעהMOTZI KIM'AH- excrete [only] a small amount

60)[line 40]מנודיןMENUDIN- are excommunicated from heaven [since all of them are able to fulfill the following Mitzvos if they so desired]

61)[line 43]חבורה של מצוהCHABURAH SHEL MITZVAH- a feast celebrating a Mitzvah (such as that of a Bris Milah)

62)[line 45]כלדייםKALDIYIM- (a) Ba'alei Ov (RASHI), diviners who communicate with the deceased. A Ba'al Ov places a certain bone in his armpit and flaps his arms or moves in a certain fashion in order to hear the voice of the spirit of one who has passed on (Sanhedrin 65b); (b) astrologers (RASHBAM, RASHI Shabbos 119b)

63)[line 46]"[אדין דניאל דנה הוא מתנצח על סרכיא ואחשדרפניא] כל קבל די רוח יתירא בה ומלכא עשית להקמותיה על כל מלכותא""[EDAYIN DANIEL DENAH HAVAH MISNATZACH AL SARCHAYA VA'ACHASHDARPENAYA;] KOL KAVEL DI RU'ACH YATIRA BEI, U'MALKA ASHIS LA'HAKAMUSEI AL KOL MALCHUSA"- "[Then this Daniel became distinguished above the officers and ministers,] because an excellent spirit was in him, and the king thought to set him over the whole realm" (Daniel 6:4).

64)[line 47]דם טהורDAM TAHOR (YOLEDES: DAM TOHAR)

(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:

1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom — see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.

2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.

(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).

(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(d)Our Gemara teaches that for a short time beginning with the night following the forty- or eighty-day period after childbirth, a woman may not have relations with her husband, as if she is a Nidah. The Chachamim enacted this safeguard as a reminder that although until this point she was permitted to her husband even while bleeding, from this point and onward she will receive the status of a Nidah when she begins to bleed. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar — see Insights to Nidah 25a. Therefore, the enactment regarding night 41 or 81 is not in practice today (TAZ to YD 194:#2))

65)[line 47]עונהONAH- (a) one 24-hour period (RASHI); (b) one 12-hour period (RASHBAM)