[11a - 58 lines; 11b - 20 lines]

1)[line 8]"ויאמר אלהים תדשא הארץ דשא עשב מזריע זרע עץ פרי""VA'YOMER ELOKIM, 'TADSHEI HA'ARETZ DESHE, ESEV MAZRI'A ZERA, ETZ PRI...'"- "And HaSh-m said, 'Let the earth bring forth shrubbery, seed-producing grass, and fruit trees...'" (Bereishis 1:11) - Rebbi Eliezer infers from this verse that the world was created at the time of year in which fields and trees are usually full of plants and fruit.

2)[line 12]הפרקPEREK- time period

3)[line 12]רביעהREVI'AH- early rains

4)[line 13]"ואד יעלה מן הארץ [והשקה את כל פני האדמה]""V'ED YA'ALEH MIN HA'ARETZ, [V'HISHKAH ES KOL PENEI HA'ADAMAH.]"- "And a mist arose from the earth, [and watered the entire surface of the land]" (Bereishis 2:6)

5)[line 14]"ותוצא הארץ דשא עשב מזריע זרע [למינהו] ועץ עשה פרי""VA'TOTZEI HA'ARETZ DESHE, ESEV MAZRI'A ZERA [L'MINEHU], V'ETZ OSEH PRI ..."- "And the earth brought forth shrubbery, seed-producing grass [in accordance with its species], and trees that produce fruit..." (Bereishis 1:12) - Rebbi Yehoshua infers from this verse that the world was created at the time of year in which trees begin to produce fruit.

6)[line 18]שמזדווגיןSHE'MIZDAVGIN- that mate

7)[line 19]"לבשו כרים הצאן [ועמקים יעטפו בר יתרועעו אף ישירו]""LAVSHU CHARIM HA'TZON, [VA'AMAKIM YA'ATFU VAR; YISRO'A'U, AF YASHIRU!]"- "The meadows don sheep and the valleys cloak themselves with fodder; they shout joyfully, and even sing!" (Tehilim 65:14) - Our Gemara homiletically interprets this verse to mean, "The sheep conceive when the valleys are full of ripened grain, and when the grain hardens to the point that it produces a rustling sound when the wind blows." The sound produced by the rustle of the wheat stalks is referred to as their "song". (See 8a and Background ibid. #4; see also Yerushalmi Shekalim 8a and Background ibid. #4 for a different interpretation of this verse.) Rebbi Yehoshua infers that this verse is written regarding the creation of the world from the fact that an earlier verse in the same chapter (verse 8) relates that "He prepares mountains with His strength...."

8)[line 20]לברכה לדורותBERACHAH L'DOROS- a blessing [that the trees should continue to produce fruit] for [coming] generations

9a)[line 23]לקומתן(L'KOMASAN) [B'KOMASAN]- a) fully developed (RASHI, RITVA) b) at their full height (RITVA)

b)[line 24]לדעתןL'DA'ATAN- (a) with their consent (RASHI); (b) with a fully developed, adult mind (ARUCH Erech Tzav, cited by the RITVA and TOSFOS)

c)[line 24]לצביונןL'TZIVYONAN- (a) with a unique flavor and shape (RASHI); (b) with their consent (RITVA); (c) beautifully (ARUCH cited by the RITVA and TOSFOS)

10)[line 25]"ויכלו השמים והארץ וכל צבאם""VA'YECHULU HA'SHAMAYIM VEHA'ARETZ V'CHOL TZEVA'AM"- "And the heavens, earth, and all of their hosts were completed" (Bereishis 2:1)

11)[line 27]"ויקהלו אל המלך שלמה כל איש ישראל בירח האתנים בחג הוא החדש השביעי""VA'YIKAHALU EL HA'MELECH SHLOMO KOL ISH YISRAEL B'YERACH HA'EISANIM B'CHAG HU HA'CHODESH HA'SHEVI'I." - "And all the men of Yisrael assembled before Shlomo in the month of Eisanim, on Sukos, that is the seventh month." (Melachim I 8:2) (PREPARING TO MOVE THE ARON TO YERUSHALAYIM)

Shlomo ha'Melech had just completed the construction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, and he now gathered all the elders and leaders of Yisrael before bringing the Aron from Tziyon, the city of David, to Yerushalayim. The rest of the people followed suite and came on their own accord.

