[20a - 21 lines; 20b - 44 lines]
1)[line 1]"לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ...""LA'PESACH CHATAS ROVETZ..."- "... at the opening, sin crouches [in wait] ..." (Bereishis 4:7) - In this verse HaSh-m notifies Kayin that his sin will wait for him at the opening to the grave - and he will punished for it then - unless he repents beforehand (RASHI). Chazal interpret it to mean that the evil inclination waits at the opening to the womb, ready to enter a person the moment he is born (Sanhedrin 91a). Eliyahu explained that HaSh-m defended those members of Klal Yisrael who had committed sins on Yom Kippur with the rationalization that they were not at fault since they were overpowered by their Yetzer ha'Ra.
2)[line 3]לאסטוניL'ASTUNEI- to accuse
3)[line 8]תורמין את המזבחTORMIN ES HA'MIZBE'ACH (TERUMAS HA'DESHEN)
Every morning, a Kohen removes some of the ashes of the consumed sacrifices heaped upon the Mizbe'ach. He then places them southeast of the Mizbe'ach alongside its ramp, at a distance of three Tefachim (approx. 10.5 inches) away from the ramp and 10 Amos from the foot of the ramp (Vayikra 6:3).
4)[line 8]קריאת הגברKERI'AS HA'GEVER- the cry of the "Gever." The Gemara (20b) discusses the meaning of this term.
5)[line 10]אשמורה הראשונהASHMURAH HA'RISHONAH- the first watch. The night is divided into three Ashmuros, which last for four hours each. These correspond to the heavenly watches of the ministering angels (Berachos 2b).
6)[line 11]מלאה מישראלMELE'AH MI'YISRAEL- full of [members of Klal] Yisrael [who are waiting to offer Korbanos - both those connected to the festival, as well as those voluntary and obligatory offerings that had accrued between this visit and the previous one]
7)[line 12]אבריםEVARIM (HEKTER CHALAVIM V'EVARIM)
All of the service performed in the Beis must be performed during the day. This includes the slaughter of the Korban and all of the subsequent Avodos up to and including the application or dashing of its blood upon the Mizbe'ach. If there was no time to burn its Chalavim (certain fats) and Evarim (limbs) during the day, however, then they may be placed on the fire atop the Mizbe'ach for the entire following night. As long as the Zerikas ha'Dam was performed before nightfall, the Korban is valid.
8)[line 13]שפקעוSHE'PAK'U- that broke open [violently from the heat of the fire on the Mizbe'ach] and fell off
9)[line 14]מועלין בהןMO'ALIN BAHEN (ME'ILAH)
(a)It is forbidden to derive any personal benefit from that which is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol bi'Sh'arecha... v'Chol Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount of benefit for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth.
(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he is liable to receive Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable for Misah b'Yedei Shamayim). In addition, he must pay Hekdesh for the benefit which he received; however, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, he must bring a Korban known as a Korban Me'ilah. He must then reimburse Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, equal to a quarter of the original value). The object then loses its Kedushah. This is true of any object which has the status of Kedushas Damim (i.e. it itself will not be used by Hekdesh, but rather its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object which has the status of Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live animal pledged to be offered as a Korban) does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).
(d)The term "Mo'alin Bahen" means that one who derives benefit from these objects transgresses a prohibition, and must pay for that benefit along with an additional fifth. "Ein Mo'alin Bahen" means that although one is prohibited from deriving benefit from these objects, he will not have to pay an additional fifth if he does so.
10a)[line 16]כל הלילה והקטירKOL HA'LAILA V'HIKTIR- The verse states, "... this is the Olah that remains on the fire upon the Mizbe'ach the entire night until morning..." (Vayikra 1:2). From this it would seem that what burns upon the Mizbe'ach at night must remain there the entire night.
b)[line 16]כל הלילה והריםKOL HA'LAILAH V'HERIM- the next verse states, "And the Kohen shall don a linen tunic... and remove the ash left from the Olah consumed by the fire upon the Mizbe'ach..." (Vayikra 1:3). This verse implies that the Olah was consumed by the fire over the course of the night, and had already acquired the status of ash which nay be removed from the Mizbe'ach.
11)[line 4]תן בקר לבקרו של לילהTEN BOKER L'VOKRO SHEL LAILAH- give an [earlier] morning (that is, an earlier time) to the morning [which follows] the night. (It is reasonable to assume that this time is at midnight.)
12)[line 5]הלכךHILKACH- Rebbi Yochanan reconciles the aforementioned contradictory verses by explaining that one may burn Chalavim and Evarim the entire night, and that one may also remove the ash of fully burned limbs from the Mizbe'ach the entire night. The Derashah of "Ten Boker..." teaches that limbs which are hardened but not fully burned (Sherirei) are Halachically considered to be fully burned at midnight (TOSFOS DH Ela).
13)[line 7]חולשא דכהן גדולCHULSHA D'CHOHEN GADOL- the weakness of the Kohen Gadol [who is fasting, stayed up all night, and who must perform all of the Avodah]
14)[line 8]נפישיNEFISHI- are abundant
15a)[line 12]קרא גבראKARA GAVRA- he whose job it was to awaken called out
b)[line 12]קרא תרנגולאKARA TERNEGOLA- the rooster crowed
16)[line 13]איקלע לאתריה דרבי שילאIKLA L'ASREI D'REBBI SHILA- went to the place of Rebbi Shila [where he was not recognized]
17a)[line 14]אמוראAMORA- a Meturgeman [whose job is to (a) repeat the lesson of the Rav in a louder voice (RASHI to Berachos 56a); (b) translate the lesson of the Rav from Hebrew into the vernacular (RASHI here)]
b)[line 14]למיקם עליהL'MEIKAM ALEI- to stand before him
18a)[line 17]אבוב לחרי זמרABUV L'CHAREI ZEMAR- a flute whose sound is music to the ears of nobles
b)[line 17]לגרדאי לא (מקבלוה) [קבלוה] מיניהL'GARDA'EI LO (MEKABLUHA) [KIBLU'HA] MINEI- goes unappreciated by weavers (i.e., this interpretation has been accepted by Talmidei Chachamim greater than you!)
