[6a - 36 lines; 6b - 46 lines]
1)[line 2]"[... לא ירצה, המקריב] אותו [לא יחשב לו]""[LO YERATZEH, HA'MAKRIV] OSO [LO YECHASHEV LO...]" - "[... the sacrifice will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid; rejected), and it will not be counted in his favor; he who offers] it [will not be considered to have fulfilled his obligation]..." (Vayikra 7:18) (PIGUL)
(a)If one slaughters a sacrifice with the intention to offer or eat it after the time within which it must be offered or eaten, it is disqualified. Such a Korban may not be eaten, as the Torah states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "[And if he who is offering the Korban plans to eat it on the third day, the sacrifice will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid; rejected), and it will not be counted in his favor; he who offers] it [will not be considered to have fulfilled his obligation]" (Vayikra 7:18).
(b)If a person intentionally consumes at least a k'Zayis of Pigul he is Chayav Kares; if he eats it unintentionally he must bring a Korban Chatas. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 144)
2)[line 2]"[כי תדר נדר לה' א-לקיך] לא תאחר לשלמו [כי דרש ידרשנו ה' אלקיך מעמך והיה בך חטא]""[KI SIDOR NEDER LA'SH-M EL-KECHA,] LO SE'ACHER L'SHALMO; [KI DAROSH YIDRESHENU HASH-M EL-KECHA ME'IMACH, V'HAYAH VECHA CHET]" - "[When you vow a pledge to HaSh-m your G-d,] do not delay in fulfilling it; [for HaSh-m your G-d will seek it from you, and if you do not offer it that you will have transgressed]" (BAL TE'ACHER)
(a)If one is under obligation to offer a sacrifice to HaSh-m, whether he pledged to do so voluntarily or he is in a situation in which he is obligated to do so by the Torah, he must do so by the end of the first Regel (festival of Pesach, Shavuos, or Sukos) that next occurs (derived from Devarim 12:5-6; Rosh Hashanah 4a-b). If he delays his offering for three Regalim (or even one or two, according to certain opinions), then he further transgresses the Lo Sa'aseh (negative commandment) described in the Torah (Devarim 23:22): "[When you vow a pledge to HaSh-m your G-d,] do not delay in fulfilling it; [for HaSh-m your G-d will seek it from you, and if you do not offer it that you will have transgressed]." This prohibition is referred to as "Bal Te'acher." There is a wide-ranging disagreement among the Tana'im as to how to count the period of time until one transgresses this prohibition (see Beitzah Chart #7).
(b)Bal Te'acher applies to pledges other than Korbanos, such as those of Tzedakah (Rosh Hashanah 6a) and Nezirus (Nedarim 3b).
(a)Every first-born male offspring of an ox, goat, or sheep is Kadosh when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for the owner of the animal to sanctify it by verbally declaring it to have the Kedushah of a Bechor, similar to the way in which one is Makdish a Korban (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b)If the animal is unblemished, the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos 7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, it may be eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night.
(c)If the animal has or develops a Mum (blemish), it becomes the property of the Kohen and it is slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen may give it away or sell it - even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner, nor may it be redeemed with money.
(d)When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. One may not, however, buy it in order to sell it at a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).
4)[line 7]מבקשין ממנו ממון ואין לוMEVAKSHIN MI'MENU MAMON V'EIN LO- they request of him money [that he (a) stole (RASHI to Zevachim 29b); (b) pledged to Tzedakah (TOSFOS DH Ela Im Ken)], and he does not have it
5)[line 8]"אם אין לך לשלם למה יקח משכבך מתחתיך?""IM EIN LECHA L'SHALEM, LAMAH YIKACH MISHKAVCHA MI'TACHTECHA?"- "[Why borrow] if you do not have with what to pay; why should [the lender] take your mattress from beneath you?" (Mishlei 22:27) - Our Gemara interprets this verse to mean that if one does not keep his pledges, than Heaven will "take" his wife; i.e., she will die.
