KESUVOS 65 - Dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld's father in memory of his aunt, Malka Gitel bas Reb Yakov Mordechai (Malvina Marmorstein), who took him into her home and raised him like her own child after the Holocaust. Her Yahrzeit is 20 Nisan.

[65a - 47 lines; 65b - 45 lines]

1)[line 1]"אלכה אחרי מאהבי נותני לחמי ומימי צמרי ופשתי שמני ושקויי""ELCHAH ACHAREI ME'AHAVAI, NOSNEI LACHMI U'MEMAI, TZAMRI U'FISHTI, SHAMNI V'SHIKUYAI."- "[For their mother has played the harlot; she who conceived them has done shamefully; for she said,] I will go after my lovers, who give me my bread and my water, my wool and my flax, my oil and my drink." (Hoshea 2:7) - The Gemara assumes that "drink" refers to wine.

2)[line 3]משתוקקתMISHTOKEKES- desires

3)[line 5]נביריאNEVIRYA (GIBORAYA) / KEFAR NEFUR CHAYIL (KEFAR GIBOR CHAYIL)- Kefar Nibburaya, possibly Nimrin, near Teverya

4)[line 5]"ותקם חנה אחרי אכלה בשלה ואחרי שתה [ועלי הכהן ישב על הכסא על מזוזת היכל ה'. והיא מרת נפש ותתפלל על ה' ובכה תבכה]""VA'TAKAM CHANAH ACHAREI ACHLAH B'SHILOH V'ACHAREI SHASOH" - "And Chanah arose after she had eaten and after he (Elkanah) had drunk, [and Eli the Kohen was sitting on a chair by the doorpost of the House of HaSh-m. And she was bitter of spirit, and she prayed to HaSh-m even as she wept.]" (Shmuel I 1:9-10) (CHANAH PRAYS FOR A CHILD)

(a)Chanah, whom her husband Elkanah loves dearly, has no children. To make matters worse, her rival, Peninah, who has seven children, taunts her mercilessly. This has been going on year after year, on their thrice annual pilgrimage to Mishkan Shiloh. Elkanah gives Chanah the choicest portion of the festival Korban to demonstrate his love for her, but she loses her appetite when Peninah (albeit with positive intentions, to induce Chanah to pray) begins to mock her.

(b)This year, things come to a head. The floodgates burst and the scene is set for the Tefilah which follows, one of the most poignant and beautiful Tefilos ever recorded.

(c)See Background to Rosh Hashanah 11:34.

5)[line 10]בגוה קא עסיק ואתיB'GAVAH KA ASIK V'ASI- the verse until now is referring to her

6)[line 11]רגילהREGILAH- accustomed to wine

7)[line 18]אין נותנין לה כל עיקרEIN NOSNIN LAH KOL IKAR- (according to this, Shmuel's statement must be read as follows: "'Einah Regilah Nosnim Lah Shnei Kosos' - if she is not used to drinking two cups when her husband is present [but rather she is used to drinking only one], she is not given any cups of wine to drink when he is not present." (TOSFOS DH Einah)

8)[line 19]לציקי קדירהL'TZIKEI KEDEIRAH- spices for a spicy, tasty dish

9)[line 22]כך תפסקו לבנותיכםKACH TIFSEKU LI'VENOSEICHEM- So shall you designate for your daughters! (a) Her phrase is a blessing. The Chachamim did not answer "Amen" because that would implicate inauspiciously that their sons-in-law should die (TOSFOS Kesuvos 66b DH v'Anu). (b) Her phrase is a sarcastic curse, since she felt that the amount was insufficient for her needs (YERUSHALMI, cited by the YEFEH EINAYIM). (According to the Yerushalmi, however, her husband had not died. He merely asked the Chachamim to designate her daily allowance of wine (see TOSFOS ibid.) and the Chachamim did answer "Amen.")

