[28a - 35 lines; 28b - 42 lines]
1)[line 1]קופיץKUFITZ- a cleaver
2)[line 2]אין משגיחין בכף מאזנים כל עיקרEIN MASHGICHIM B'CHAF MOZNAYIM KOL IKAR- one may not pay attention to a balance scale whatsoever
3)[line 4]דתליא בתריטאD'TALYA TERITA- that it is hanging on the hook [from which it hangs when in use]
4a)[line 4]טבח אומןTABACH UMAN- a professional butcher
b)[line 4]אסור לשקול בשר בידASUR LISHKOL BASAR B'YAD- may not weigh meat in his hand [a) against a weight in his other hand (RASHI); b) in order to estimate its weight (ROSH, RAN, TUR OC #500)
5)[line 5]לשקול בשר במיםLI'SHKOL BASAR B'MAYIM- to "weigh" meat in water [by measuring how much water is displaced against pre-marked grades]
6)[line 6]בית ידBEIS YAD- a handle; a hole in the meat by which to carry it
7)[line 6]בידאB'YADA- [to poke a hole] by hand
8)[line 7]אתלת קרנתאA'TELAS KARNESA- into a triangular shape
9)[line 8]שוקלין מנה כנגד מנהSHOKLIN MANAH KENEGED MANAH- weighed one portion of meat against another portion [to ensure that each received an equal share]
10a)[line 13]פסולי המוקדשיןPESULEI HA'MUKDASHIN
(a)Pesulei ha'Mukdashin are animals designated as Korbanos that have become unfit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach due to the development of a Mum (blemish). They must be redeemed. After that point, they still may not be used for labor, shorn or milked. They may, however, be slaughtered and eaten (Bechoros 15b).
(b)The Mishnah quoted by our Gemara (Bechoros 5:1) explains that the meat of Pesulei ha'Mukdashin may be sold in the marketplace and weighed with regular weights. Although such actions would normally be considered disrespectful for animals that were Kadosh, this is permitted for the benefit of Hekdesh. Since this is the way to fetch the highest price for them, this is turn raises the price of their redemption.
b)[line 13]הנאתן להקדשHANA'ASAN L'HEKDESH- their benefit (i.e., the price of their redemption) goes to Hekdesh
(a)Every first-born male offspring of an ox, goat, or sheep is Kadosh when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for the owner of the animal to sanctify it by verbally declaring it to have the Kedushah of a Bechor, similar to the way in which one is Makdish a Korban (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b)If the animal is unblemished, the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos 7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, it may be eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night.
(c)If the animal has or develops a Mum (blemish), it becomes the property of the Kohen and it is slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen may give it away or sell it - even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner, nor may it be redeemed with money.
(d)When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. One may not, however, buy it in order to sell it at a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).
12a)[line 16]דלא מחזי כעובדין דחולD'LO MECHEZI K'UVDIN D'CHOL- it does not appear as the usual manner [since it is unusual to measure one portion of meat against another when it is sold]
b)[line 16]דמחזי כעובדין דחולD'MECHEZI K'UVDIN D'CHOL- it appears as the usual manner [since it is normal to measure one portion of meat against another when it is divided]
13)[line 17]למימרא דקפדי אהדדיL'MEIMRA D'KAPDEI A'HADADEI- this implies that [Rebbi Chiya and Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi] were exacting with each other
14)[line 17]שב בניתאSHEV BINYASA- seven fish
15)[line 18]שדי גברא בינייהוSHADI GAVRA BEINAIHU- lit. throw someone between them; the above story must have involved someone else
16)[line 19]משחיזיןMASHCHIZIN- sharpen [on a sharpening block]
17)[line 20]משיאהMASI'AH- he may move it back and forth in a sawing motion
18a)[line 22]לחדדהL'CHADEDAH- to sharpen it
b)[line 22]להעביר שמנוניתהL'HA'AVIR SHAMNUNISA- to remove its fat; i.e., to wipe it clean
19a)[line 32]אוכל נפשOCHEL NEFESH- [Melachos involved in] food preparation
b)[line 33]מכשירי אוכל נפשMACHSHIREI OCHEL NEFESH- [Melachos involved in the stages prior to direct] food preparation
20)[line 33]דרשינן משמך ...?DARSHINAN MI'SHEMECH ...?- Should we expound in your name ...?
