[100a - 42 lines; 100b - 44 lines]

1)[line 1]בריה בפני עצמה נינהוBERYAH BIFNEI ATZMAH NINHU- that is, they are strange, deformed people

2)[line 6]משום גרושהMISHUM GERUSHAH- That is, we are afraid that she might have been divorced from her husband the Kohen, and she may no longer eat Terumah. (Even if she is a Bas Kohen, who may eat Terumah without being married to a Kohen, the Rabanan prohibited her from taking Terumah in the fields in order to prevent a Bas Yisrael married to a Kohen from eating Terumah after she was divorced - Gemara 86a.)

3)[line 7]בי דריBEI DAREI- a threshing floor

4)[line 13]והאי לא נפיש אונסיהV'HAI LO NAFISH ONSEI- it was not completely beyond his control (he could have prevented the circumstances that caused him to become Tamei)

5)[line 18]משום זילותאMISHUM ZILUSA- because of her disgrace (of having to stand around and wait)

6)[line 20]הוה שרינא תיגרא דגברא ברישאHAVA SHARINA TIGRA D'GAVRA B'REISHA- I used to deal with the case of the man first

7)[line 28]נקמצתNIKMETZES (KEMITZAH)

(a)When an individual who is not a Kohen offers a Korban Minchah (flour offering), a Kohen must take off a Kometz (handful), which is burned upon the Mizbe'ach.

(b)A Kometz is the amount that can be held by the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm. The Kohen puts his hand in the dough or baked goods and removes one handful. He next wipes off the dough or baked goods that stick out, using his thumb and smallest finger, until only the Kometz remains.

(c)The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim.

(d)A Minchah that is brought by the Tzibur and a Minchah offered by a Kohen are entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.

8)[line 29]כמנחת כהניםMINCHAS KOHANIM

A Korban Minchah that is brought by a Kohen does not need Kemitzah. The entire Minchah is burned on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chol Minchas Kohen, Kalil Tiheyeh, Lo Se'achel" - "And every meal-offering of a Kohen shall be entirely offered; it shall not be eaten" (Vayikra 6:16).

9)[line 31]כל שממנו לאישים הרי הוא בבל תקטירוKOL SHE'MIMENU LA'ISHIM HAREI HU B'VAL TAKTIRU

The Torah requires certain parts of the Korbanos to be offered on the Mizbe'ach. These parts are collectively termed "Eimurim." It is prohibited to offer any other part of the Korban on the Mizbe'ach. This Halachah is learned from Vayikra 2:11.

10)[line 33]דמסיק להוD'MASIK LEHU- he offers them

11)[line 38]בית הדשןBEIS HA'DESHEN

(a)The Beis ha'Deshen (ash-pile) is the place where ashes from the Menorah, the inner Mizbe'ach and the outer Mizbe'ach would be put every morning. Additionally, when a bird was brought as an Olas ha'Of, the Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines - Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the Beis ha'Deshen.

(b)The Beis ha'Deshen was located southeast of the outer Mizbe'ach alongside the ramp, at a distance of three Tefachim (approx. 10.5 inches) from the ramp and 10 Amos north of the foot of the ramp.

(c)The above follows the opinion of RASHI, who states that the Beis ha'Deshen mentioned in our Gemara is not one of the two other places called Beis ha'Deshen (Zevachim 104b). According to the TOSFOS HA'ROSH DH veha'Shirayim, however, our Gemara is referring to the Beis ha'Deshen located immediately to the east of the outer Mizbe'ach, which was used for burning Pesulei Kodshei Kodashim. (See TOSFOS DH veha'Shirayim and HAGAHOS YA"AVETZ.)


(a)A person brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored in three specific cases: Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Yoma 74:1), Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 4:22) and Korban Shevu'ah (see Background to Yoma 73:31).

(b)What constitutes a Korban Oleh v'Yored varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir). If he cannot afford this, he brings two doves or two turtledoves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus). If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas (Korban oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus). (Vayikra 5:6-13)

(c)The Minchas Chatas is not mixed with oil, and Levonah (frankincense) is not sprinkled on top of it (Vayikra 5:11). When a non-Kohen brings a Minchas Chatas, a Kometz of the flour alone is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Kohanim receive the Shirayim (the rest of the flour, which they must eat before the following sunrise - RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7). The Minchas Chatas of a Kohen is the subject of a Machlokes Tana'im (Menachos 73b-74a). According to one opinion, it is treated like the normal Minchah of a Kohen (see entry #8 above). Another opinion rules that a Kometz is removed and burned as in the Minchah of a non-Kohen. However, unlike the Minchah of a non-Kohen, the Shirayim (remainder of the flour) are also burned. A third opinion rules that the Kometz is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Shirayim are sprinkled (RASHI) or burned (TOSFOS, TOSFOS HA'ROSH) on the Beis ha'Deshen.


