KESUVOS 6-7 - Generously sponsored by Marsha and Lee Weinblatt of Teaneck, New Jersey. May Hashem bless them with a Kesivah va'Chasimah for a year of health, prosperity and much Yiddishe Nachas from their wonderful children and grandchildren.

[7a - 43 lines; 7b - 42 lines]

1)[line 1]פטורPATUR- he is exempt [and it is permitted]. This implies that it permitted to have relations for the first time on Shabbos as long as one's intentions are not to make an opening, since such an action is similar in that it releases blood.

2)[line 1]התם פקיד ועקירHASAM PAKID V'AKIR- there [regarding the abscess, the pus] is collected and disconnected [from the body]

3)[line 2]שראSHARA- permitted

4)[line 3]לא כתיבא כתובתה!LO KESIVA KESUVASAH! (KESUVAH - the Jewish marriage contract)

(a)When a man marries (Nisu'in) a woman who was a Besulah (virgin) at the time of her Kidushin (betrothal), he must give her a marriage document stipulating that she is to receive 200 Zuz from him or his estate should he divorce her or die. 200 Zuz are equivalent to the value of 960 grams of silver. This document is called a Kesuvah (lit. "written"). Tana'im disagree as to whether this obligation is mid'Oraisa (Biblical) or mid'Rabanan (Rabbinic) in nature (Kesuvos 10a).

(b)If the bride had been widowed or divorced and is therefore a Be'ulah (not a virgin) then she receives a different Kesuvah. The Kesuvah of a Be'ulah guarantees only 100 Zuz to the bride in the case of the dissolution of the marriage. There is no question that the obligation to give this document is mid'Rabanan in nature (Kesuvos 10b). A widow is termed an "Almanah" because her Kesuvah is written for the amount of a "Maneh" (one hundred Zuz) (ibid.).

(c)If a woman is younger than three at the time of her Kidushin, she always receives 200 Zuz. This is because her hymen grows back even when broken at this young age, and she is therefore by definition a Besulah.

(d)The amounts detailed above are only the minimum required to be written into a Kesuvah. One may voluntarily add any amount onto his wife's Kesuvah, and doing so is considered a way of honoring her.

(e)One whose wife is not in possession of her Kesuvah may not be alone with her. This decree was instituted by the Chachamim so that one should never find it easy to divorce his wife, but he should have to think twice.

(f)The Rabanan asked Rebbi Ami how he was able to permit relations on Shabbos. Even if the act itself was permitted, that case was one in which the bride did not have a Kesuvah!

5)[line 4]אתפסוה מטלטליןATFESUAH METALTELIN- place chattel (moveable property) in her possession as a guarantee [toward the 200 Zuz owed her if her husband should divorce her until he is able to write her a Kesuvah]

6)[line 15]מתוך שהותרה... לצורך הותרה נמי שלא לצורךMI'TOCH SHE'HUTRAH... L'TZORECH, HUTRAH NAMI SHE'LO L'TZORECH - since an action is permitted on Yom Tov for the purpose of food preparation, it is permitted even when it is not necessary for food preparation

(a)The Mishnah (Megilah 7b) states that the only difference between Shabbos and Yom Tov is that the preparation of food is permitted on Yom Tov (Shemos 12:16).

(b)The concept of "mi'Toch" ("since") operates on the principle that once a Melachah is permitted by the Torah for the sake of food preparation, that Melachah becomes permitted entirely, even with regard to matters that do not relate to food preparation. It is permitted to slaughter an animal on Yom Tov since this is part of preparing it for eating. Therefore, according to the concept of mi'Toch, it should be permitted to cause other wounds even though they are not necessary for food preparation.

(c)There are a number of opinions among the Rishonim as to how far this principle goes and what activities are permitted through it. See Insights to Beitzah 12a for a full discussion of this topic.