12)[line 30]דתקיפיTAKIFEI- strong ones

13)[line 30]"איתן מושבך ושים בסלע קנך""...EISAN MOSHAVECHA, V'SIM BA'SELA KINECHA."- [And he saw the Keini (Yisro), and he gave his parable and said:] Your dwelling is strong, [and your nest is set in rock.]" (Bamidbar 24:21) - In this verse, Bil'am praises Yisro for joining Klal Yisrael.

14)[line 31]"שמעו הרים את ריב ה' והאיתנים מוסדי ארץ""SHIM'U, HARIM, ES RIV HASH-M, VEHA'EISANIM MOSDEI ARETZ..."- "Listen, O mountains, to the grievance of HaSh-m, and O bedrock, the foundation of the earth..." (Michah 6:2)

15)[line 32]"קול דודי הנה זה בא מדלג על ההרים מקפץ על הגבעות""KOL DODI HINEH ZEH BA; MEDALEG AL HE'HARIM, MEKAPETZ AL HA'GEVA'OS"- "Behold - the sound of my beloved is coming; skipping over the mountains, jumping over the hills." (Shir ha'Shirim 2:8) - Our Gemara interprets this verse as referring to the fact that, due to the merit of the Avos ("the mountains") and the Imahos ("the hills"), HaSh-m took Klal Yisrael out of Mitzrayim earlier than the time he had told to Avraham Avinu.

16)[line 33]מדלג על ההרים בזכות אבותMEDALEG AL HE'HARIM BI'ZECHUS AVOS- "skipping over the mountains" in the merit of our forefathers (Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yakov). This demonstrates that the "mountains" mentioned in the previously quoted verse refer to the Avos. RABEINU CHANANEL explains that the word "Harim" ("mountains") can be read as "Horim" ("parents").

17)[line 36]"ויהי בשמונים שנה וארבע מאות שנה לצאת בני ישראל מארץ מצרים בשנה הרביעית בחדש זו [הוא החדש השני למלך שלמה עח ישראל ויבן הבית לה']""VA'YEHI VI'SHEMONIM SHANAH V'ARBA ME'OS SHANAH L'TZEIS BNEI YISRAEL ME'ERETZ MITZRAYIM, BA'SHANAH HA'REVI'IS B'CHODESH ZIV [HU HA'CHODESH HA'SHENI LI'MLOCH SHLOMO AL YISRAEL, VA'YIVEN HA'BAYIS LA'HASH-M.]"- "And it was in the four hundred and eightieth year after Bnei Yisrael left Mitzrayim, in the fourth year in the month of Ziv [which was the second month of Shlomo's reign over Yisrael, that he built the house for HaSh-m]" (Melachim I 6:1).

18)[line 38]שנולדו בו זיותני עולםSHE'NOLDU BO ZEIVSANEI OLAM- lit. in which the splendorous ones of the world; that is, the Avos were (a) [already] born [when it began]; (b) were born [although it was still the solar month of Nisan, which begins on the spring equinox]

19)[line 39]דתקיפי במצות(TEKIFEI) [TAKIF] B'MITZVOS- lit. it is mighty with (i.e., it has an abundance of) Mitzvos [such as Shofar, Yom ha'Kipurim, Sukah, Arba'as ha'Minim, etc.]

