[71a - 47 lines; 71b - 38 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.

[1] Rashi 71a DH Bi'asusa " :

The words "Shome'a Nivhal"

should be "Shome'a v'Nivhal" (Rashash)

[2] Rashi DH b'Chayav uv'Moso " :

The DH should be Safek b'Chayav uv'Moso (M. KORNFELD)

[3] Gemara 71b [line 14]:

"Eima Seifa"

These words are unnecessary (because they imply a question, whereas the Gemara is only explaining the Mishnah), as the Maharsha explains. These words were not originally part of the text of the Gemara, but were added to our edition of the Gemara based on an emendation of the Maharshal. (See Rav Betzalel Rensburg. See also Aruch la'Ner, who suggests a justification for the Girsa of the Maharshal.)

[4] Gemara [line 30]:

"l'Minga Bah me'Avrai, Ka Mashma Lan"

The word "me'Avrai" belongs above, before the words "Salka Daitach Amina" . The Gemara there should read "v'Korei Lah Shem: me'Avrai, Salka Da'atach Amina..." - i.e., without touching it (Maharsha, based on an old edition of the Gemara)

[5] Hagahos ha'Gra:

The period is unnecessary and should be removed. (The intention of the Gra is to erase all of the words from "Chutz" until the colon, since they do not apply to our Sugya.)


1)[line 10]"[ ] [; , ]""[VA'TAVONAH NA'AROS ESTHER V'SARISEHAH VA'YAGIDU LAH], VA'TISCHALCHAL HA'MALKAH [ME'OD; VA'TISHLACH BEGADIM L'HALBISH ES MORDECHAI, UL'HASIR SAKO ME'ALAV, V'LO KIBEL]" - "[And Esther's servants and valets came and told her], and the queen shuddered [violently; and she sent clothes to dress Mordechai, and to remove the sack-cloth from on him, but he did not accept them]" (Esther 4:4) (ESTHER'S REACTION TO MORDECHAI'S BEHAVIOR)

(a)Mordechai was well aware of Haman's fateful decree, its causes and its consequences. Esther, on the other hand, knew nothing of what was happening outside of the palace, and thus it came as quite a shock to her to hear that Mordechai was publicly mourning for something of which she was unaware. Moreover, Mordechai could not enter the palace complex because it was forbidden for one wearing sack-cloth to enter the palace gates, and thus Esther had no direct access to him.

(b)Presumably, Esther attributed his strange behavior to a private calamity that had befallen him, so she attempted to calm him down by sending him a set of clothes into which to change. When she saw that her efforts bore no fruit, she sent Hasach (a courtier, whom some say was none other than Daniel) to find out the cause of Mordechai's distress.

(c)Mordechai told Hasach everything that transpired, and instructed Esther to enter Achashverosh's inner chamber uninvited, in spite of the law that anyone doing so would be put to death (short of the unlikely event that the king would graciously extend to her his scepter). Notwithstanding her initial misgivings, Esther agreed.

2)[line 11] BI'ASUSA D'MALACHAH D'MOSA- fear of death (lit. of the Angel of Death)

3)[line 12] CHARADAH MESALEKES ES HA'DAMIM- that trepidation prevents the appearance of Dam Nidah

4a)[line 13] PACHADA TZAMIS- anxiety constricts [the Makor so that no blood comes out] (Pachada is another word for Charadah)

b)[line 14] BI'ASUSA MERAPYA- sudden fright loosens [and opens the Makor and makes blood come out]

5)[line 16] "" IKRI KAN "MI'BESARO" V'LO MACHMAS ONSO- I could call this [a case that is excluded from the word] "mi'Besaro," "from his flesh," [that teaches us that a man becomes a Zav when the flow of Zivah is natural] and not due to an external cause (indicating that sudden fright before death does not bring about a Tamei flow)

6)[line 18] AL GABEI NIDOS MESOS- that were on women who died when they were Nidos (in a case where the clothes were removed before death and they did not touch the body after death)


(a)A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tumah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height. If a person becomes Tamei with Tum'as Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah see Background to Nidah 26:15) sprinkled on him.

(b)The blood that comes out of a dead body is Metamei b'Ohel if there is a Revi'is (approximately 75, 86 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of it is in one location.

