[26a - 49 lines; 26b - 43 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 26b DH Ela b'Davar Shel Kayama ד"ה אלא בדבר של קיימא:

The words "Hayu Chodashav Kalu" היו חודשיו כלו

should be "Hayu Chodashav Kalin" היו חודשיו כלין

[2] Tosfos 26b DH At Amrat Shemaitsei d'Rav ד"ה את אמרת:

שמעתתיה דרב

The words "umi'Techilah Shachachta" ומתחילה שכחת

should be "umi'Techilah Shachach" ומתחלה שכח or "umi'Techilah Shachachti" ומתחילה שכחתי


1a)[line 2]בכור לנחלהBECHOR L'NACHALAH

The first male born to a father inherits a double portion of his father's estate. This applies only if the son was the first viable child to be born to the father, whether or not he was the first child born to the mother. Even if the son was preceded by a Nefel, a stillborn, he is still the Bechor l'Nachalah.

b)[line 2]בכור לכהןBECHOR L'KOHEN (PIDYON HA'BEN)

(a)The Torah requires that every Yisrael sanctify the firstborn male of his children, kosher animals and donkeys, as it is written, "Kadesh Li Chol Bechor, Peter Kol Rechem bi'Vnei Yisrael, ba'Adam uva'Behemah; Li Hu." - "Sanctify to Me every firstborn that initiates the womb among the children of Yisrael, among both man and beast; it is Mine" (Shemos 13:2).

(b)The Mitzvah of Pidyon ha'Ben applies to a Yisrael and not to a Kohen or a Levi. The first male born to a mother (who is the daughter of a Yisrael) must be redeemed by his father (as stated in Shemos 13:13, "v'Chol Bechor Adam b'Vanecha Tifdeh").

(c)The Bechor must be redeemed when he is one month old by giving five silver Shekalim of Kodesh (each of which weighs either 19.2 or 17 grams — see Midos v'Shi'urei Torah, C. P. Benish, Bnei Brak, 5760, pp. 487-488) to a Kohen as stated in Bamidbar (18:16). This applies only if the son was the first issue (i.e. he was not preceded by a Nefel — stillborn) and was delivered through the womb (i.e. he was not delivered by Caesarian section). (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #392)

(d)The verses that refer to the Bechor Adam are: Shemos 13:2; 13:13; 13:15; 22:28; 34:19-20, Bamidbar 3:12-13; 8:17; 18:15.

2)[line 11]כרוכיןKERUCHIN- clinging to each other

3a)[line 12]מכרך כריך ליה ולד לסנדל אפלגיהMICHRACH KARICH LEI VLAD L'SANDAL A'PALGEI- the viable fetus is butting into (lit. is wrapped up in) the Sandal at its midpoint

b)[line 13]משלחיף ליה כלפי רישיהMESHALCHIF LEI KELAPEI RESHEI- and it (the Sandal) lies across (overlapping) the head of the viable fetus (such that when they were born, the head of the fetus pushed the Sandal out first — RASHI)

4)[line 18]מצומצמיןMETZUMTZAMIN- they are lying exactly side by side

5)[line 20]סריךSARICH- hangs on, clings

6)[line 21]שריקSHARIK- slides

7)[line 26]נימוקNIMOK- disintegrated

8)[line 28]חוט של ערבCHUT SHEL EREV- a thread of the woof (the strings that run from side to side across the loom, which is thicker than a string of the Shesi, warp, the strings that run lengthwise along the loom)

9)[line 29]תורמוסTURMOS- lupine, a type of pod or bean of the pea family

10)[line 29]חלולה כחצוצרתCHALULAH K'CHATZOTZERES- hollow like a horn

11)[line 31]קורקבןKURKEVAN- in the gizzard (the second stomach of a bird; ventriculus)

