NIDAH 5 (5 Sivan) - Dedicated l'Zecher Nishmas Reb Chaim Aryeh ben Aharon Stern Z'L by Shmuel Gut of Brooklyn, N.Y.

[5a - 48 lines; 5b - 41 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi

[1] Rashi 5a DH v'Iy Ba'is Eima ד"ה ואי בעית אימא:

"d'Shnei Bedikos Atzrechuha Rabanan" דשני בדיקות אצרכוה רבנן (Source: Mishnah, Nidah 11a)


1)[line 1]וברייתא דברי הכלU'VERAISA DIVREI HA'KOL- and the Beraisa represents the ruling of all opinions

2)[line 3]קתניKA'TANI- we learned earlier (this phrase is equivalent to "Amar Mar"; this form is used primarily in Kodshim)

3)[line 5]דפליגי רבנןD'PELIGI RABANAN- ("Rabanan" here refers to Rebbi Dosa)

4)[line 28]ימי הנעוריםYEMEI HA'NE'URIM- a twelve-year-old girl (the age at which the signs of maturity develop — see Background to Chulin 24:19)

5)[line 30]עדED- a Bedikah cloth

6)[line 31]מתוך שמהומה לביתהMI'TOCH SHE'MEHUMAH L'VEISAH- since she is rushing to be ready [for her husband]

7)[line 43]תחפנה שכבת זרעTECHAPENAH SHICHVAS ZERA- the drop of blood will be covered by Shichvas Zera


8)[line 9]משכב ומושבMISHKAV U'MOSHAV (TUM'AS MIDRAS)

(a)A Zav (see Background to Kerisus 8:4), Zavah (see Background to Nidah 2:1:II), Nidah (see Background to Nidah 2:1:I) or Yoledes (see Background to Kerisus 7:16), can cause objects (other than Klei Cheres, earthenware objects) that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, ha'Zavah, etc. (or the Tachton, of a Zav, etc.). An object that is under these people becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.

(b)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav, Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.

(c)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav, etc. also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav, Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes.

(d)Ze'iri rules that the Tum'ah d'Rabanan of me'Es l'Es mentioned in our Mishnah has exactly the same guidelines as the Tum'ah of a Nidah, and her Mishkav and Moshav are also Avos ha'Tum'ah as above.

9)[line 19]נשאלין עליהNISH'ALIM ALEHA- a Rav must be asked about their status (since he will rule that they are Teme'im)

10a)[line 25]אומרים לו "שנה" ושונהOMRIM LO, "SHANEI!" V'SHONEH- they ask him to recreate the situation that may have caused Tum'ah, in order to judge whether or not the object became Tamei

b)[line 25]אין שונים בטהרותEIN SHONIN B'TAHAROS- we do not try to recreate the situation that may have caused Tum'ah, in order to judge whether or not the person became Tamei

11)[line 36]צמיד פתילTZAMID PASIL- a tight seal

12)[line 36]כלי חרס המוקף צמיד פתילKLI CHERES HA'MUKAF TZAMID PASIL - an earthenware utensil that is sealed with a tight seal (KLI CHERES: TUMA'ASO)

(a)Klei Cheres are clay and earthenware utensils. They do not receive Tum'ah when an object of Tum'ah touches their outside. They only become Tamei when Tum'ah enters them (even if the Tum'ah does not touch them). Therefore, when they are covered with a Tzamid Pesil (a tight seal) they cannot become Tamei even if they are in the Ohel of a Mes (see next entry), as is stated in Bamidbar 19:15. If they do become Tamei, they make any food or drink items that enter them Tamei, even if the items did not touch their inside surface.

(b)If the clay and earthenware utensils become Teme'im, they remain so until they are broken beyond use. Immersing them in a Mikvah does not change their status.

(c)If the mouth of the utensil is so small that a person cannot insert his finger into it, it has no possibility of becoming Tamei through a Zav (see Background to Kerisus 8:4). However, these utensils can become Tamei in the Ohel of a Mes, as long as they do not have a Tzamid Pasil to entirely seal them. Similarly, they can become Tamei if they come into contact with a k'Adashah of a Sheretz (see Background to Nidah 3:5).

(d)For a further discussion of the principles of Tum'os and Taharos, see Background to Nazir 54:13 and Insights to Pesachim 14:1.

13)[line 37]הניצול באוהל המתHA'NITZOL B'OHEL HA'MES (TUM'AS OHEL)

(a)A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height. If a person becomes Tamei with Tum'as Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah — see Background to Midos 34:12) sprinkled on him.

(b)In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. A person who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters, even when entering backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes prevents the spread of Tum'ah only if the partition reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)

(c)The Atzamos (bones) of a Mes are only Metamei through Ohel under one of three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (whether they are the majority of the build (Rov Binyano) of the body or the majority of the number (Rov Minyano) of 248 bones; 3. The bone is a complete skull or a complete spinal column. In order to be Metamei through Maga and Masa, it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).