(c)Rebbi Akiva rules that a Revi'is of blood is also Metamei if it came out of two different people, however, the Rabanan (Sanhedrin 4a) rule that the Revi'is of blood must come out of one person for it to be Metamei b'Ohel (see Insights to Nazir 38:1). The Halachah follows the opinion of the Rabanan.

8)[line 29] YOSHEVES AL MASHBER- a woman giving birth (lit. when she is seated on the birthing chair)

9)[line 34] MAKOR MEKOMO TAMEI- This is not the normal Machlokes that is cited each time the Gemara states Makor Mekomo Tamei. (See TOSFOS DH Makor and Insights.)


When there is a doubt as to whether blood came out while the person was still alive (and it is not Metamei) or after he died (and it is Metamei), it is not Metamei mid'Oraisa. The Rabanan decreed that it is Tamei. Our Gemara quotes various opinions as to the scenario that creates Dam Tevusah (see Insights to Nidah 71:2).


(a)When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, if the object is found in Reshus ha'Rabim the object is Tahor. If it is found in a private, concealed place, it is judged to be Tamei.

(b)This is learned from the case of the Sotah woman. In the case of a Sotah, where only two people were present at the time that there arose a question as to her status, she is judged Teme'ah/culpable and is prohibited to her husband (for a full discussion of the Sotah woman, see Background to Nidah 3:1). Similarly, whenever there are only two people present (i.e. a Reshus ha'Yachid l'Tum'ah), if a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tamei. Whenever more than two people frequent a certain area, it is a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. If a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tahor.

12)[line 46] HAYAH MUTAL B'MITAH- he was lying in bed

13)[line 46] METAFTEF L'GUMA- dripping into a hole

14)[last line] HA'TIPAH SHEL MISAH- the drop of blood that emerges from a corpse after its death



(a)When a forbidden object is mixed with a permitted object, the mixture becomes prohibited if most of the mixture is Isur, but is permitted if most of the mixture is Heter because of "Bitul b'Rov."

(b)The above applies when non-identical substances are mixed together. However, when a liquid mixes with an identical liquid, the Tana'im argue as to the status of the mixture. According to Rabanan, the Isur can still be nullified by a majority of Heter. According to Rebbi Yehudah, though, even a miniscule amount of Isur prohibits the mixture, since the Isur is not nullified at all. (When two identical dry substances become mixed together, all agree that the majority in the mixture determines the mixture's Halachic status.)

(c)Similarly, if the blood of Kodshim that must be cast on the Mizbe'ach mixes with blood that is unfit to be cast on the Mizbe'ach (e.g. Dam ha'Tamtzis), the Rabanan of Rebbi Yehudah rule that we follow the Rov (majority). If most of the mixture is Dam ha'Tamtzis, it is not fit for Zerikah. According to Rebbi Yehudah, we do not follow the Rov, and even if there is a miniscule amount of blood that is fit for Zerikah, Zerikah may be performed. With regard to blood that flows from a body after death, Rebbi Yehudah rules similarly, that even a miniscule amount is Metamei, even when it is mixed into blood that flowed from the body before death.

16)[line 3]TZALUV- a man who has been crucified (a very common form of execution administered by the ancient Romans)

17)[line 4]SHOSES- flows

18)[line 8]MECHALCHELAH- it penetrates

19a)[line 9] HA'YOSHEVES AL DAM TAHOR - a woman who is in the stage after childbirth where all of the bleeding that she experiences is Dam Tohar, that is not Metamei (YOLEDES: TEVULAS YOM AROCH)

(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:

1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom see below, entry #23b) and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.

2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.

(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).

(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she sees blood during the period of Dam Tohar see Insights to Nidah 25:2.)

b)[line 10] HAYESAH ME'ARAH MAYIM L'PESACH- was permitted to pour water (from one utensil into another one, without touching the water) for [use in rinsing] the Pesach sacrifice

20)[line 11] / MAGA TEMEI MES L'KODSHIM / TEMEI MES (TUM'AH: The Different Levels of Tum'ah)

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei.

(b)All sources of Tum'ah are called 'Av ha'Tum'ah' (a father of Tum'ah), except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah." All levels of Tum'ah below Av ha'Tum'ah are referred to as Vlad ha'Tum'ah (a 'child' of Tum'ah).

(c)When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah.

1.Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.

2.Another case in which the object touched can retain the same level of Tum'ah as that which touched it is Cherev Harei Hu k'Chalal (see Insights to Pesachim 14b).