13)[line 11]הוא אונן עליהםHU ONEN ALEIHEM- he observes the laws of Aninus (see Background to Yevamos 73:1) on the day of burial of both men, one of whom is certainly his father. As such, he is prohibited from eating Kodshim. He does not, however, come into contact with the dead body, lest it not be his father.

14)[line 13]מכתוMAKASO / KILELASO - Beating or cursing one's parents

(a)If a person intentionally injures his father or mother, causing them to bleed, he is put to death by hanging (Shemos 21:15). If he did not cause a wound, his case is judged exactly like a case of hitting any other person; i.e. if the damage is worth a Perutah, he pays; if the damage is not worth a Perutah he receives Malkus (lashes) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #48).

(b)If a person curses his father or mother using the name of HaSh-m, he is stoned to death (Shemos 21:17). The Tana'im argue as to whether cursing them with one of the Kinuyim (diminutives), e.g. Rachum, the Merciful One, is punishable with the death penalty (Shevu'os 35a). The Sefer ha'Chinuch #260 states that he receives Malkus, following the opinion of Rebbi Menachem bar Yosi (ibid. 36a), who rules that a person is only liable to the death penalty for the four-letter name of HaSh-m. A person who curses his mother or father also violates the general prohibition of cursing any Jew, for which one receives Malkus, which is learned from the verse "Lo Sekalel Cheresh" (Vayikra 19:14) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #231).

15)[line 13]במשמרMISHMAR

(a)The Kohanim were divided into 24 shifts according to their families (Mishmaros), each of which served in the Mikdash for two weeks out of a year. The Mishmaros changed on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar did the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar did the Avodah in the afternoon.

(b)Every Mishmar was further divided into six Batei Avos, with the Kohanim of each Beis Av serving on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, all the Batei Avos of the Mishmar did the Avodah together (RASHI Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros were divided into seven, and not six, groups, and only one group served on Shabbos (RASHI Ta'anis 26a; for more on this, see Insights to Shekalim 18:1).

(c)On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos) all of the Mishmaros Kehunah came to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar were permitted to do the Avodah of the Regel.

16)[line 21]ראשון ראוי להיות כהן גדולRISHON RA'UY LIHEYOS KOHEN GADOL- that is, the first one to be born, who is a Safek. The Mishnah on Daf 36b deals with a case where a Yevamah gave birth to a son and it is not known whether he is the son of her late husband or of the Yavam. The Safek is called ha'Rishon because the Gemara (Daf 37a) entertains the possibility that the Yavam and Yevamah stay married and have a second child (ha'Sheni).

17)[line 27]וליקוט עצמותLIKUT ATZAMOS - Disentombment and relocation of bones

The practice in the time of the Mishnah and Gemara was to first bury the dead in a moist deep place in order for the flesh to decompose quickly. After the body decomposed the bones were gathered and buried in a coffin in an honorable, dignified place, usually in the family burial cave (RASHI to Moed Katan 8a). It was permitted to move the bones because they were buried with the intention to move them later. The bones would be moved only after a year had passed. (ROSH to Moed Katan 1:10, based on the YERUSHALMI 1:5 and MASECHES SEMACHOS, i.e. EVEL RABATI Chapter 12)

18)[line 32]דחללCHALAL

See Background to 84:11.

19)[line 34]בממאנתB'MEMEA'ENES (MI'UN)

See Background to 59:27.

20)[line 35]משמשות במוךMESHAMSHOS B'MOCH- are permitted to have relations using cloths to prevent them from becoming pregnant

21)[line 37]סנדלSANDAL- a flat, fish-shaped abortion

22)[line 37]תגמול את בנהTIGMOL ES BENAH- she will wean her son

23)[last line]בנה מורכב לה על כתפהBENAH MURKAV LAH AL KESEFAH- her son is being carried on her shoulder (for everyone to see)