20)[line 40]דנפקNAFAK- goes out

21)[line 41]דמלבלביMELAVLEVEI- are blooming

22)[line 42]להתנאות בהןL'HISNA'OS BA'HEN- to derive benefit from them

23)[line 43]"ויאמר אלהם בן מאה ועשרים שנה אנכי היום [לא אוכל עוד לצאת ולבוא...]""VA'YOMER ALEIHEM, 'BEN ME'AH V'ESRIM SHANAH ANOCHI HA'YOM, [LO UCHAL OD LA'TZEIS V'LAVO...']" - "And he said to them: Today I am one hundred and twenty years old, [I am no longer able to go out and return, because HaSh-m said to me, 'You will not cross this Yarden.']" (Devarim 31:2) (MOSHE'S LAST DAY)

(a)Moshe Rabeinu was consoling the people, whom he led so faithfully for the last forty years, over the fact that his days were coming to an end. He told them not to worry unduly, since his powers had anyway been withdrawn, and he was no longer capable of leading them.

(b)Moshe Rabeinu assured the people that the conquest of Kena'an would succeed because HaSh-m would continue to be with them even after his departure. He entreated them to have faith in Him (and not repeat the sin of the Spies) and officially instated his disciple, Yehoshua, as his successor.

24)[line 44]מלאו ימי ושנותיMAL'U YAMAI U'SHENOSAI- my days and years have been filled; i.e., this is the same day as my birth

25)[line 46]"למועד אשוב אליך [כעת חיה ולשרה בן]""LA'MO'ED ASHUV ELECHA [KA'ES CHAYAH UL'SARAH BEN]"- "At the appointed time, I shall return to you [as the time that you are alive, and Sarah will have a son.]" (Bereishis 18:14) - In this verse, HaSh-m promises Avraham Avinu that he and Sarah Imenu will have a son. Our Gemara interprets the promise of "at the appointed time" to mean that He spoke on one Yom Tov, promising that they would have their son by the following Yom Tov.

26)[line 47]בעצרתATZERES- Shavuos

27)[line 48]ירחיYARCHEI- months

28)[line 49]בחגC HAG- Sukos

29)[line 50]מעוברת היתהME'UBERES HAYESAH (SHANAH ME'UBERES)

See Background to 6:29.

30)[line 50]מדליMADLI- subtract

31)[line 50]יומי טומאהYOMEI TUM'AH (NIDAH)

(a)By Torah Law, a woman is a Nidah for seven days following her period, whether she bled briefly or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, she may immerse in a Mikvah after nightfall to become Tehorah.

(b)One may not have relations nor engage in intimate contact with his wife while she is a Nidah.

(c)Chazal teach that when the Mal'achim relayed the message that Sarah Imenu was to have a son, she miraculously became a Nidah although she was well advanced in years. Our Gemara therefore asks, how could she have given birth a full seven months later, if she could not have conceived for at least five days following the announcement?

32)[line 50]בצרי להוBATZRI LEHU- they are less

33)[line 51]יולדת לתשעה אינה יולדת למקוטעיןYOLEDES L'TISH'A EINAH YOLEDES LI'MEKUTA'IN

(a)From the time that the Torah was written through the time of the Gemara, a child was able to survive only if he was born following either a nine-month or seven-month pregnancy. A child born after an eight-month term was not viable. Even if such a child appeared healthy upon birth, he would have died soon after.

(b)Amora'im disagree as to whether or not a nine-month child born "l'Mekuta'in" - sometime in the middle of the month - may be assumed to be viable. All agree, however, that we may that a child born in the middle of the seventh month will survive.

34)[line 52]"ויהי לתקפות הימים ותהר חנה ותלד בן ותקרא את שמו שמואל כי מה' שאלתיו""VA'YEHI LI'SEKUFOS HA'YAMIM VA'TAHAR CHANAH VA'TELED BEN VA'TIKRA ES SHEMO SHMUEL KI ME'HASH-M SHE'ILTIV" - "And it happened with the passage of the period of days that Chanah had conceived, and she gave birth to a son. She named him Shmuel, for she said, 'I requested him from HaSh-m.'" (Shmuel I 1:20) (ELI AND CHANAH)

(a)Eli, the Kohen Gadol, saw Chanah praying quietly and suspected her of praying while drunk. After he realized his mistake, he blessed the childless woman that she should have a son.