6)[line 10]"מוצא שפתיך תשמר ועשית כאשר נדרת לה' אלקיך נדבה אשר דברת בפיך""MOTZA SEFASECHA TISHMOR V'ASISA; KA'ASHER NADARTA LA'HASH-M ELOKECHA NEDAVAH, ASHER DIBARTA B'FICHA"- "Guard and fulfill the expression of your mouth; as you have vowed to HaSh-m your G-d a vow, that you have uttered with your mouth" (Devarim 23:24).
7)[line 12]שיעשוךSHE'YA'ASUCHA- that they should enforce [the fulfillment of] your [pledges]
8)[line 13]חטאות ואשמותCHATA'OS VA'ASHAMOS
(a)KORBAN CHATAS - If a person transgresses a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to receive the punishment of Kares (see Background to Pesachim 32:16) b'Mezid (intentionally), he must offer a Korban Chatas. This Korban consists of a female goat or sheep.
(b)One who offers a Korban Chatas first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern area of the Azarah. He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking HaSh-m for forgiveness. The animal is then immediately slaughtered. The blood of the Chatas is applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts on the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The remaining blood is then spilled onto the Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach. Certain parts of the Korban is eaten by Kohanim in the Azarah; it must be consumed before the day following its offering (Vayikra 4:27-31).
(c)KORBAN ASHAM VADAI - The Torah specifies five cases in which a Korban Asham Vadai must be offered. This Korban usually consists of a ram which is worth a minimum of two Sela'im. The first three cases involve transgressions:
1.ASHAM ME'ILOS: One who benefits from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must offer a Korban Asham, aside from that which he is obligated to repay 125% of the value of that which he benefited (Vayikra 5:14-16; see Background to Kidushin 55:5a).
2.ASHAM GEZEILOS: If one steals money from his fellow Jew, swears in Beis Din that he holds no such money, and later admits to his sin, then he must first repay 125% of the value of that which he stole, and then offer a Korban Asham in order to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26).
3.ASHAM SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH: If one had relations with a Shifchah Charufah (see Background to Yevamos 55:5), then he must offer a Korban Asham whether he transgressed this sin b'Mezid or b'Shogeg (Vayikra 19:20-22).
4.ASHAM NAZIR: If a Nazir (see Background to Beitzah 35:23) becomes Tamei during his period of Nezirus, he must offer a sheep within its first year as an Asham (Bamidbar 6:12; see also Background to Nazir 60:2).
5.ASHAM METZORA: When a Metzora completes his Taharah process (see Background to Sukah 13:10:a:III), he must offer a sheep within its first year as an Asham (Vayikra 14:12).
(d)ASHAM TALUY - If one is in doubt as to whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must offer a Korban Chatas, he offers a ram worth two Sela'im as a Korban Asham Taluy (dependant; Vayikra 5:17-19). Should he later discover that he did indeed sin, he must then offer a proper Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy provides only temporary atonement as long as he is unsure of his requirement (see Background to Nazir 23:2b).
(e)The offering of an Asham is mostly similar to that of a Chatas. The main distinction between them is that the blood of an Asham is applied to the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only, in such a way that there is Dam on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shtayim she'Hen Arba).
9)[line 14]עולותOLOS (KORBAN OLAH)
(a)An Olah sacrifice has the status of Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Yoma 36:1), and is required of both the Tzibur (e.g., the Korban Tamid) and an individual under various circumstances. Voluntary Olos (Olos Nedavah) may be offered as well. An Olah must be brought by an individual to atone for the transgression of an Aseh (a positive commandment), a Lav she'Nitak l'Aseh (see Background to Yoma 36:19), or certain sinful thoughts (see Vayikra Rabah 7:3).
(b)One who offers a Korban Olah first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern area of the Azarah. He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking HaSh-m for forgiveness. The animal is then immediately slaughtered. The blood of the is applied to the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only, in such a way that there is Dam on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shtayim she'Hen Arba). The Korban is then skinned and dismembered. An Olah is unique in that the meat of the animal is burned in its entirety. The skin of the animal, however, is given to the Kohanim. An Olah must be burned on the same day that it is slaughtered. Nesachim (see Background to Yoma 31:30) are offered together with a Korban Olah.