21)[line 34]יהא רעואYEHEI RA'AVA- May it be [Hash-m's] will
22)[line 34]מילי מעלייתאMILI MA'ALYASA- good things; i.e., correct teachings
23)[line 1]אפומא דדקולאA'PUMA D'DEKULA- on the lip of a basket
24)[line 4]הלכה ואין מורין כןHALACHAH V'EIN MORIN KEN- the Halachah [follows Rebbi Yehudah], but one may not actively permit another to act upon it [since he may perform even those Melachos that he could have performed prior to Yom Tov]
25)[line 5]מרMAR- presumably Rabah, the Rebbi of Abaye
26)[line 6]אשפתא דרחיאA'SIFSA D'REICHAYA- the edge of a millstone
27)[line 10]להראות סכין לחכםL'HAR'OS SAKIN L'CHACHAM- to show a [slaughtering] knife to a Chacham [which is a Rabbinical requirement before slaughtering (Chulin 17b, 18b)]
28)[line 13]משאילהMASH'ILAH- ha may lend it
29)[line 14]שעמדהSHE'AMDAH- that became dulled
30)[line 15]דפסקא אגב דוחקאD'PASKA AGAV DUCHAKA- that it can still cut when pressure is exerted
31)[line 16]שנפגמהSHE'NIFGEMAH- that became nicked
32)[line 17]שפוד שנרצםSHEPUD SHE'NIRTZAM- a spit whose point has broken off (O.F. espointier - to break the point)
33)[line 17]גריפת תנור וכיריםGEREIFAS TANUR V'CHIRAYIM- raking [plaster out of] an oven or stove
34)[line 21]"[... כָּל-מְלָאכָה לֹא-יֵעָשֶׂה בָהֶם; אַךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל לְכָל-נֶפֶשׁ,] הוּא לְבַדּוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה לָכֶם.""[... KOL MELACHAH LO YE'ASEH BA'HEM; ACH ASHER YE'ACHEL L'CHOL NEFESH,] HU LEVADO YE'ASEH LA'CHEM."- "[... no Melachah may be performed upon them (the first and last day of Pesach); only that which is (necessary) for anyone to eat,] that alone may you perform" (Shemos 12:16).
35)[line 29]שנרצףSHE'NIRTZAF- that became bent
36)[line 30]דמפשיט בידיהD'MAFSHIT B'YADEI- that he can straighten it with his hands [without requiring the use of tools]
37)[line 33]שומטוSHOMTO- he should remove it in an indirect fashion [without holding it in his hands]
38)[line 36]קוץ ברשות הרביםKOTZ BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM- a thorn in a public arena [which may be moved so that no one damages themselves upon it, even though it is Muktzah]
39)[line 38]שפחותSHEFACHOS- maidservants. Rebbi Eliezer states (Mishnah, Kesuvos 5:5) that even a woman who brings one hundred maidservants into her household must engage in productive physical activity, since idleness leads to immorality. Rav Chinena brei d'Rav Ika explains that it is Rav Malchiyo who rules that the Halachah follows this opinion (Kesuvos 61b).
40)[line 38]גומותGUMOS- hair follicles. Rav Malchiyo rules that a young woman who has two pubic hair follicles is an adult, even if there are no hairs currently growing from them (Nidah 52a).
41)[line 38]בלוריתBELURIS- a strip of hair left to grow at the back of the head by the Romans and Greeks, which was offered to their gods once a year. A Beraisa (Avodah Zarah 29a) teaches that a Jewish barber may not trim around this hair when giving a Nochri a haircut. Rav Malchiya qualified this by explaining that the barber must leave three Etzba'os (fingerbreadths) around the Beluris.
42)[line 39]אפר מקלהEFER MAKLEH- wood ashes. Rav Malchiya prohibits placing ashes on a wound as a salve since the resulting appearance resembles a tattoo, which is prohibited (Makos 21a).
43)[line 39]גבינהGEVINAH- cheese. Rav Malchiya explained that the reason why the Chachamim forbade cheese made by Nochrim is because they smear pig fat on them (Mishnah, Avodah Zarah 35b).
44a)[line 40]מתניתיןMASNISIN- Mishnayos [such as those that discuss Gevinah and Shefachos]
b)[line 40]מתניתאMASNISA- Beraisos [such as that which discusses Beluris]
c)[line 40]שמעתתאSHEMAITA- teachings of the Amora'im [such as those concerning Shepud and Gumos]
45)[line 40]מתניתין מלכתאMASNISIN MALCHESA- the Mishnayos are kings ["Malchesa" is similar to "Malchiya")
46)[line 41]שפחותSHEFACHOS- TOSFOS DH Ika explain that this refers to both Shefachos, which is the subject of a Mishnah, as well as its counterpart in the middle of the three rulings ascribed to Rav Malchiya by Rav Chinena brei d'Rav Ika; namely, Efer Makleh, which is the subject of an Amora'ic discussion.
47)[last line]מחלקMECHALEK- divide [without mentioning a price]