(d)A Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. (If someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)

(e)Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. For this reason, it is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is "Pasul" and may not be eaten.

(f)Utensils, foods, and Jewish people, can become Tamei, as follows. (Other animate or inanimate objects cannot become Tamei.)

1.Utensils made from the metals listed in the Torah (Bamidbar 31:22), or from wood, leather, fibers produced from hair or plants, bone, and earthenware (Cheres), can become Tamei. All but earthenware can be either an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah; earthenware can only be a Rishon l'Tum'ah (RASHI Eruvin 104b DH Lo).

2.Foods can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or lower.

3.Jewish people can become Avos ha'Tum'ah (by touching a corpse), an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon. Chazal decreed that a person's hands can become Sheni l'Tum'ah; see Background to Gitin 15:26. Chazal also decreed that a person can become a Sheni l'Tum'ah or Shelishi l'Tum'ah by eating foods that are Tamei (see Shabbos 13b).

(g)A person or utensil that is Tamei can become Tahor again through immersion in a Mikvah and waiting until nightfall. After immersion in a Mikvah but before nightfall, the person or utensil is known as a Tevul Yom. A Tevul Yom is deemed the equivalent of a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and can make Terumah or Kodesh into a Shelishi. It is more lenient, however, than a normal Sheni l'Tum'ah and cannot make liquids into a Rishon (see above, c:1).


A person who often eats Kodshim (e.g. Korbanos Shelamim or Todah) and wants to train his household in the Mitzvos that apply to the consumption of Kodshim, or a person who wants to train himself in these Mitzvos, may decide that he wants all of the Chulin in his house to be eaten "Al Taharas ha'Kodesh" - "as if they were Kodshim." He must be careful that no Tum'ah comes in contact with his food. There is a Machlokes as to whether his Chulin may become a Shelishi or a Revi'i l'Tum'ah, like Kodshim, or not. Aba Shaul, who rules that they are not like Kodshim, is of the opinion that they can only become a Sheni l'Tum'ah, like normal Chulin.

22)[line 17] ? MASNISIN MANI? ABA SHAUL HI- Which opinion does our Mishnah follow? The opinion of Aba Shaul. That is, the later ruling mentioned in the Mishnah includes two points: (a) Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas ha'Kodesh are not like Kodesh; (b) a Tevul Yom is dealt with more stringently, and is equated with a Rishon, like Aba Shaul says.

23a)[line 19] TEVUL YOM TECHILAH L'KODESH L'TAMEI SHENAYIM VELI'FSOL ECHAD- a Tevul Yom (see next entry) is considered a Rishon l'Tum'ah with regard to food that is Kodesh, and causes two Tum'os and one Pesul. That is, the first food of Kodesh that he touches becomes a Sheni l'Tum'ah. When that food, in turn, touches other food of Kodesh, the second food becomes a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. If the Shelishi touches another food of Kodesh, that third food becomes a Revi'i l'Tum'ah, which is Pasul, since it may not be eaten but cannot transfer Tum'ah to other objects.

b)[line 19] TEVUL YOM

(a)A Tevul Yom is a person who has immersed in a Mikvah to become Tahor for Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely Tahor with regard to Terumah, Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he touches do not become Teme'im. Liquids that he touches do not become Rishon l'Tum'ah. If he enters the Mikdash, however, he is Chayav Kares (see Background to Nidah 28:18).

(b)After the following nightfall, he becomes completely Tahor with regard to Terumah. If he is a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4), he must wait until he brings his sacrifices to become completely Tahor with regard to Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash.

(c)A woman after childbirth who immerses in a Mikvah after one or two weeks is known as a Tevulas Yom Aroch (see above, entry #19a).


(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated Ma'aser Rishon, and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a). The produce may not be eaten until all Terumos and Ma'asros have been separated from it.

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there by its owner. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

(f)A person who was Tamei is permitted to eat Ma'aser Sheni immediately upon immersion. After nightfall he is permitted to eat Terumah (but see below, entry #29:a) and Kodshim, if he is not a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). A Mechusar Kaparah must wait until he offers his sacrifices before he is permitted to eat Kodshim.

