KESUVOS 65 - Dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld's father in memory of his aunt, Malka Gitel bas Reb Yakov Mordechai (Malvina Marmorstein), who took him into her home and raised him like her own child after the Holocaust. Her Yahrzeit is 20 Nisan.

1)

DO WE ALLOT WINE TO A WOMAN?

(a)

(Mishnah): He gives to her a half Kav of pulse...

(b)

Inference: The Mishnah does not say that he gives to her wine. This supports R. Elazar:

1.

(R. Elazar): We do not allot wine to a woman (lest it arouse her lust).

2.

Question: "Those who give... v'Shikuyai (my drinks) " shows that women normally drink!

3.

Answer: "V'SHiKuyai refers to things for which a woman is MiSHtoKekes (desires), i.e. jewelry.

(c)

(R. Yehudah): We do not allot wine to a woman. It says "Chanah got up after her eating... and his drinking", not after her drinking.

(d)

Question: If so, we should likewise deduce "her eating", and not his eating! (But surely, also men eat!)

(e)

Answer: Since the verse discusses her, "his drinking" is unnatural, so we expound it. (There is no reason to expound "her eating".)

(f)

Question (Beraisa): If she is accustomed, we give to her (wine).

(g)

Answer #1: When she is used to wine it is different (then it will not arouse her lust), like the following teaching:

1.

(Rav Chinena): If she is accustomed, we give to her one cup; if not, we give to her two.

2.

Question: What does this mean?!

3.

Answer (Abaye): If she is accustomed to two cups when with her husband, we give to her one cup when she is alone. If she normally has one cup with him, we do not give to her at all when she is alone.

(h)

Answer #2: A woman who is accustomed receives wine for cooking:

1.

(R. Avahu): Chachamim allotted two Sa'im of wine (between 16 and 29 liters) for the daughter-in-law of Nakdimon ben Guryon (who was exceedingly wealthy) to use in cooking each week.

2.

His daughter-in-law: So you should allot to your daughters!

3.

Beraisa: She was a widow who fell to Yibum. (Enraged by the meager allotment, she cursed them that their daughters should also fall to Yibum, so) they did not answer Amen.

(i)

(Beraisa): One cup (of wine) is good for a woman. Two is disgracing. If she has three, she will verbally demand Bi'ah. If she has four, she will seek bestiality with a donkey in the market (in public), without shame.

(j)

(Rava): This is when her husband is not with her. When he is with her, there is no concern.

(k)

Question: Chanah was with her husband (and we learned from her that women do not drink)!

(l)

Answer: The Halachah is different when they lodge away from home;

1.

(Rav Huna): A guest is forbidden to have Bi'ah - "They returned to their city... and Elkanah had Bi'ah with his wife", but not before.

(m)

Abaye's widow Chomah came in front of Rava and requested that he allot wine for her.

1.

Rava: I know that Abaye did not drink wine!

2.

Chomah: I swear that he did! I used to give to him in vessels like this (as long as my arm).

3.

While she was demonstrating, her arm was revealed. The Beis Din was lit up. Rava desired Bi'ah, so he went to his wife, Rav Chisda's daughter.

4.

His wife asked who was in Beis Din that sparked his desire. When she heard that it was Chomah, she hit her with the lock of a chest and chased Chomah out of the city.

5.

Rava's wife: You already killed three men (she was widowed twice before marrying Abaye, and was Muchzekes to cause her husbands to die), and you seek to (entice men with your beauty and) kill another?!

(n)

The wife of Rav Yosef bar Rava asked Rav Nechemyah bar Rav Yosef to allot wine for her; he did so.

1.

Rav Nechemyah: I know that people of her city drink wine (she is used to it).

(o)

The widow of Rav Yosef brei d'Rav Menashiya asked Rav Yosef to allot wine for her; he did so. She requested that he allot silk for her.

1.

Rav Yosef: Why do you need silk?

2.

The widow: I need for you and your colleagues (lest I be disgraced in your eyes).

2)

KELIM ALLOTED TO WOMEN

(a)

(Mishnah): He gives to her a bed and a mat...

(b)

Question: Why does she need a mattress (and mat? Tosfos omits these words from the text.)

(c)

Answer (Rav Papa): This is in a place where the bed-ropes are uncovered. Sleeping on such a bed without a mattress is painful.

(d)

(Beraisa): We do not give to her a pillow and blanket;

(e)

R. Nasan says, we give to her.

(f)

Question: What is the case?