7)[line 14]מוגמרMUGMAR- incense [placed on coals]

8)[line 15]הבערהHAV'ARAH- the building or transferal of flames

9)[line 17]"[... כָּל-מְלָאכָה לֹא-יֵעָשֶׂה בָהֶם;] אַךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל לְכָל-נֶפֶשׁ, [הוּא לְבַדּוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה לָכֶם.]""[... KOL MELACHAH LO YE'ASEH BA'HEM;] ACH ASHER YE'ACHEL L'CHOL NEFESH, [HU LEVADO YE'ASEH LA'CHEM.]"- "[... no Melachah may be performed upon them (the first and last day of Pesach);] only that which is (necessary) for anyone to eat, [that alone may you perform.]" (Shemos 12:16)

10)[line 19]נזדמן לו צביNIZDAMEN LO TZVI- if a deer [which not everyone can normally afford] becomes available to him

11)[line 22]קאמינאKA'AMINA- is what I intended

12)[line 23]הורהHORAH- ruled

13)[line 23]ציידןTZAIDAN- a small city north of Lake Kineret, to the east of the Jordan River (not to be confused with Tzidon (Sidon), located on the southern coast of Lebanon)

14)[line 24]מי איכא הוראה לאיסור?MI IKA HORA'AH L'ISUR?- is it possible to term a stringent ruling "Hora'ah"? "Hora'ah" implies that the one who laid down the ruling delved deeply into the matter, and, after a full and complete understanding of it, passed judgment. In order to rule leniently, this is absolutely necessary. One who rules strictly, however, may have done so to be safe due to his lack of utter discernment.

15)[line 25]והתנןVEHA'TENAN- This Mishnah is offered as proof of the Gemara's thesis.

16)[line 25]הורוה בית הלל שתהא נזירה עוד שבע שנים אחרותHORUHA BEIS HILLEL SHE'TEHEI NEZIRAH OD SHEVA SHANIM ACHEROS (NAZIR - One who has Taken a Vow to be a Nazarite)

(a)One who makes a vow to be a Nazir without stipulating for how long he wishes his Nezirus to last is a Nazir for a period of thirty days. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to: 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21).

(b)The Mishnah quoted by our Gemara (Nazir 17b) refers to Queen Helene of the Chashmona'i dynasty (see Background to Yoma 16:1). She vowed to be a Nezirah for seven years as a contributing merit to her son's safety in battle. She kept her vow outside of Eretz Yisrael, and then arrived in Eretz Yisrael. Beis Hillel ruled that since Chutz la'Aretz is considered Tamei, she had to be a Nezirah for another seven years in Eretz Yisrael.

17)[line 27]חוט השדרה שנפסק ברובוCHUT HA'SHIDRAH SHE'NIFSAK B'RUBO- a spinal cord [of an animal] that is split [widthwise] most of the way [renders the animal a Tereifah (an animal with a malady that will cause it to die within the year), in which case it is non-Kosher]

18)[line 28]ניקבNIKEV- if it has a hole [that is not as wide as half the width of the spinal column]

19)[line 31]דמן צורD'MIN TZOR- from the city of Tyre, located on the southern coast of Lebanon

20)[line 34]אחת בתולה ואחת אלמנה טעונה ברכהACHAS BESULAH V'ACHAS ALMANAH TE'UNAH BERACHAH (BIRKAS CHASANIM - The Sheva Berachos Recited at a Wedding and for the Following Seven Days)

(a)Birkas Chasanim is the general name given to the Sheva Berachos, the seven blessings recited under the Chupah at a wedding and following Birkas ha'Mazon of a meal attended by a groom and bride within seven days of their wedding (their days of Simchah). The Gemara soon (8a) provides the text of these blessings.

(b)The Gemara's current understanding of Rav's ruling is that both the wedding of a Besulah and that of a Be'ulah require these blessings.

21)[line 35]בחורBACHUR- a young unmarried man

22)[line 37]ברכת חתנים בעשרהBIRKAS CHASANIM BA'ASARAH- a quorum of ten men is required to recite Birkas Chasanim (see above, entry #20)

23)[line 38]"וַיִּקַּח עֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים מִזִּקְנֵי הָעִיר, וַיֹּאמֶר, שְׁבוּ-פֹה; וַיֵּשֵׁבוּ.""VA'YIKACH ASARAH ANASHIM MI'ZIKNEI HA'IR, VA'YOMER, SHEVU FOH; VA'YESHEVU." - "And he took ten men from the elders of the city, and he said, 'Sit here'; and they sat." (Ruth 4:2) (BO'AZ MARRIES RUS)