25)[line 21] KOTZAH LAH CHALAH - she separates Chalah from it (CHALAH)

(a)With regard to the Mitzvah of Chalah, the verses state, "... b'Vo'achem El ha'Aretz... Reishis Arisoseichem Chalah Tarimu Serumah..." - "[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them,] 'When you come into the land [where I bring you, when you eat of the bread of the land, you shall separate a Terumah (tribute) to HaSh-m.] You shall separate the first of your dough for a Terumah; [as you do with the Terumah separated from the grain of the threshing floor, so, too, shall you present this [to the Kohanim]'" (Bamidbar 15:18-20).

(b)Whenever a person kneads a large quantity of dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen before eating from the dough. This portion is called Chalah. (The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah only applies to dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of flour. The modern equivalent is approximately 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters; about half of that amount requires Chalah to be separated without a Berachah.) A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24. If a person did not separate Chalah from the dough before it was baked, it must be separated after it is baked before the baked products can be eaten.

(c)Chalah has the Halachos of Terumah, and it must be eaten by Kohanim, their wives and children, while they are Tehorim. A non-Kohen who eats Chalah b'Mezid is liable to Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Makos 13a; RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 5:14 and Hilchos Terumah 6:6).

26)[line 21]MAKEFES - she places it next to the dough (CHALAH: NETILASO MIN HA'MUKAF)

(a)See above, entries #24-25.

(b)The Rabanan decreed that Terumah (and similarly Chalah) must be separated when the produce that will become Terumah and the rest of the crop (or dough) are together in front of the person separating them. The prohibition was invoked so that a person does not unknowingly designate Terumah from produce that has already rotted or been lost, and then eat from the crop thinking that Terumah has been separated while in reality he is eating Tevel.

27)[line 22] KOREI LAH SHEM- she calls it (the portion that she separates) a name (the name of Chalah)

28)[line 22]ME'ROKAH- some of her saliva


(a)Although a woman immerses at the end of her days of Tum'ah after childbirth, she does not become Tehorah to eat Terumah and Kodshim or to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash until the end of her days of Tohar. During this period of time, she is referred to as a Tevulas Yom Aroch.

(b)Beis Shamai rules that upon the completion of this period she must immerse again in a Mikvah in order to eat Terumah and enter the Mikdash, whereas Beis Hillel argues. (According to both opinions, she must immerse before eating Kodshim.)


See above, entry #26.

31)[line 30]ME'AVRAI- See Girsa section, #4


(a)See above, entry #23b.

(b)The liquids of a Tevul Yom (his urine, saliva, semen and blood) do not have any more Tum'ah than liquids that he touches, i.e. they are Tehorim.

33)[line 35] TEVUL YOM AROCH

See above, entry #29.


(a)By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she experienced bleeding only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. (The current practice is to consider all women who experience bleeding to be Zavos see below and therefore they must count seven clean days before they go to the Mikvah.)

(b)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, whether the bleeding is b'Ones (due to an external cause, see Background to Nidah 43:13:b) or not, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah. She too is prohibited to her husband and has the status of an Av Ha'Tum'ah (see Background to Nidah 5:8).

(c)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she experienced bleeding, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she experiences bleeding afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she experiences bleeding.

(d)If a woman experiences bleeding for three consecutive days during her eleven days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count "Shiv'ah Neki'im," seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she experiences no other bleeding. On the morning of the seventh day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Vayikra 15:25-30).

(e)If she experiences bleeding on the eleventh day, even though she is a Zavah Ketanah, Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue as to her status, since she has no possibility of becoming a Zavah Gedolah.


(a)A Nidah (see previous entry, (a)), Yoledes (see above, entry #19a), Zav (see Background to Nidah 43:13), or Zavah (see previous entry, (b)-(d)), can cause objects (other than Klei Cheres, earthenware objects) that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon). Two examples of Midras are known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, ha'Zavah, etc. (or the Tachton, of a Zav, etc.). An object that is under these people becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.

(b)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav, Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.

(c)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav, etc. also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav, Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes.

36)[last line] CHAYAVIN B'KORBAN- and they are obligated to bring a Korban. (Because the immersion was too early, it was invalid, and at the time of relations she still had the status of a Zavah Ketanah. This obligates them to offer a Korban Chatas for the unintentional transgression of having relations with a Nidah Vayikra 18:19, 20:18, as is the case in all unintentional transgressions of prohibitions that are liable to the Kares punishment for intentional transgression.)