10)[line 24]ניוול הואNIVUL HU- disgrace, ugliness

11)[line 26]לאכסנאיACHSENAI- a guest at an inn

12)[line 29]פסוק לי מזוניPESOK LI MEZONEI- designate an allowance for sustenance for me (from my husband's estate)

13)[line 30]בנחמניNACHMANI- Abaye; (a) Rabah bar Nachmani, who raised Abaye as an orphan, gave him the name Nachmani in memory of his own father (RASHI Gitin 34b); (b) According to the Ge'onim, Abaye's real name was Nachmani, but Rabah bar Nachmani, who was his uncle, called him Abaye so as not to utter his father's name, out of respect for his father. (Abaye is a corrupted form of the Aramaic word for "my father.") (ARUCH, Erech Abaye, also cited by Gilyon ha'Shas in Gitin ibid.)

14)[line 31]דהוי משקי ליה בשופרזי כי האיD'HAVI MASHKI LEI B'SHUFREZEI KI HAI- that I used to pour him glasses of wine that were as tall as this (the length of her forearm) (O.F. madernes - [very tall] drinking vessels, made of veined, marbled wood)

15)[line 34]נפקא אבתרהNAFKA A'BASRA- she (Rava's wife) went out after her (Choma)

16)[line 34]מחתא לה בקולפי דשידאMACHTA LAH B'KULFI D'SHIDA- she hit her with the lock of a chest

17)[line 34]עד דאפקה לה מכולי מחוזאAD D'AFKAH LAH MI'KULEI MECHOZA- until she drove her out of the outskirts of Mechoza

18)[line 35]קטלת ליך תלתאKATLAS LICH TELASA- you have already killed three husbands (by being married to them)

19)[line 39]שיראיSHIRA'EI- silk garments

20)[line 40]לך ולחברך ולחברורךLACH UL'CHAVRACH UL'CHAVRURACH- for you, your fellows and your community [so that I am not embarrassed to appear in public]

21)[line 41]דמלו פוריא בחבליD'MALU PURYA B'CHAVALEI- they make the beds with ropes

22)[line 42]דמבגר להD'MAVGAR LAH- that cause her [pain and] premature aging

23a)[line 42]כרKAR- bolster, mattress

b)[line 42]וכסתKESES- pillow, cushion

24)[line 43]אי דאורחהIY D'ORCHAH - if the women of her family are accustomed to having them

25 [line 45] וכי אתינא מייתינא להו בהדאי V'CHI ASINA MAISINA LEHU BAHADAI - and when I come home I will bring them with me

25)[line 46]ושקלת להו לדידיV'SHAKLAS LEHU L'DIDI- and you will take away mine

26)[last line]ומגנית לי על ארעאU'MAGNIS LI AL AR'A- see Insights


27)[line 1]שליח ערטלאיSHELI'ACH ARTILAI- (lit. is stripped naked) only buys clothes once a year

28)[line 1]ורמי מסאניV'RAMI MESANEI- (lit. but he puts on shoes) but he buys shoes three times a year

29)[line 3]זוגי מסאניZUGEI MESANEI- pairs of shoes

30)[line 6]זוזי פשיטיZUZEI PESHITEI- Zuzei Medina, which are worth 1/8 of the Zuzim (or Dinerin) of Tzor

31)[line 11]מותר מזונותMOSAR MEZONOS- the difference between the value designated for her sustenance and the actual amount that the husband spends

32)[line 11]מותר בלאותMOSAR BELA'OS- the articles of worn clothing after she receives new clothes

33)[line 15]נקטינןNAKTINAN- we have a tradition

34)[line 15]מותר בלאות אלמנה ליורשיוMOSAR BELA'OS ALMANAH L'YORSHAV- the articles of worn clothing of a widow are given to her husbands heirs after she receives new clothes

35)[line 21]לישנא מעליאLISHNA MA'ALYA- "clean" language

36)[line 22]"אכלה ומחתה פיה ואמרה לא פעלתי און""ACHLAH U'MACHASAH PIHA, V'AMRAH LO FA'ALTI AVEN."- "[This is the way of an adulterous woman;] she eats, and wipes her mouth, and says, 'I have done nothing wrong.'" (Mishlei 30:20)


