HOW TO HAVE MALE CHILDREN
Question #3: What should one do in order to have male children?
Answer (R. Yehoshua): He should sanctify himself at the time of Bi'ah.
The Alexandrians: Many did so, and it did not work!
R. Yehoshua: He should request mercy from the One who gives sons -- "Hineh Nachalas Hash-m Banim Sachar Pri ha'Baten."
Question: What do we learn from this?
Answer: It teaches that neither will work without the other.
Question: What do we learn from "Sachar Pri ha'Baten"?
Answer (Rav Chama bar Chanina): If a man delays Hazra'ah while on his wife's stomach, in order that she will be Mazri'ah first, Hash-m rewards him with fruit of the stomach (sons).
TUM'AH BEFORE DEATH
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): (Every dead woman is considered Nidah.)
Question: What is the reason?
Answer #1: Rav taught that "va'Tischalchal ha'Malkah" teaches that Esther became Nidah (due to fear). Likewise, a woman becomes Nidah before dying, for she sees the angel of death, and is afraid!
Question (Mishnah): Fear inhibits Dam (Nidah).
Answer: Prolonged fear inhibits the blood. Sudden terror induces it.
Objection (Beraisa - Beis Shamai): Every dead man is considered a Zav;
Beis Hillel says, only one who died a Zav is a Zav.
Even if terror of seeing the angel of death induces Zov, he would not be a Zav. One becomes a Zav if he sees "mi'Besaro," but not due to Ones!
Answer #2 (to Question (j)): Rather, Beis Shamai makes a decree. (Tosfos - all agree to the following decree, Beis Shamai extends it to Even Mesama):
(Beraisa): At first, they would immerse Kelim used by Nidos shortly before they died. Living Nidos were embarrassed (that they will be different even after death), so they enacted to immerse Kelim of all women, for the dignity of living Nidos.
At first, they would immerse Kelim used by Zavim shortly before they died. Living Zavim were embarrassed, so they enacted to immerse Kelim of all men, for the dignity of living Zavim.
BLOOD THAT COMES OUT AFTER DEATH
(Mishnah): If a Nidah died and (afterwards) a Revi'is of blood came out, it is Metamei due to Kesem (Dam Nidah; even a drop has Tum'as Maga and Masa) and Ohel (like blood of a Mes);
R. Yehudah says, it is not Metamei due to Kesem, because it did not leave (the Makor) until after death.
R. Yehudah agrees about a woman who sat on the birthing stool (she was about to gave birth), that if a Revi'is came out it is Metamei (also) due to Kesem. (Surely, at least a drop left the Makor before death.)
R. Yosi says, therefore, it is not Metamei b'Ohel.
(Gemara) Question: (From R. Yehudah, we learn that) the first Tana holds that even though the blood left (the Makor) after death, it is Metamei due to Kesem! (This is unreasonable.)
Answer (Ze'iri): The first Tana holds that Makom Makor Tamei. (Blood from the Makor that is not Dam Nidah is Tamei.) R. Yehudah disagrees.
(Mishnah): R. Yehudah agrees...
(Gemara) Question: (From R. Yehudah, we learn that) the first Tana holds that the blood is also Metamei b'Ohel! (This is unreasonable. If it is Dam Nidah, it is not Dam Mes.)
Answer (Rav Yehudah): They argue about Dam Tevusah:
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Yehudah): If a man was killed, and we do not know whether the blood came out before or after death or partially before and partially after, this is Dam Tevusah. (It is is Tamei mid'Rabanan);
Chachamim say, such blood is Tamei (mid'Oraisa) in Reshus ha'Yachid (perhaps all of it came out after death) and Tahor in Reshus ha'Rabim. (Perhaps all came out before death. Rashi - Tum'as Dam Tevusah is only mid'Rabanan even in Reshus ha'Yachid. Tosfos ha'Rosh - Dam Tevusah is Tamei (mid'Rabanan) even in Reshus ha'Rabim.)
Rather, if a Revi'is of blood came out, partially before and partially after, and we do not know when the majority came out, this is Dam Tevusah;
R. Yehudah says, if someone died on a bed and a Revi'is of blood was dripping (before and after death) into a cavity, it is Tamei, for the drop (that came out at the time) of death is mixed in. (Tum'ah mid'Oraisa requires a Revi'is after death. Mid'Rabanan we are stringent when at least some was after death.)
Chachamim are Metaher, because every drop (after death) is Batel when it is mixed with a majority that came out before death.