10)[line 14]ושלמיםSHELAMIM (KORBAN SHELAMIM)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as the Torah states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim which are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah (and are not limited to the northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner places his hands on the head of his animal and leans on it with all of his might (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is applied to the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only, (Shtayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (meal offerings consisting of flour, oil, and a wine libation) are brought along with the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine required depends upon the animal offered (see Bamidbar ibid.).
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim are given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban are offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban within the borders of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion, and may be eaten for two days and the intervening night.
11)[line 15]קדשי בדק הביתKODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS (KEDUSHAS HA'GUF / KEDUSHAS DAMIM)
(a)There are two classifications into which all items consecrated to Hekdesh fall. These are:
1.KEDUSHAS HA'GUF - that which holds intrinsic Kedushah, such as an animal fit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach, or a utensils fit to be used in the performance of the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5). This is also termed KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH.
2.KEDUSHAS DAMIM - that which is not fit to be used in its present state in the Beis ha'Mikdash, but whose value is consecrated to Hekdesh. Such items are sold, and the proceeds go toward any day-to-day needs of Hekdesh. This is also termed KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS.
12)[line 17]"[... לשכנו תדרשו] ובאת שמה. והבאתם שמה [עלתיכם וזבחיכם]""[L'SHICHNO SIDRESHU] U'VASA SHAMAH. VA'HAVESEM SHAMAH [OLOSEICHEM V'ZIVCHEICHEM...]"- "[... Seek out where HaSh-m's presence dwells] and come there. And you shall bring there [your Olah and other offerings...]" (Devarim 12:5-6).
13)[line 19]"[... אל פתח אהל מועד] יקריב אתו [לרצונו לפני ה']""[EL PESACH OHEL MO'ED] YAKRIV OSO [LI'RETZONO LI'FNEI HASH-M]"- "[To the entranceway of the Ohel Mo'ed] it shall be brought [willingly before HaSh-m]" (Vayikra 1:3).
14)[line 20]שכופיןKOFIN- force
15)[line 20]חד דאמר ולא אפרישCHAD D'AMAR V'LO AFRISH- one [scenario in which one transgresses both a positive and negative commandment, as well as in which Beis Din must enforce the fulfillment of the vow] is [one in] which one has pledged [to offer a Korban] and has not [yet] designated [an animal toward that end]
16a)[line 22]כל היכא דאיתיהKOL HEICHA D'ISEI- wherever it is
b)[line 23]בי גזא דרחמנא איתיהBEI GAZA D'RACHMANA ISEI- it is in HaSh-m's treasury; i.e., it belongs to Hekdesh [and one has therefore fulfilled his vow]
17)[line 24]משהיMASHHI- lit. cause to remain; withhold
18)[line 29]מיחייב עלה לאלתרMECHAYEV ALAH L'ALTER- one transgresses [the prohibition of Bal Te'acher] upon [not giving] it immediately
19)[line 32]בעשהB'ASEH- the positive commandment [of u'Vasa Shamah va'Havesem Shamah; see above, entry #11]
20)[line 34]בחגCHAG- the festival; this is generally used to denotes Sukos
21)[line 35]דמחוסר זמןMECHUSAR ZEMAN
One may not offer an animal younger than eight days old as a sacrifice (Vayikra 22:27). Such an animal is termed "Mechusar Zeman" ("lacking time"), since time must pass before it is acceptable as a Korban.
22)[line 35]בעצרתATZERES- the festival of Shavuos
23)[line 1]שהיה חולהSHE'HAYAH CHOLEH- that [(a) the animal (RASHI, TOSFOS DH she'Hayah); (b) he who has pledged to offer the animal (RABEINU CHANANEL)] was sick
24)[line 3]תני עצרתTANI ATZERES- [the term] "Atzeres" would be learned [in reference to Shavuos]
25)[line 7]והאי מאי תיובתיה?V'HAI, MAI TEYUVTEI?- what disproof is there from this [Beraisa]?