19a)[line 21]מר ניהו רב?MAR NIHU RAV?- Mar (a respectful way of addressing someone) is Rav? (This was apparent from that which Rav had spent significant time with Rebbi Chiya, who was his uncle and with whom he enjoyed a close relationship)
b)[line 21]נינח מרNEINACH MAR!- let Mar rest! (i.e., I am not worthy of such a Meturgeman!)
20a)[line 22]אי תגרת ליהIY TAGRAS LEI- if you have hired yourself out to another [for the day]
b)[line 22]פוץ עמריהPUTZ AMREI- [you should even] comb his wool (normally a woman's task)
21)[line 23]מעלין בקדש ולא מורידיןMA'ALIN BA'KODESH V'LO MORIDIN
Once a person or object attains a certain level of holiness, one may not subsequently lower its status. The only option available is to raise it to a higher level of Kedushah.
22)[line 25]גביני כרוזGEVINI KAROZ- Gevini the [Temple] crier
23)[line 26]דוכנכםDUCHANCHEM- see Background to 16:27
24)[line 27]מעמדכםMA'AMADCHEM (MA'AMADOS)
(a)The Mishnah (Ta'anis 26a) teaches that all of Bnei Yisrael were divided into twenty-four Ma'amados (groups) by the early prophets. Each Ma'amad includes Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim. The Ma'amados are responsible to see that the Korbanos in the Beis ha'Mikdash are sacrificed properly for one week at a time. Thus each Ma'amad is on duty approximately twice a year.
(b)The Kohanim and Leviyim of each Ma'amad travel to the Beis ha'Mikdash for their week of duty in order to perform the divine service. Although most of the Yisraelim in the Mishmar stays at home, some travel to Yerushalayim and represent the entire Ma'amad. Their job is to stand in the Beis ha'Mikdash during the Avodah and pray for the Korbanos to be accepted by HaSh-m. On Monday through Thursday they fast. During the Avodah, they read certain portions of the Torah, and recite the special Shemoneh Esreh of communal fast days (see Background to Shabbos 24:1).
25)[line 28]פרסאותPARSA'OS- a distance of approximately four kilometers or just under three miles
26)[line 30]שיגרSHIGER- sent
27)[line 30]משובחMESHUBACH- more impressive
28)[line 31]וכבר אמר אנא השםU'CHEVAR AMAR ANA HASH-M- it happened once that the Kohen Gadol recited [the confession over his bull (see Background to 18:20) beginning with] "Ana HaSh-m..."
29)[line 34]איכא חולשאIKA CHULSHA- (lit. there is weakness) the Kohen Gadol is weak due to the fast
30)[line 37]גלגל חמהGALGAL CHAMAH- the wheel of the sun
31)[line 37]מנסרSHE'MENASER- that saws [through]
32a)[line 37]חרשCHARASH- a carpenter
b)[line 37]ארזיםARAZIM- cedar trees
33a)[line 38]חירגא דיומאCHIRGA D'YOMA- particles of dust illuminated by sunlight
b)[line 38]'לא' שמיה'LO' SHEMEI- are called "nothing"
34)[line 39]"וְכָל דָּיְרֵי אַרְעָא כְּלָה חֲשִׁיבִין, [וּכְמִצְבְּיֵהּ עָבֵד בְּחֵיל שְׁמַיָּא וְדָיְרֵי אַרְעָא; וְלָא אִיתַי דִּי יְמַחֵא בִידֵהּ וְיֵאמַר לֵהּ מָה עֲבַדְתְּ]""V'CHOL DAYEREI AR'A K'LAH CHASHIVIN, [UCH'MITZBEYEI AVEID B'CHEL SHEMAYA V'DAYEREI AR'A; V'LA ISAI DI YEMACHEI VI'DEI V'YEIMAR LEI MAH AVAD'T]" - "And all the inhabitants of the earth are considered like nothing [before Him]. [He does as He pleases with the hosts of the heaven and the inhabitants of the earth; and there is nobody who can protest at what He does, or who can tell Him what to do]" (Daniel 4:32) (NEVUCHADNETZAR PRAISES HASH-M)
(a)In order to show Nevuchadnetzar that the world is ruled by HaSh-m and that his glory was given to him by HaSh-m, it was decreed that Nevuchadnetzar live like a beast in the fields for seven years. He ate grass like oxen, his hair grew like eagles' feathers, and his nails grew like birds' claws. After seven years he lifted up his eyes to heaven and blessed, praised and honored HaSh-m, and his reason and understanding returned to him. He returned to his former glory as king of the known world, receiving added dominion over the wild beasts of the fields.
(b)When the seven years that Nevuchadnetzar spent in the wild among the animals came to an end, the king came to his senses and began to sing the most remarkable praises of HaSh-m (even greater, Chazal say, than the praises of David ha'Melech). This verse is one of the praises that he sang to HaSh-m.
35)[line 41]קול המונה של רומיKOL HAMONAH SHEL ROMI- the cacophony rising from the multitudes of Rome