37)[line 37]מציאת האשהMETZI'AS HA'ISHAH- a lost item found by a woman

38)[line 37]ומעשה ידיהU'MA'ASEH YADEHA- and her earnings

39)[line 37]וירושתה הוא אוכל פירות בחייהYERUSHASAH HU OCHEL PEIROS B'CHAYEHA- (a) he reaps the profits of that which she receives as an inheritance (e.g. from her mother's father) as long as she is alive [and receives the principle only after her death]; (b) he inherits her, and reaps the profits of that which she owns (Nichsei Milug; see Background to Yevamos 66:17) as long as she is alive

40)[line 38]בושתה ופגמהBOSHTAH PEGAMAH (CHOVEL B'CHAVEIRO)

(a)See Background to 32:1.

(b)Not every one of these five payments applies to every case. It is possible to become obligated in only one or any other combination of these payments.

(c)Our Mishnah refers to a woman who was shamed (Boshes) or physically damaged in a permanent fashion (Nezek). "Pegam" is a other term for "Nezek" (see Background to 32:2).

41)[line 38]בזמן שבסתרBI'ZMAN SHEB'SESER- (a) when [she was embarrassed] privately [and only her husband was there to witness it] (RASHI); (b) when [she was embarrassed] privately [and only her husband was there to witness it] or when [her wound] is not visible to the public [but only to her husband] (TOSFOS DH bi'Zman)

42)[line 40]שלו ינתן מידSHE'LO YINASEN MIYAD- his portion is given to him immediately [in cash or as any item worth the amount owed]

43)[line 41]זכאיZAKAI- holds the rights

44)[line 41]בקידושיה בכסף בשטר ובביאהB'KIDUSHEHA B'CHESEF BI'SHTAR UV'VI'AH (ERUSIN / NISU'IN - Betrothal and Marriage)

(a)See Background to 7:41.

(d)As long as one's daughter is not yet a Bogeres (the stage of adulthood which begins six months after the confluence of twelve years of age and the emergence of two pubic hairs), he retains the right to marry her off. This means that he receives the money of Kidushei Kesef and the document of Kidushei Shtar. RASHI (46b) maintains that he may also force her to undergo Kidushei Bi'ah with the husband of his choosing, whereas TOSFOS (Kidushin 3b) understands that he has the right to demand money for the right to be Mekadesh his daughter with Bi'ah.

45)[line 42]ובהפרת נדריהHAFARAS NEDAREHA - The Annulment of Vows

(a)A man has the right to annul certain vows of his wife and his daughter, as the Torah states in Bamidbar 30:6, 9, 13-14. He accomplishes this if on the day that he hears the vow he states "Mufar Lach" ("it is annulled"). There is an argument among the Tana'im whether the vow must be annulled before nightfall on the day the husband/father heard it, or before 24 hours pass from when he heard it (Shabbos 157a). If he does not annul the vow by the end of the day, or if he is Mekayem (upholds) the vow even before the day is over (by saying "the vow should remain valid!"), the vow takes effect and his wife or daughter must abide by her vows.

(b)A father may annul Nedarim made by his daughter as long as she is not yet a Bogeres (the stage of adulthood which begins six months after the confluence of twelve years of age and the emergence of two pubic hairs). Should her father marry her off when she is within this age bracket, during the period of Erusin (see previous entry) both the father and the husband must annul her vows in order to negate them. Once she is fully married through Nisu'in, the husband may annul her vows alone.

46)[line 42]מקבל את גיטהMEKABEL ES GITAH- receives her bill of divorce [if she is divorced from Erusin (see above, entry #45)]

47)[last line]העדפה דמעשה ידיהHA'ADAFAH D'MA'ASEH YADEHA- (at this point, the Gemara assumes that this refers to) her earnings above and beyond that which she is expected to bring in (see Mishnah, 64b)