12)[line 31]הדקיןHA'DAKIN- the intestines

13)[line 32]תניא רבי אושעיא זעירא דמן חבריאTANYA REBBI OSHAYA ZE'EIRA D'MIN CHEVRAYA- the following Beraisa was taught by (a) Rebbi Oshaya, the youngest ("Ze'eira") of the members of the Yeshiva (RASHI to Chulin 31a, 1st explanation); (b) Rebbi Oshaya Ze'eira, of the members of the Yeshiva (RASHI ibid., 2nd explanation, and RASHI to Chulin 12b); (c) Rebbi Oshaya Ze'eira, of the city of Chevraya (TOSFOS to Chulin 12b DH d'Min)

14)[line 39]שדרו של לולבSHIDRO SHEL LULAV- the spine of a Lulav

15)[line 42]אזובEZOV (MEI CHATAS)

(a)The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired cow, is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes (Bamidbar 19:1-22). Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah (Bamidbar 19:2).

(b)A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). The Kohen Gadol and all of the Kohanim who help him in the preparation of the Parah Adumah exit from this gate. After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times.

(c)Sereifas ha'Parah (burning the cow) is also performed on Har ha'Zeisim. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool, are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning (Bamidbar 19:6).

(d)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a corpse or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas or Mei Nidah) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

16)[line 46]מביא את הטומאהMEVI ES HA'TUM'AH (TUM'AS OHEL)

(a)A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tumah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height. If a person becomes Tamei with Tum'as Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah — see previous entry) sprinkled on him.

(b)In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. A person who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters, even when entering backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling (RASH to Kelim 1:4).

(c)The bones of a Mes are only Metamei through Ohel under one of three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (whether they are the majority of the build (Rov Binyano) of the body or the majority of the number (Rov Minyano) of 248 bones; 3. The bone is a complete skull or a complete spinal column. In order to be Metamei through Maga and Masa, it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).

(d)When an object that can be Metamei b'Ohel is located in an Ohel, the Ohel makes everything in it Tamei and protects anything that is above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Tum'ah (spreads Tum'ah inside of it) and is Chotzetz from Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel, preventing Tum'ah from spreading above it).

(e)However, not all objects that cover Tum'ah are Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects that are Mevi and not Chotzetz and other objects that are Chotzetz and not Mevi and even others that are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5). An object that is flying through the air, such as a bird or a Talis that is carried or caught up by the wind, is not an Ohel and is not Mevi or Chotzetz, even if it is one Tefach wide.

(f)A space that is less than a Tefach in length, width and height, is not considered an Ohel. Tum'as Mes in such an area is called "Tum'ah Retzutzah" (smashed or squashed Tum'ah) or "Tum'ah Temunah" (hidden Tum'ah). Such Tum'ah does not spread throughout the enclosure, but is Boka'as v'Olah, Boka'as v'Yoredes, i.e. it "breaks through" (Boka'as) the enclosure and goes straight up and straight down, as if it were in the open air. Similarly, if a grave has less than a Tefach of space between the body and the ceiling of the grave, the Tum'ah inside it is Tum'ah Retzutzah. The Tum'ah is Metamei everything that is above it within the boundaries of the Tum'ah (until it reaches something that is Chotzetz, thus keeping it inside an Ohel) and below it.

(g)Most graves have a space of a Tefach between the body and the ceiling of the grave (Berachos 19b). If the grave is completely sealed on all sides, it is called a "Kever Sasum." The Tum'ah inside it fills the entire Kever and is likewise Boka'as v'Olah, Boka'as v'Yoredes until something is Chotzetz above it. A grave that has an open space of a Tefach at the side is not a Kever Sasum, and the Tum'ah within it is prevented from rising above the ceiling of the grave (Ohalos 3:7). In this case, the Tefach above the body is Chotzetz.