(a)The night before, Ruth, at Naomi's instigation, hinted to Boaz a reminder of his obligation to marry her. Just as Naomi had anticipated, he wasted no time, and the very next day he arranged to take care of the marriage at the spot by the gate of the town where Beis Din always convened. Miraculously, his uncle Tov, Elimelech's brother (and first in line to marry Ruth), happened to be passing. Boaz stopped him, and also persuaded ten other men to join them (for Birkas Chasanim, as the Gemara explains), as he knew that the wedding between Ruth and either one of them was about to take place, even though the initial transaction concerned the purchase of Elimelech's property from Naomi and Ruth, as we shall now see.

(b)Naomi and Ruth, it seems, stipulated that purchasing the property was contingent upon marrying Ruth. Consequently, when Boaz offered Tov first choice to make the purchase, he declined, because - unaware that Boaz only the day before issued a ruling permitting the marriage of a Yisrael to a Moabite woman convert and restricting the Torah's prohibition to a Jewish woman marrying a Moabite male convert, he claimed that he did not wish to defile his inheritance. The Midrash learns from here that a man should never miss a day in the Beis ha'Midrash.

(c)Boaz agreed to make the dual transaction, purchasing the field and marrying Ruth there and then. According to the Gemara's second explanation, Boaz took sent ten men throughout the town to publicize the Heter to marry a Moabite woman convert (Kitzur Shlah), to avoid the stigma that he would otherwise have been forced to live with.

24)[line 40]כל שבעהKOL SHIV'AH- all seven [days of celebration following the wedding]

25)[line 40]שקדו חכמים על תקנת בנות ישראלSHAKDU CHACHAMIM AL TAKANAS BNOS YISRAEL- the Chachamim invested effort in their decree on behalf of the daughters of Yisrael [who had been married previously]

26)[last line]שמחהSIMCHAH- celebration [which entails remaining home and spending time together, and the mention of "sheha'Simchah vi'Me'ono" ("in Whose dwelling is happiness"; see 8a) before Birkas ha'Mazon]


27)[line 6]מילתא פסיקתאMILSA PESIKTA- a clear-cut matter

28)[line 7]בצרהBATZRAH- she has less

29)[line 12]"בְּמַקְהֵלוֹת בָּרְכוּ אֱלֹקִים; ה' מִמְּקוֹר יִשְׂרָאֵל.""B'MAKHELOS BARCHU ELOKIM, HASH-M MI'MEKOR YISRAEL."- "Bless G-d in congregations; HaSh-m from the source of Yisrael." (Tehilim 68:27) - Rebbi Avahu interprets "the source of Yisrael" to refer to a marriage.

30)[line 16]עוברים שבמעי אמןUBARIM SHEB'MA'EI IMAN- fetuses in their mother's wombs

31)[line 16]שירה על היםSHIRAH AL HA'YAM- the song of praise [to HaSh-m] on the shore of the Reed Sea [after Klal Yisrael were successfully delivered and the Egyptians drowned within] (Shemos 15:1-21)

32)[line 18]מבטןMI'BETEN- from the abdomen

33)[line 19]עסקי מקורISKEI MEKOR- matters relating to the source of life (i.e., marriage, which is the stage prior to having children)

34)[line 20]ההואHA'HU- that [gathering of ten men]

35)[line 21]עמוני, ולא עמונית; מואבי, ולא מואביתAMONI, V'LO AMONIS; MOA'VI, V'LO MOA'VIS- a male Amonite convert [is prohibited from marrying a Jewess of unsullied lineage], but a female Amonite convert may marry a Jewish male; a male Moabite convert [is prohibited from marrying a Jewess of unsullied lineage], but a female Moabite convert may marry a Jewish male. (These points were then subject to dispute; see Yevamos 76-77.)

36)[line 23]לא סגיא דלאו זקנים?LO SAGYA D'LAV ZEKENIM?- was it necessary that the ten men be elders?

