MISHNAH: THE PROHIBITION OF USING A SCALE
(R. Yehudah) One may weigh meat against a vessel whose weight he knows.
(Chachamim) One may not pay any attention to a scale at all.
VARIOUS HALACHOS REGARDING SELLING MEAT
Question: What is intended by "at all?"
Answer (R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): One may not use the scale even if only to guard food from mice.
(R. Idi b. Avin): The prohibition only applies if the scale is hanging on a peg used for weighing.
(R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): An experienced butcher may not weigh a piece of meat against a weight in his other hand nor may he use water displacement.
(R. Chiya b. Ashi): One may not fashion a handle in a piece of meat (while Ravina permits a handle which is poked with his finger, not formed with a knife).
(R. Huna): One may make a marking in the meat (as Raba bar R. Huna did) to ensure that the meat is not switched.
MANAH K'NEGED MANAH
R. Chiya and R. Shimon b. Rebbi would divide meat between them by weighing a Manah against a Manah (on the scales).
Question: But this does not fit with the view of either R. Yehudah (who only permits weighing against a known utensil) nor the Rabanan (who forbid using scales altogether)!?
Answer: They followed the view of R. Yehoshua (who permits weighing a Manah against a Manah).
(R. Yosef): The Halachah follows R. Yehoshua since an anonymous Mishnah in Bechoros rules like him.
(Mishnah in Bechoros): The proceeds of Pesulei ha'Mukdashin go to Hekdesh.
One may weigh a Manah against a Manah when selling a Bechor.
Question (Abaye): Perhaps the Mishnah in Bechoros and R. Yehoshua do not hold of one another!?
R. Yehoshua's Heter of weighing a Manah against a Manah on Yom Tov might not apply to Kodoshim where we must contend with the denigration of Kodoshim.
The Chachamim's Heter by Bechor may be restricted to a sale (which is not normally done with Maneh k'neged Maneh) but would not apply to a division between partners (which is).
Question: It is odd that R. Chiya and R. Shimon were making an accurate division altogether, given that they were not in the least fussy if one received more than the other!?
Answer (R. Papa): The incident should be reported by changing one of the names of the pair (as suggested).
MISHNAH: KNIVES ON YOM TOV
One may not use a grindstone to sharpen a knife on Yom Tov.
One may rub one knife against another.
THE RESTRICTED GRINDSTONE
(R. Huna): A grindstone is prohibited but a wooden grinder is permitted.
(R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): [First Lashon, qualifying the first part of R. Huna's statement] One may even sharpen the knife provided one uses a wooden sharpener while a grindstone is permitted only in order to remove the fat from the knife.
(R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): [Second Lashon, applying to the end of R. Huna's words] A wooden grinder will be permitted only to remove the fat and a stone would be entirely prohibited.
(R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): [Third Lashon, applying to the Reisha of our Mishnah] The Heter in the Seifa of rubbing one knife against another even extends to sharpening it.
(R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): [Fourth Lashon, applying to the Seifa of our Mishnah] The Isur in the Reisha even extends to rubbing a knife on a grindstone in order to remove the fat from the knife.
THE TANA OF OUR MISHNAH
Question: Who is the Tana of our Mishnah (who forbids the use of a grindstone)?
Answer (R. Chisda): It is not R. Yehudah (who permits whatever is needed for Yom Tov).
Question (Rava of R. Chisda): May you be quoted as saying that the Halachah follows R. Yehudah?
Answer (R. Chisda): May I only be cited as saying such nice things.
(R. Nechemyah bar R. Yosef): Rava conducted himself like R. Yehudah, but did not rule so publicly.
Abaye reported the same from his Rebbi.
SHOWING ONE'S KNIFE TO A CHACHAM ON YOM TOV
Question: May one have his knife inspected on Yom Tov?
Answer (R. Mari bar R. Bizna): It is permitted.
Answer (Rabanan): It is prohibited.
(R. Yosef): A Chacham may examine his own knife and lend it to the Shochet.
(R. Yosef): A dulled knife may be sharpened on Yom Tov, provided that it still cuts (but with difficulty).
THE MACHLOKES BETWEEN THE RABANAN AND R. YEHUDAH
(R. Chisda or R. Yosef): The dented knife, the broken spit and the plaster-filled oven are affected by the Machlokes R. Yehudah (who permits even Machshirin) and Rabanan (who do not).
Each (R. Yehudah and Rabanan) derives his Halachah from words in the Pasuk, and learns other Halachos from the sources mentioned by the other.
(R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): A bent (but unbroken) spit may not be straightened on Yom Tov.
Question: Is that not obvious?
Answer: We might have permitted it when he does not need an implement to straighten it.
(R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): A spit is Muktzah after being used for roasting.
(R. Ada b. Ahavah citing R. Malkiyo): One is permitted to quickly drag it into a corner, without actually holding it properly.
(R. Chiya b. Ashi citing R. Huna): That is only permitted if a keZayis of meat remains on it.
(Ravina): Even if a keZayis does not remain (it may be removed like a dangerous thorn in the street, which one may remove to protect people).
CLARIFYING THE AUTHORSHIP OF R. MALKIYO AND R. MALKIYA
(R. Chinena bar R. Ika): The author of Shfod, Shefachos and Gumos is R. Malkiyo while Beluris, Eifer Makleh and Gevinah was taught by R. Malkiya.
(R. Papa): Whatever deals with a Mishnah or Beraisa, is R. Malkiya, whatever is a Machlokes Amoraim, is R. Malkiyo (and a Siman is given to recall this).
The difference between them is Shefachos, which is a Mishnah.
MISHNAH: PURCHASING MEAT ON YOM TOV
One may not mention a monetary amount when requesting meat from the Shochet.
Rather, people simply divide it into portions.
TAKING A NON-STANDARD PORTION OF MEAT
Question: How would one be able to purchase a non- standard amount of meat?
Answer: They would refer to the number of standard cuts of meat they wished (depending on the local custom).