1.

If it is normal for her family, the first Tana should agree that she gets it!

2.

If it is not normal for her family, why would R. Nasan say that she gets it?

(g)

Answer: It is normal for his family, but not for hers.

1.

The first Tana says that he can tell her 'When I go, I will take them. When I return, I will bring them!'

2.

R. Nasan says, she can counter 'sometimes you will return right before Shabbos and will be unable to bring them. You will take my (mat, or pillow and blanket that I myself bought), and force me to sleep on the floor!'

(h)

(Mishnah): He gives to her a kerchief...

65b----------------------------------------65b

(i)

Question (Rav Papa): Why does the Tana allot to her clothing only once a year, but allots for her shoes every festival?!

(j)

Answer (Abaye): The Tana is in a mountainous place, where three pairs of shoes are needed each year;

1.

The Tana counsels that one should give them to her at the festival, to make her happy on the festival.

(k)

(Mishnah): He gives clothes worth 50 Zuz...

(l)

(Abaye): These are simple Zuzim (they are seven eighths copper, and hence worth only an eighth of Zuzim of Tzur of pure silver).

1.

We derive this from the Seifa, which says that we discuss the poorest Yisrael. Such a person would not have 50 Zuz of pure silver!

(m)

(Beraisa): Excess food belongs to the husband. Extra Bala'os of clothing belong to the wife.

(n)

Question: Why does she need them?

(o)

Answer (Rachbah): She wears them when she is Nidah, lest she be despised to her husband (by wearing the same clothing when she is Tehorah as when she is Nidah).

(p)

(Abaye): Extra Bala'os of clothing of a widow belong to the heirs (also they buy for her 50 Zuz of clothing each year).

1.

In this case, there is no concern if she is despised.

3)

OTHER OBLIGATIONS OF THE HUSBAND

(a)

Question: What does it mean 'she eats with him on Shabbos night'?

(b)

Answer #1 (Rav Nachman): Literally, she eats with him.

(c)

Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): They have Bi'ah.

(d)

Question: If so, why does it say 'she eats with him?'

(e)

Answer: This is a euphemism - "She ate... and said 'I did not sin.'"

(f)

Question (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): She eats with him on Shabbos night and Shabbos (day).

1.

We understand according to the opinion that this literally means eating;

2.

But if it means Bi'ah, do they have Bi'ah during the day?

i.

(Rav Huna): Yisrael are holy, and do not have Bi'ah during the day.

(g)

Answer: Rava taught that it is permitted in a dark house.

(h)

(Mishnah): If she was nursing...

(i)

(R. Ula Rabah): Even though Chachamim said that a man need not feed his children when they are minors, he must feed very small children.

(j)

Question: Until what age is this?

(k)

Answer: It is until six (full) years.

1.

(Rav Asi): A six year-old may rely on the Eruv of his mother. (Chachamim made his law like hers, for he depends on her. Likewise, his father must feed him along with his mother.)

(l)

Question: How did R. Ula derive his law from our Mishnah?

(m)

Answer: It says that a nursing woman is given more food.

1.

Suggestion: He must supply the extra food a nursing woman needs because he must also feed the baby!

(n)

Rejection: No. The case is, she is sick (and requires more food).

(o)

Objection: If so, the Mishnah should say 'if she is sick...'! Why did it discuss a nursing wife?

(p)

Answer: Perhaps it teaches that nursing women are assumed to be sick.

(q)

(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): We allot wine to a nursing mother, for this is good for the milk.

PEREK METZI'AS HA'ISHAH
4)

PRIVILEGES A MAN HAS IN HIS WIFE

(a)

(Mishnah): A man receives Metzi'os that his wife finds and her earnings. He receives the Peiros of what she inherits in her lifetime (alternatively - if she dies, he inherits her);

(b)

If one embarrassed or wounded her, the payments are hers;

(c)

R. Yehudah ben Beseira says, for damage to a covered part of the body, she receives two thirds of the payment and he gets a third. For damage to an exposed part, she receives a third and he gets two thirds.

1.

He receives his share immediately. Her share is used to buy land, and he receives the Peiros.

(d)

(Gemara) Question: A previous Mishnah already taught this!

1.

(Mishnah): A father receives... Metzi'os and earnings of his daughter... a husband has all these privileges, and also receives the Peiros of her property!

(e)

Answer: Our Mishnah is needed to teach the argument of R. Yehudah ben Beseira and Chachamim about payments for embarrassment and injury.

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