37)[line 25]אין, לפרסומי מילתאIN, L'FIRSUMEI MILSA- yes, to publicize the matter

38)[line 26]רב חנא בגדתאהRAV CHANA BAGDESA'AH- (a) Rav Chana of Baghdad (RASHI; RASHBAM to Bava Basra 142b); (b) Rav Chana, expert on the homiletic digressions of the Gemara (RASHI to Yevamos 67a, second explanation)

39a)[line 26]פוק ואייתי לי בי עשרהPUK V'AISI LI BEI ASARAH- go and bring ten people to me

b)[line 27]ואימא לך באנפייהוV'EIMA LACH B'ANPAIHU- and I will tell you in front of them

40)[line 27]המזכה לעובר קנהHA'MEZAKEH L'UBAR KANAH- if one acquires an object on behalf of an as-of-yet-unborn child, [the fetus] acquires [said object]

41)[line 29]בית חתנים... בית האירוסיןBEIS CHASANIM... BEIS HA'ERUSIN (ERUSIN / NISU'IN - Betrothal and Marriage)

(a)The first stage of Halachic marriage is called Kidushin (betrothal). Kidushin can be accomplished in one of three ways:

1.Kesef - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through giving her money or anything equal in value to a Perutah (a very small coin). Upon doing so, he must proclaim, "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'(-----) Zu" - "Behold you are betrothed to me through this (-----)."

2.Shtar - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through giving her a marriage document. This may be written upon any surface, and need not be of any specific value. The words "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'Shtar Zeh" must be written upon the Shtar.

3.Bi'ah - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through having relations with her. At that time, he must proclaim, "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'Bi'ah Zu." Because Kidushin requires witnesses, the Chachamim strongly condemned anyone who uses this method of Kidushin.

(b)The Torah refers to this stage of marriage as "Erusin" (Devarim 22:23). The term "Kidushin" is used by the Rabanan in order to connote that just as everyone is prohibited to benefit from Hekdesh (an object sanctified to the service of HaSh-m), through Kidushin a woman becomes prohibited to everyone in the world save her husband (Kidushin 2b; see also Tosfos 7a DH v'Nifshetu). Although a man and women are married after Kidushin, they may not yet live together as man and wife.

(c)The second stage of Halachic marriage - the completion of the marriage - is termed Nisu'in. This is accomplished through Chupah. Chupah is never clearly described in the Gemara, and various opinions are offered by the Rishonim as to what exactly it entails (see Insights to Kesuvos 57:1). The general idea behind Chupah is that the groom brings his wife into his house. After the Chupah is performed, the marriage is complete.

(d)The Tana Kama of the Beraisa quoted in our Gemara maintains that Sheva Berachos are recited only in the house in which the Chupah takes place. Rebbi Yehudah responds that they are recited also following a betrothal.

42a)[line 31]ביהודה שנוBI'YEHUDAH SHANU- [that which] we learned [that Sheva Berachos are recited following a betrothal applies only] in [the district of] Yehudah (the southern part of Eretz Yisrael)

b)[line 31]מפני שמתייחד עמהMI'PNEI SHE'MISYACHED IMAH- since [there the custom was for the groom to] seclude himself with [his betrothed, and we do not wish them to transgress the Rabbinic prohibition against relations without a Berachah in case that possibility occurs] (see 12a)

43)[line 37]עריותARAYOS- those with whom one is forbidden to have relations (as specified in Vayikra 18:6-18) (see Insights)

44)[line 40]חתיםCHASIM- sign off [with an additional Berachah]

45)[line 40]מידי דהוה אברכת פירות ואברכת מצותMIDI D'HAVAH A'VIRCHAS HA'PEIROS VE'A'VIRCHAS HA'MITZVOS- [it is because it is] similar to blessings made over fruits and Mitzvos [which do not end with a Berachah since (a) they do not include any phrases other than the main idea expressed (RASHI); (b) they are not very long (TOSFOS DH Man)]

46)[line 41]מידי דהוה אקידושאMIDI D'HAVAH A'KIDUSHA- [it is because it is] similar to the blessing of Kidush [recited on Shabbos and festivals, which ends with a Berachah since (a) it includes phrases other than the main idea expressed (RASHI); (b) it is relatively long (TOSFOS DH Man)]

47)[last line]פנים חדשותPANIM CHADASHOS- lit. new faces; those who were not present at a previous meal that ended with Sheva Berachos (See Insights)