[23a - 52 lines; 23b - 44 lines]

1)[line 9] MAKAS MARDUS

Beis Din has the power to inflict lashes upon a person when lashes mid'Oraisa cannot be administered. These lashes are called Makas Mardus (lit. lashes for rebelliousness) and may be unlimited in number. (See Insights to Chulin 141:3 and Nazir 23:1 for a discussion of the various opinions regarding how Makas Mardus is administered.)

2a)[line 18]" ""... V'LO YADA V'ASHEM V'NASA AVONO."- "[And if a person sins, and commits any of these things which are forbidden to be done by the commandments of HaSh-m;] though he knew it not, yet he is guilty, and shall bear his iniquity." (Vayikra 5:17)


(a)If a person is in doubt whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must bring a Korban Chatas, he temporarily brings a Korban Asham Taluy, which is a ram worth two Sela'im (Vayikra 5:17-19). If he later discovers that he did indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy only provides temporary atonement during the period of doubt.

(b)Certain Tana'im, including Isi ben Yehudah, rule that a person is only obligated to bring an Asham Taluy if there are "two pieces, one of which was eaten" (Chatichah mi'Shtei Chatichos). For example, if a person ate one out of two pieces of fat, where one was Shuman (permitted fat) and the other was Chelev (forbidden fat - see next entry), and he later found out that he may have eaten the forbidden piece, he has to bring an Asham Taluy. If he has a doubt whether one piece of fat that he ate was Shuman or Chelev, he does not bring an Asham Taluy. Other Tana'im, including Rebbi Akiva, rule that even in the latter case he brings an Asham Taluy.

3)[line 21]CHELEV

(a)Chelev refers to the fat of an animal that is offered on the Mizbe'ach. It consists of the layer of fat covering the stomachs, all the other fat attached to the stomachs, and the fat on the kidneys along the flanks (Vayikra 3:4). "Shuman" refers to all the other fat of an animal that is permitted.

(b)It is forbidden to eat the Chelev of a Kosher Behemah (domesticated animal), but it may be used for any other purpose. The Chelev of a Chayah (a Kosher wild animal), however, may even be eaten.

(c)If a person eats Chelev b'Mezid (intentionally), he is Chayav Kares; b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas, as in the Shogeg of all other sins that one is liable to Kares b'Mezid. The Korban Chatas is a female goat or sheep. If a person is in doubt whether the fat he ate was Chelev or Shuman, he must bring a Korban Asham Taluy (see previous entry).

4)[line 29] AL DAVAR ZEH YIDVU HA'DEVEI'IM- for this thing all those who mourn should grieve (the implication is that Isi ben Yehudah is claiming that only for this thing should one grieve, i.e. Chatichah Achas mi'Shtei Chatichos (lit. one out of two pieces - see above, entry 2b:b) and not Chatichah Achas like Rebbi Akiva - ETZ YOSEF)

5)[line 38] D'LO IKBA ISURA- that it was never established that there was a definite prohibition from which to refrain

6)[line 41] SHE'ACHALO L'SHEM ACHILAH GASAH- that he ate it for the sake of gluttony, i.e. (a) with a craving for tasty food (MEFARESH); (b) without any appetite for eating (TOSFOS)

7)[line 49]" ""... ELCHAH ACHAREI ME'AHAVAI, NOSNEI LACHMI U'MEIMAI, TZAMRI U'FISHTI, SHAMNI V'SHIKUYAI."- "[For their mother has played the harlot; she who conceived them has done shamefully; for she said,] I will go after my lovers, who give me my bread and my water, my wool and my flax, my oil and my drinks." (Hoshea 2:7)

8)[last line] DEL'FANYA ACHARINA- that on the following night

9)[last line]" ""ACH NIFSHA MI'KIRYAS OZ, U'MIDYANIM KI'VERI'ACH ARMON."- "A brother offended is harder to be won than a fortified city; and their quarrels are like the bars of a castle." (Mishlei 18:19) - The Gemara interprets the first part of this verse to mean, "A brother (Lot, based on Bereishis 13:8) rebelled against [and forsook] a fortified city (Avraham, based on Yeshayah 51:1-2)..."


10)[line 3] SHE'HITIL MIDYANIM KI'VERICHIN V'ARMON- who caused arguments that separated them like the bolts and [the doors that prevent outsiders from entering] a fortress

11)[line 5]" ""L'SA'AVAH YEVAKESH NIFRAD; B'CHOL TUSHIYAH YISGALA"- "One who removes himself [from HaSh-m and His Mitzvos] to fulfill his desires will be exposed in every Torah gathering." (Mishlei 18:1)

12)[line 18]" ... ""TEVORACH MI'NASHIM YA'EL, ESHES CHEVER HA'KEINI, MI'NASHIM BA'OHEL TEVORACH... BEIN RAGLEHAH KARA, NAFAL, SHACHAV; BEIN RAGLEHAH KARA, NAFAL; BA'ASHER KARA, SHAM NAFAL SHADUD." - "From the mouths of women in the tent (i.e. modest women) Yael, the wife of Chever ha'Keini, will be blessed, from women in the tent she shall be blessed... Between her legs he knelt, he fell; he lied down; between her legs he knelt, he fell; there where he knelt, there he fell and perished." (Shoftim 5:24, 27) (YAEL & SISRA)

(a)See Background to Yevamos 103:18 and Rosh Hashanah 33:6.

(b)Yael is praiseworthy for having performed this Aveirah for the sake of HaSh-m, as the Gemara describes it, only because she derived no personal benefit from it, as Tosfos explains. She was not guilty of having performed an immoral act for which one is Chayav Misah, they say, since she remained totally passive throughout, just as Esther did, as the Gemara explains in Sanhedrin.

13)[line 23] ...?V'HA KA MIS'HANYA...?- [Why does the verse (Shoftim 5:24) praise her so much?] Did she not derive pleasure from the sin? (TOSFOS DH v'Ha)

14)[line 7] EINAH ELA RA'AH- it is only bad (because as the Gemara explains in Yevamos 103b, Ka Shadi Bah Zuhama, he injected filth into her)

15)[line 35]MEKAPE'ACH- withhold