[3a - 45 lines; 3b - 47 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi

[1] Rashi 3b DH Syag ד"ה סייג:

The words "Iy Mishum" אי משום

should be "O Mishum" או משום (this mistake has already been corrected in the Wagshal edition of the Shas)


1)[line 1]סוטהSOTAH

(a)A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery because she was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with a certain man and she violated the warning. The process of warning her in front of witnesses is called Kinuy. The witnesses who see her seclude herself with the suspected adulterer are called Eidei Stirah. The time of seclusion must be at least the time that it takes to roast an egg and swallow it. The woman is forbidden to her husband and the alleged adulterer until she drinks Mei Sotah (see (d), below). If she committed adultery after not heeding the warning of two witnesses, she is put to death by Chenek (choking), as it states in the Torah (Devarim 22:22). One witness to adultery ("Ed Tum'ah) prevents her from drinking the Mei Sotah.

(b)After Kinuy and Stirah, the husband must bring his wife to the Beis ha'Mikdash to perform the procedure of the Mei Sotah. On the way there, Beis Din appoints two Torah scholars to accompany them to make sure that they do not engage in marital relations, which are forbidden to them. Moreover, if the couple does have marital relations at this point, the Mei Sotah will not work, since the husband must be "Menukeh me'Avon," clear (lit. cleaned) of sin for the ceremony to work. The Gemara (Sotah 47b) explains that this means that he did not have relations with his wife from the time that she became prohibited to him, or with any other woman (ever) who was prohibited to him (RASHI to Sotah ibid.)

(c)The husband brings a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour as a Minchah offering. Oil and Levonah are not added (Bamidbar 5:15), and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 72:25a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim. In the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen reads Parshas Sotah, the portion of the Torah describing the curses with which a Sotah is cursed, out loud (in any language that the Sotah understands) and makes the Sotah swear that she has been faithful to her husband.

(d)An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Log of water from the Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Azarah is placed on top of the water. Parshas Sotah (that contains numerous appearances of HaSh-m's name) is written on parchment and then immersed in the water, which causes the ink to dissolve, erasing the Holy Names. The Sotah afterwards drinks from the water. If she was unfaithful to her husband and allowed herself to become defiled, the water would enter her body and poison her, causing her belly to swell out and her thigh to rupture. If she was faithful to her husband, she remained unharmed and would be blessed that she would become pregnant (Bamidbar 5:11-31). In times when there is no Mei Sotah such as in the present day, a Sotah must be divorced and does not receive her Kesuvah.

2)[line 8]כל ספק טומאה ברה''ר טהורKOL SAFEK TUM'AH BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM TAHOR

See Background to Nidah 2:10.

3a)[line 20]גברא בחזקת טהרה קאיGAVRA B'CHEZKAS TAHARAH KA'I- [the status of] the person (i.e. a person who may or may not have touched an object of Tum'ah) [is that he is Tahor, since he] has a Chezkas Taharah

b)[line 21]לא מחתינן ליה לטומאהLO MACHTINAN LEI L'TUM'AH- therefore we do not make him Tamei

4)[line 24]השרץ שנמצא במבוי מטמא למפרעHA'SHERETZ SHE'NIMTZA B'MAVOY, METAMEI L'MAFRE'A- that is, it is Metamei retroactively Safek Tum'ah, as the Gemara explains there (Nidah 56a)

5)[line 24]השרץHA'SHERETZ (TUM'AS SHERETZ)

(a)A Sheretz (a crawling pest — see Vayikra 11:29-38 for a list of the eight Sheratzim, and Background to Chulin 122:7), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a, Ohalos 1:7). It makes a person or object Tamei at the level of a Rishon l'Tum'ah through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.

(b)In addition to Tum'as Maga, a dead Sheretz that is found in an earthenware oven makes the oven and all food or drink items that are in it Teme'im, whether the Sheretz touches them or not.

(c)When a dead Sheretz is found in a Mavoy (an alleyway, which is considered a Reshus ha'Yachid), all of the Taharos that were prepared in that Mavoy are Teme'im retroactively, until someone claims that he checked the Mavoy and found it clean of Sheratzim. Otherwise, the Taharos are Teme'im retroactively to the last time that the Mavoy was swept clean of Sheratzim.

6)[line 26]שעת הכיבודSHE'AS HA'KIBUD- the last time that it was swept

7)[line 27]איכא שרצים דגופיה ושרצים דאתו מעלמאIKA SHERATZIM D'GUFEI U'SHERATZIM D'ASU ME'ALMA- that is, it is very common for dead Sheratzim to be found in an alleyway. Since they are so common, an alleyway can be compared to a woman, who has no Chezkas Taharah according to Hillel (Gemara, 2b) since she often experiences bleeding. (This is not a "real" Tartei l'Rei'usa.) (RASHBA, CHESHEK SHLOMO)

8)[line 29]אשה מרגשת בעצמהISHAH MARGESHES B'ATZMAH- a woman has certain feelings (O.F. sentir - to feel) that accompany her menstrual period. Shamai rules that if a woman did not have them it can be assumed that she did not menstruate.