(b)His blessing took immediate effect. The verse says thatChanah gave birth after "Tekufos ha'Yamim" (the plural form of both words), which means six months (two Tekufos, as one Tekufah (season) is three months long) and two days (Yamim).

(c)The son of Chanah grew up to be Shmuel ha'Navi.

35)[line 54]אתיא פקידה פקידהASYA PEKIDAH PEKIDAH (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)

(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Gezeirah Shavah, through which two identical words (or two words that share the same root) appearing in two different sections of the Torah teach us that Halachos of one apply to the other and vice versa.

(b)One may apply a Gezeirah Shavah only if he has received a tradition from his teachers that the connection between the two words exists. Once the connection is established, however, then one may apply it to derive Halachos that one did not necessarily receive a tradition for.

(c)A Gezeirah Shavah is unlimited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply to the other connected subject. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah." This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.

(d)There are three possible configurations for a Gezeirah Shavah:

1.MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If both words are seemingly unnecessary and are not used in the derivation of any other teaching, then all of the rules described above apply.

2.MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If the word in only one of the sections is available, some maintain that such a Gezeirah Shavah is no more limited than one that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim. Others rule that Halachos may be derived from such a Gezeirah Shavah only if there is no argument against them. This status is known as "Lemedin u'Meshivin."

3.EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If neither word is free, then those opinions who maintain that a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Tzad Echad is unlimited grant such a Gezeirah Shavah the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin. Those who applied Lemedin u'Meshivin to a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim rule that this one may not be used to determine any Halachos whatsoever.

36)[line 54]"כי פקד ה' את חנה ותהר ותלד שלשה בנים ושתי בנות ויגדל הנער שמואל עם ה'""KI FAKAD HASH-M ES CHANAH VA'TAHAR VA'TELED SHELOSHAH VANIM U'SHETEI VANOS VA'YIGDAL HA'NA'AR SHMUEL IM HASH-M" - "... because HaSh-m had remembered Chanah and she became pregnant and bore three sons and two daughters, and Shmuel grew up with HaSh-m." (Shmuel I 2:21) (ELI'S ADDITIONAL BLESSING)

When Eli saw that Chanah had dedicated her son Shmuel to HaSh-m (to serve perpetually in the Mishkan), he blessed her with other children who would live with her at home. That blessing, too, materialized.

37)[last line]"תקעו בחדש שופר בכסה ליום חגנו. כי חק לישראל הוא משפט לאלקי יעקב. עדות ביהוסף שמו בצאתו על ארץ מצרים שפת לא ידעתי אשמע.""TIK'U VA'CHODESH SHOFAR, BA'KESEH L'YOM CHAGENU. KI CHOK L'YISRAEL HU, [MISHPAT LE'LOKEI YAKOV. EDUS BI'HOSEF SAMO B'TZEISO AL ERETZ MITZRAYIM, SEFAS LO YADATI ESHMA"- "Blow a Shofar on [Rosh] Chodesh, at the appointed time of our festival. For it is an ordinance for Yisrael, a judgment for the G-d of Yakov. He placed it as a testimony for Yosef when he went out over the land of Mitzrayim when I heard a language unknown to me." (Tehilim 81:4-6).


38)[line 2]"לכן אמר לבני ישראל אני ה' והוצאתי אתכם מתחת סבלת מצרים והצלתי אתכם מעבדתם וגאלתי אתכם בזרוע נטויה ובשפטים גדלים""LACHEN EMOR LI'VNEI YISRAEL, ANI HASH-M, V'HOTZEISI ESCHEM MI'TACHAS SIVLOS MITZRAYIM, V'HITZALTI ESCHEM ME'AVODASAM, V'GA'ALTI ESCHEM BI'ZERO'A NETUYAH UVI'SHEFATIM GEDOLIM" - "Therefore say to Bnei Yisrael: I am HaSh-m, and I will take you out from under the burdens of Egypt, and I will deliver you from their service, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments." (Shemos 6:6) (THE FOUR STAGES OF REDEMPTION)

These verses teach us the four stages of the redemption from Egypt: 1. Cessation of forced labor (on Rosh Hashanah); 2. The actual Exodus (on the fifteenth of Nisan); 3. The miracles of Keri'as Yam Suf (on the twenty-first of Nisan); 4. Matan Torah (on the sixth of Sivan).