17a)[line 1]תחלתו ארבעהTECHILASO ARBA'AH- at the time that the oven is fashioned, it must be at least four Tefachim tall in order to be considered a "Kli" ("utensil") and in order to receive Tum'ah

b)[line 2]שיריו ארבעSHEYARAV ARBA'AH- and if a large oven became Tamei and was later broken, it becomes Tahor if none of the fragments that remain measure four Tefachim

c)[line 4]משתגמר מלאכתוMISHE'TIGAMER MELACHTO- when it is completed (and becomes a "Kli")

d)[line 5]שיריו ברובוSHEYARAV B'RUBO- and a small oven remains Tamei if none of the fragments that remain constitute the majority of the oven


Among the utensils of the Mishkan and the Beis ha'Mikdash was the Shulchan ha'Zahav (the Golden Table, see Shemos 25:23-30). There is an argument as to the location of the Misgeres, the "frame" of the Shulchan. Some say that it was affixed around the top of the table, like the vertical ledge that is on the edge of the tables of princes (with the Zer, "crown," directly on top of it). Others say that it was below the tabletop from leg to leg on the four sides of the table, and that the top of the table lay upon the Misgeres (accordingly, the Zer was on top of the tabletop).

19)[line 11]כפורתKAPORES- the golden cover of the Aron (Shemos 25:17-22)

20)[line 12]קורהKORAH (MAVOY: LECHI V'KORAH)

(a)Although mid'Oraisa a Mavoy (an alley that is walled on three sides that leads into a public thoroughfare and has courtyards that open into it) is a Reshus ha'Yachid, nevertheless, the Chachamim prohibited carrying objects in a Mavoy a distance of four Amos or more. This decree was enacted because of its similarity to a Reshus ha'Rabim, since many families make use of a single Mavoy.

(b)Carrying in a Mavoy is permitted if a Lechi is placed vertically against one of the walls at the entrance to the Mavoy. A Lechi is a pole, plank, or other object that is at least ten Tefachim high. It serves as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall) or as a Heker (reminder) to signal the border of Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid so that people do not transfer objects from the Mavoy to the adjacent Reshus ha'Rabim (Eruvin 5a, 15a).

(c)Another method to permit carrying in a Mavoy is with a Korah (a beam, one Tefach wide). The Korah is placed horizontally across the top of the entrance to the Mavoy, and serves as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall) or as a Heker (reminder) to signal the border of Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid so that people do not transfer objects from the Mavoy to the adjacent Reshus ha'Rabim (see Insights to Eruvin 2a, and Graphic #1).

(d)The Lechi and Korah must be used in conjunction with a Shituf Mavo'os (see Introduction to Maseches Eruvin [III]) to permit carrying within the Mavoy.

21)[line 16]כל שלשה ימים הראשוניםKOL SHELOSHAH YAMIM RISHONIM- If the Shilya comes out within three days after the child was born, we assume that it came from the child

22)[line 30]באלי ואתיBALI V'ASI- he hastened to come

23)[line 30]דרמינן ליה בגילא דחטתא, ומרמי ומדחיD'RAMINAN LEI B'GILA D'CHITESA, U'MIRMEI U'MIDCHEI- who we may push down with a stalk of wheat and he will be knocked down; i.e. if he is asked to resolve an apparent contradiction of Beraisos or teachings, he will not be able to do so, since his knowledge is very limited. (Wheat represents broad Torah knowledge (Sanhedrin 42a). The Talmidim meant that Rav Yosef mi'Devil will be caught off guard if asked to resolve one teaching with a second one, since he does not have a broad Torah knowledge and will not have known of the second one earlier. At the end of the story, however, he managed to quote a teaching of Rav that even Shmuel had not heard.)

24)[line 35]חזייה לרב יהודה בישותCHAZYEI L'RAV YEHUDAH BISHOS- he looked upon Rav Yehudah with disdain (i.e. he was upset with Rav Yehudah since Rav Yehudah had claimed to know all of the teachings that Rav Yosef mi'Devil knew, and yet he did not relate this particular teaching to Shmuel earlier. Rav Yehudah thus suffered for having belittled Rav Yosef mi'Devil)

25)[line 39]קשורה בו, מהו?KESHURAH VO, MAHU?- What is the Halachah if the fetal membranes/placenta are connected to it (the abortion that has the shape of a raven)?