9)[line 31]אגב צערה מיתעראAGAV TZA'ARAH MIS'ARA- she wakes up because of the pain

10)[line 33]שוטהSHOTAH - (lit. a fool) a woman who is mad or deranged (SHOTEH)

(a)A person is classified as a Shoteh if he regularly, because of madness, destroys or loses that which is given to him, sleeps in a cemetery, goes out alone at night or tears his clothes (Chagigah 3b). According to the RAMBAM (Hilchos Edus 9:9), a person is a Shoteh if he regularly exhibits any form of irrational behavior.

(b)A Shoteh is exempt from performing Mitzvos, is not punished for his transgressions and is not liable for the damages that he causes. His purchases and sales are meaningless and are not binding.

(c)It is not possible to depend on a woman who is a Shotah to know exactly when she experiences bleeding.

11)[line 34]כל הנשים פקחותKOL HA'NASHIM PIKCHOS- [the Mishnah is actually referring only to] all women who are not Shotos (see previous entry)

12)[line 35]ארבע נשים ותו לאARBA NASHIM V'SU LO- these specific four women and no others

13)[line 36]כתמיםKESAMIM

(a)By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she feels the blood emerge or not, or if she experienced bleeding only one time or for the entire seven days. However, if she did not feel or see any blood emerge from her body, but she found a Kesem (stain) of blood on her body or on her undergarments, there are certain instances in which Chazal rule leniently and she is not Teme'ah.

(b)The leniencies of Kesamim are that the woman is only Teme'ah if:

1.the bloodstain is the size of a "k'Gris v'Od" (slightly larger than a Cilician bean, approximately 18 X 18 mm);

2.the bloodstain is found on a substance that is Mekabel Tum'ah (able to become Tamei);

3.the bloodstain was not found on a colored garment;

4.there is no other reasonable explanation for the source of the blood (such as if the woman was cleaning raw fish or if she found the stain after she walked through a meat market).

14)[line 37]לימא תנן כתמים דלא כשמאי?LEIMA TENAN KESAMIM D'LO K'SHAMAI?- that is, the Mishnah that states that Kesamim are Metamei retroactively is certainly not according to Shamai. However, may it be said that Shamai is not Metamei Kesamim even from when they are found and onwards (since the woman felt no bleeding)? (RASHI DH Leima, TOSFOS DH v'Ha)

15)[line 42]כותלי בית הרחם העמידוהוKOSLEI BEIS HA'RECHEM HE'EMIDUHU- the blood was retained in the cervical canal by the walls of the uterus (i.e., the abdominal muscles)

16)[line 43]משמשת במוךMESHAMESHES B'MOCH- has relations with a cloth inserted in order to prevent pregnancy

17)[line 44]אגב זיעה, מכויץ כויץAGAV ZEI'AH, MACHVITZ KAVITZ- the cloths contract (O.F. retrait) due to the flow of various bodily fluids

18)[last line]מוך דחוקMOCH DACHUK- a cloth wedged in tightly


19)[line 1]למרמי חבית ומקוה ומבויL'MIRMEI CHAVIS U'MIKVAH U'MAVOY- to raise contradictions from the cases of Chavis, Mikvah and Mavoy

20)[line 9]אבלAVAL!- True!

21)[line 10]שוליםSHULAYIM- (O.F. fonz) a base

22)[line 11]טעמא דשמאי משום בטול פריה ורביהTAIMA D'SHAMAI MISHUM BITUL PIRYAH V'RIVYAH- the retroactive Tum'ah of our Mishnah (mentioned by Hillel) is only mid'Rabanan, and only with reference to Kodshim. This is why Shamai was able to declare the woman Tehorah because of "Bitul Piryah v'Rivyah," as the Gemara will soon explain. Mid'Oraisa, even Hillel agrees that the woman has a Chezkas Taharah and is not Teme'ah retroactively. (All Amora'im apparently agree with this ruling.)

23)[line 28]מפריה ורביה מי קאמינא?MI'PIRYAH V'RIVYAH MI KA'AMINA?- that is, only Taharos are Teme'im l'Mafre'a, not the husband. He is not considered a Bo'el Nidah (RASHBA)

24)[line 24]עשה סייג לדבריךASEH SYAG LI'DEVARECHA- make a protective fence for your words

25)[line 29]לבו נוקפו ופורשLIBO NOKFO, U'PORESH- the husband will be nervous and abstain from marital relations with his wife

26)[line 30](שולי''ם בדוקי''ן מכוסי''ן בזוי''ת סימ''ן)(SHULAYIM BEDUKIN MECHUSIN B'ZAVIS SIMAN)- this is a mnemonic device that stands for a word from the four possibilities that the Gemara attempts to use to illustrate the case of Hillel and Shamai (top of Daf 3b), in order to answer the contradiction between their Halachah and the Halachah of Chizkiyah and Rebbi Yochanan, as follows:

1.Shulayim refers to "b'Kupah she'Yesh Lah Shulayim" (line 37)

2.Bedukin refers to "b'Kupah she'Eina Bedukah" (last line)

3.Mechusin refers to "b'Kupah she'Eina Mechusah" (Daf 4a, line 6)

4.b'Zavis refers to "b'Zavis Kupah" (Daf 4a, line 11)

27)[line 39]אוגניםOGNIM- rims [that extend into the box, preventing the Sheretz from falling out when the box is tipped]

28)[line 39]המדלהHA'MADLEH- one who draws water from a well

29)[line 44]מיא שרקיMAYA SHARKI- water spills out easily [and it is not necessary to turn the pail over completely to pour it out]