39)[line 3]סבלותSIVLOS- burdens

40)[line 4]כדאיתאKID'ISA- as it states [clearly in the Torah]

41)[line 6]"והיה ביום ההוא יתקע בשופר גדול ובאו האבדים בארץ אשור והנדחים בארץ מצרים והשתחוו לה' בהר הקדש בירושלם""[V'HAYAH] BA'YOM HA'HU YITAKA B'SHOFAR GADOL, U'VA'U HA'OVDIM B'ERETZ ASHUR, VEHA'NIDACHIM B'ERETZ MITZRAYIM V'HISHTACHAVU L'HASH-M B'HAR HA'KODESH B'YERUSHALAYIM" - "It shall be on that day that a great shofar will be blown and those who are lost in the land of Assyria and those cast away in the land of Egypt will come together and they will prostrate themselves to HaSh-m on the holy mountain in Yerushalayim." (Yeshayah 27:13) (THE INGATHERING OF THE EXILES)

"Those who are lost..." refers to the ten tribes who, our Sages relate, are hidden on the other side of the River Sambatyon. The large Shofar will serve as a clarion call even for "those who have been rejected" but whose whereabouts are known. All will return to Yerushalayim in the time of Mashi'ach.

42)[line 9]"ליל שמרים [הוא לה' להוציאם מארץ מצרים]""LEIL SHIMURIM [HU LA'HASH-M, L'HOTZI'UM ME'ERETZ MITZRAYIM]"- "It is a night of watchfulness [for HaSh-m, to bring them out of the land of Mitzrayim]" (Shemos 12:42)

43)[line 9]לילה המשומר ובאLEIL HA'MESHUMAR U'VA- it is designated as a night of watchfulness

44)[line 11]המזיקיןMAZIKIN- harmful spirits

45)[line 11]"בשנת שש מאות שנה לחיי נח בחדש השני בשבעה עשר יום לחדש [ביום הזה נבקעו כל מעינות תהום רבה וארבות השמים נפתחו]""BI'SHNAS SHESH ME'OS SHANAH L'CHAYEI NOACH, BA'CHODESH HA'SHENI B'SHIV'AH ASAR YOM LA'CHODESH, [BA'YOM HA'ZEH NIVKE'U KOL MAIYENOS TEHOM RABAH, VA'ARUBOS HA'SHAMAYIM NIFTACHU.]"- "In the six hundredth year of Noach's life, on the seventeenth day of the second month, [on that day all of the springs of the deep burst, and the windows of heaven opened]" (Bereishis 7:11)

46)[line 14]שמזל כימה שוקע ביוםSHE'MAZAL KIMAH SHOKE'A BA'YOM- during which the constellation of Kimah, [(a) a cluster of more than one hundred stars in Aries, in the tail of the constellation Tleh (Aries) (RASHI, based on Berachos 58b); (b) Spica, a large star in the constellation of Akrav (Scorpio) (MAHARSHA to Berachos 58b); (c) the Pleiades (a star cluster in the constellation Taurus) (IBN EZRA)] sets during the day [since it is already above the horizon at daybreak]

47)[line 15]ומעינות מתמעטיןMAIYANOS MISMA'ATIN- the sources of water dry up [since it the dry season]

48)[line 16]ששינו מעשיהןSHE'SHINU MA'ASEIHEN- they changed their ways [from those desired by HaSh-m]