26)[line 9]אלאוי קא מהדרA'LAVEI KA MEHADER- is searching for negative commandments [associated with Bal Te'acher]
27)[line 11]למיקבעיהL'MIKVE'EI- to establish [the onset]
28)[line 16]למאן דאית ליה כסדרןMAN D'IS LEI K'SIDRAN- he who requires [the three festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos to occur] in order [before one transgresses the prohibition of Bal Te'acher; namely, Rebbi Shimon]
29)[line 19]בשנה מעוברתSHANAH ME'UBERES
(a)A solar year is approximately eleven days longer than a lunar year (see Background to Sanhedrin 10:36:a). In order to ensure that the lunar months occur in the proper seasons, Beis Din will declare a Shanah Me'uberes (leap year) every 2-3 years. A Shanah Me'uberes has thirteen months instead of twelve. The extra month is an additional month of Adar; the second Adar is the one in which Purim is observed (i.e., the first Adar is the extra month). The decision to make the year Me'uberes must be made prior to accepting witnesses for the sanctification of the month that follows Adar. If the year is to be a leap year, then it is declared Adar ha'Sheni; if not, then it is declared Nisan. In the current fixed calendar, a Shanah Me'uberes occurs seven times in every nineteen-year cycle.
(b)The principle consideration in adding an extra month to the year is to insure that Pesach falls in the season of Aviv (spring; lit. "ripening grain"). This is based on the verse in Devarim 16:1, as interpreted: "Guard the month of Aviv (ripening grain), and bring [in that month] the Pesach sacrifice...." Beis Din determines the time of Aviv based upon the following three variables: the vernal equinox; the occurrence of the Aviv season in the districts of Yehudah, Ever ha'Yarden, and the Galil; and the timely blossoming of the fruit trees. The first variable is straightforward; if the spring equinox will fall on the 16th of Nisan or later (i.e., on the day of the Omer offering it will still be winter), then that month should be declared Adar ha'Sheni instead. The next two variables are interrelated. The Chachamim first observe the development of the ripening grain, and then reckon whether or not those fruits which are normally ripe when Pesach arrives will have ripened. If the grain and fruits are each late in two out of the three aforementioned districts, then the month is declared Adar ha'Sheni, even if the equinox would fall before the 16th of Nisan.
(c)Aside from the principal reason of insuring that Pesach occurs in its proper season, there are four possible additional reasons to add an extra month to the year. These are:
1.The roads are impassable, making it impossible for those who live outside of Yerushalayim to reach the Beis ha'Mikdash in time to offer the Korban Pesach;
2.The bridges are washed out and the journey to Yerushalayim is impossible or dangerous for those who live outside of Yerushalayim;
3.Those who live outside of Yerushalayim have started their journey, but will not arrive in Yerushalayim on time;
4.The clay ovens in Yerushalayim used to roast the Korban Pesach became wet during the rainy season, and now must dry out in the sun (Sanhedrin 11a-b; RAMBAM Hilchos Kidush ha'Chodesh 4:1-5).
30)[line 19]"... שנה תמימה""... SHANAH TEMIMAH" (BATEI AREI CHOMAH)
(a)Houses located in a city that had been walled at the time of Yehoshua's conquest of Eretz Yisrael are termed Batei Arei Chomah. If one sells such a house, he has the right to purchase it back within one year of selling it. If he does not redeem it during that time, then it is "Chalut" to (becomes the permanent property of) the purchaser (Vayikra 25:29-30; see Charts to Erchin #4, sections 4a and 4b.)
(b)The year that the owner has to re-purchase his house is described by the Torah as a "Shanah Temimah" - a "perfect year." Rebbi Yehudah understands this to mean a solar year, which at 365 days is eleven days longer than an average lunar year. Based upon this interpretation, Rebbi Yehudah derives that every year described in the Torah as a "Shanah" is a solar year. The Chachamim maintain that a Shanah Temimah is a year that ends on the same date upon which it started, even if that period is a thirteen-month-long leap year (see previous entry).