R. Yehudah is consistent with his opinion that blood is never Batel in blood.
R. Shimon says, if blood was flowing from someone hanging on wood, and a Revi'is collected, it is Tamei;
R. Yehudah is Metaher. Perhaps the drop of death remained on the wood.
Question: R. Yehudah should be Metaher also in his case (one who died on a bed) for the same reason!
Answer: A bed shakes, so the blood would not cling to it.
A WOMAN DURING YEMEI TOHAR
(Mishnah): (When a Tamei person immerses, he becomes Tahor regarding Chulin and Ma'aser, but he is not Tahor regarding Terumah and Kodshim until night. He is called a Tevul Yom.) At first, they used to say that a Yoledes (who immersed after her days of Tum'ah) during Yemei Tohar (she is like a Tevul Yom until the end of Yemei Tohar, 40 or 80 days after the birth of a boy or girl) may pour water over the (Korban) Pesach (to clean it);
Beis Hillel says, they retracted to say that regarding Kodshim she is (a Rishon l'Tum'ah,) like a Maga (one who touched someone who is) Tamei Mes;
Beis Shamai says, she is like a Tamei Mes.
(Gemara) Inference: She may pour water over the Pesach (from a Kli), but she may not touch the water (for she would be Metamei it, even though it is Chulin). This implies that Chulin Al Taharas ha'Kodesh (one guards its Taharah like Kodesh) is like Kodesh;
(Seifa): They retracted to say that regarding Kodshim she is like Maga Tamei Mes.
Inference: She is a Rishon only regarding (real) Kodshim, but not for Chulin Al Taharas ha'Kodesh, for it is unlike Kodesh! (This was the retraction. Eliyah Rabah - at first she was allowed to pour. Even if she would touch drops of water on the outside, they would not be Metamei the Kli. After the retraction, she may not pour, for if she would touch water on the outside, it would be Metamei the Kli.)
Our Mishnah is like Aba Sha'ul;
(Beraisa - Aba Sha'ul): A Tevul Yom is like a Rishon regarding Kodesh. (If Kodshim foods are in a row, touching each other, and he touches Kodesh on the end) he is Metamei two foods (disqualifies them, and enables them to disqualify other foods) and disqualifies one. (What he touches becomes a Sheni. What it touches becomes a Shelishi. The third in line is a Revi'i. It is Pasul, but it does not disqualify other Kodshim.)
(Mishnah): All agree that she may eat Ma'aser (Sheni) and separate (a piece of dough to become) Chalah (which has all the laws of Terumah):
She puts the piece in a Kli, puts it near (Rashi; Ramban - touches it to) the rest of the dough (Rambam - she makes a wall surrounding both of them), and declares that it is Chalah.
If her saliva or Dam Tohar fell on a loaf of Terumah, the loaf is Tahor.
Beis Shamai says, she must immerse at the end of Yemei Tohar (before eating Terumah);
Beis Hillel does not require her to immerse again (for Terumah. They agree that she must immerse again before eating Kodshim.)
(Gemara): (She may eat Ma'aser, for she is like a Tevul Yom, and it was taught that) if a Tamei person immerses, he may eat Ma'aser immediately. (He need not wait until night.)
(Mishnah): She may separate Chalah.
This teaches that Chulin that is Tevel to Chalah (Chalah must be separated from it) is unlike Terumah. (If it were like Terumah, she would be Metamei the dough.)
(Mishnah): She puts it near the rest of the dough.
This is as we learned elsewhere, that l'Chatchilah one must declare Chalah when it is near (Rambam - in the same enclosure with) the rest of the dough.
(Mishnah): She declares it to be Chalah.
One might have thought that we decree to forbid this, lest she touch it (after making it Chalah). The Mishnah teaches that we do not decree.
(Mishnah): Her saliva (or Dam Tohar is not Posel Terumah).
(Mishnah): Fluids that exude from a Tevul Yom are like liquids (of Terumah) that he touches. Neither of them are Metamei (Kodshim, but they are Posel Kodshim), except for fluids of a Zav. (They are an Av ha'Tum'ah. The Gra deletes this.)
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): (She must immerse at the end of Yemei Tohar... )
Question: What do Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai argue about?
Answer (Rav Katina): They argue about a Tevulas Yom Aruch. (There is a long delay from her immersion until she may eat Terumah (33 or 66 days), therefore Beis Shamai is concerned lest she has not been guarding herself from Tum'ah.)
BI'AH DURING YEMEI SHIMUR
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): If a woman saw on day 11 (of Zivah), immersed that night and had Bi'ah, (her husband was Bo'el Nidah, so he is Tamei like a Nidah,) they are Metamei a Mishkav or Moshav (to be an Av ha'Tum'ah), and they are Chayav Chatas;