31)[line 21]ימות החמהYEMOS HA'ACHAMAH- a solar year
32a)[line 23]בתר חג המצותBASAR CHAG HA'MATZOS- following (a) [the first day of] the festival of Pesach; (b) the [entire] festival of Pesach
b)[line 24]דכי מטא שילהי אדר בתראהD'CHI MATA SHILHI ADAR BASRA'AH- so that when (a) the end of the second Adar arrives [365 days later]; (b) [the beginning of Nisan] arrives [365 days later, which is close to] the end of the second Adar
33)[line 26]פעמים חמישהPE'AMIM CHAMISHAH- sometimes [occurs on] the fifth [day of Sivan]
34)[line 27]שניהן מלאין חמשהSHENEIHEM MELE'IM CHAMISHAH- if both Nisan and Iyar have thirty days, then Shavuos falls on the fifth of Sivan. According to the opinion of Rav Shmayah which allows for Shavuos to fall upon one of three days, it is possible to understand the Beraisa. If one year Shavuos fell on the fifth of Sivan, one consecrated an animal as a Korban on the sixth, and the next year Shavuos was on the seventh day of Sivan, than an entire year passed without the occurrence of three festivals.
35a)[line 32]ארבעה ימים בלבדARBA'AH YAMIM BILVAD- four days [of the week] only. This is because Acherim maintain that every other month must be thirty days long, while every other month is twenty-nine days long. This results in a year of 354 days, which is exactly four days more than fifty weeks.
b)[line 33]חמשהCHAMISHAH- five [days of the week, since the extra month must be twenty-nine days long according to Acherim]
36)[line 33]יורשYORESH- an inheritor [who must offer any Korbanos that his benefactor was obligated in]
37)[line 36]"מעמך""ME'IMACH"- this is a quote from the verse explained above, entry #2
38)[line 37]לקט שכחה ופאהLEKET SHICHECHA U'PE'AH- see Background to 4:19-21
39)[line 38]קרי ביה עמך וקרי ביה מעמךKAREI BEI IMACH V'KAREI BEI ME'IMACH- read it [first] as "Imach" [which implies that Leket, Shichecha, and Pe'ah are subject to Bal Te'acher,] and [then] read it as "me'Imach" [which excludes an inheritor from the extra "Mem"]
40)[line 40]בראיהRE'IYAH (ALIYAH L'REGEL)
(a)Every Jewish male is commanded to visit the Beis ha'Mikdash three times a year, on the festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos (Shemos 23:17).
(b)While there, one must offer a Korban Shelamim called a Korban Chagigah and a Korban Olah known as an Olas Re'iyah. Additionally, if he does not have enough meat for his family to fulfill the Mitzvah of Simchas Yom Tov, he offers Shalmei Simchah (see next entry).
(a)There is a Mitzvah to be happy on the three holidays of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos (Devarim 27:7). This is practically understood as a commandment to partake of meat from sacrifices every day of the holiday. If no meat from a sacrifice is readily available, one offers a Korban known as Shalmei Simchah for the express purpose of fulfilling this Mitzvah. Both men and women are obligated in this Mitzvah (RAMBAM Hilchos Chagigah 1:1).
(b)The Mitzvah of Simchah applies in a more general sense as well. The purchase of food or clothing which one enjoys is a fulfillment of this Mitzvah. Included in the Mitzvah is bringing the happiness on Yom Tov to other people, especially the poor and downtrodden. If one gorges himself while ignoring others, this is considered Simchas Kereiso (lit. happiness of the stomach; i.e. purely physical gratification) rather than Simchah Shel Mitzvah (RAMBAM Hilchos Yom Tov 6:17-18).
42)[line 41]ותיפוק ליהV'TEIPOK LEI- derive it. Abaye is of the opinion that it is obvious that women are obligated by Bal Te'acher since they are obligated in Simchah.
43)[line 43]בעלה משמחהBA'ALAH MESAMCHAH- her husband [is obligated to] make her happy [but she has no obligation of Simchah on her own]
44)[last line]משעה שנראה להרצאהMI'SHA'AH SHE'NIR'EH L'HARTZA'AH- from the time that it is fitting for appeasement; i.e., when it is eight days old and fit to be offered as a Korban (see above, entry #20)
45)[last line]בתםTAM- an animal that is free of disqualifying blemishes