[9a - 21 lines; 9b - 49 lines]

1)[line 2] MA'ASER RISHON- see Background to 8:25:a-b

2)[line 3] MA'ASER ANI

Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from one's crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).

3)[line 3] HA'MOTZI ME'CHAVEIRO ALAV HA'RE'AYAH

(a)Whenever there is a dispute over the ownership of an item, the first rule to follow is "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah." This means that the burden of proof is upon he who wishes to extract the object from another, and not upon he who has the item or money in his possession.

(b)In the case of our Gemara, one must separate Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani in case they had not already been separated before the food is permitted. However, unless a given Levi or pauper can prove that it had not been separated previously, one may eat that which he separated himself. Unlike Terumah which may only be consumed by a Kohen, anyone may eat Ma'aser.

4)[line 4] MA'ASER SHENI

(a)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity. The various laws of Ma'aser Sheni are learned from the verses which begin, "Aser Te'aser Eis Kol Tevu'as Zar'echa..." (Devarim 14:22-27).

(b)If it is impractical to bring the actual food to Yerushalayim, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed with money. This money receives the status of Ma'aser Sheni, and is then brought to Yerushalayim. In Yerushalayim the money may be used to buy food items only, which in turn receives the Kedushah of Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim. Once Ma'aser Sheni enters Yerushalayim, it may no longer be redeemed.

(c)If the owner of the Ma'aser Sheni redeems his own Ma'aser, he must add a fifth of the total value onto the money used; if someone else redeems it, he may do so with money equal to the value of the Ma'aser (Vayikra 27:30-31).

5)[line 4]V'NASKU- and bring it up

6)[line 6] " CHOVTIN OSO KOL SHNEIM ASAR CHODESH- beat him every year [when they assume the position, and are looking to demonstrate responsibility]

7)[line 8]PURSEI- officers appointed by the king

8)[line 9]" ' ; ""YIR'AS HA'SH-M TOSIF YAMIM; U'SHENOS RESHA'IM TIKTZORNAH"- "The fear of HaSh-m will increase days, but the years of the wicked will be shortened" (Mishlei 10:27).

9)[line 18]SHILOH- the Mishkan built in the city of the same name; it stood for the 369 years immediately following the fourteen years it took to conquer Eretz Yisrael and apportion it amongst Klal Yisrael (SEDER OLAM RABAH 11)

10)[line 19]... ELI... BANAV (BNEI ELI)

(a)When Shmuel ha'Navi first arrived at the Mishkan in Shiloh, Eli ha'Kohen was the Kohen Gadol (Shmuel I 1). His two sons, Chofni and Pinchas, were great Tzadikim; this is clear from a number of Midrashim. The Torah records that Avraham Avinu gave seven of his sheep to Avimelech, king of the Pelishtim (Bereishis 21:30). Since he had done so without first asking if HaSh-m if such an action was appropriate, HaSh-m informed him that he would be punished by having seven of his exemplary descendents meet their deaths at the hand of descendents of Avimelech. Chofni and Pinchas were two of these descendants (Bereishis Rabah 54:4). Furthermore, their names were engraved upon two golden stalks rising from a golden bowl containing pure olive oil for the Menoros of the throne of Shlomo ha'Melech (TARGUM SHENI to Megilas Esther). Furthermore, the verses seem to indicate that a highlight of the thrice-yearly visit to the Mishkan was the opportunity to see the Bnei Eli (Shmuel I 1:3).

(b)The verses state that these Tzadikim slept with married women (Shmuel I 2:22). The Gemara (Shabbos 55b) states that one who says that the Bnei Eli committed adultery is mistaken. Rather, the verse means that they did not make themselves as available as they ought to have to offer the Korbanos of Klal Yisrael. This would sometimes lead to a situation in which a woman who wished to become Tahor after birth would be required to wait an extra day to do so, which in turn delayed her coming home to her husband. Had they actually committed adultery, the verse would never have associated them with honorable Kohanim who descended from them, as it proudly does (Shmuel I 14:3).

(c)Another verse seems to state that anyone who did not agree to first give Chofni and Pinchas a portion of the meat of the sacrifices to roast before the sacrifice was completed was threatened with bodily harm (Shmuel I 2:16; see below, entry #14). Although the verses state that it was the servants of the Kohanim ("Na'ar ha'Kohen," "Chatas ha'Ne'arim") who committed the offenses (see METZUDAS DAVID), the Gemara (Sanhedrin 58a) attributes them to the Bnei Eli themselves. This is either an alternate explanation, or an expression of the responsibility of Chofni and Pinchas for their servants. These great individuals certainly did not stoop to such low tactics. Either a slight irreverence for the Korbanos according to their lofty level, or that which they did not keep a close enough eye on the actions of their subordinates, causes the Navi to speak of them harshly.

(d)Aside from being made out as villains in the scandalous report of the verses, Chofni and Pinchas were also punished with death at the hands of the Pelishtim. In addition, a curse was placed upon their descendents such that without special efforts of piety, all of their male descendents were to die as young men (Rosh Hashanah 18a, based upon Shmuel I 2:33, 3:14).

11)[line 20]HA'TZOV'OS- who were gathered

9b----------------------------------------9b

12)[line 1] SHE'SHAHU ES KINEIHEN - they delayed their bird-offerings (KORBAN YOLEDES)

(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:

1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. (Although for most types of Tum'os, one may immerse in a Mikvah on the day that the specified period ends, since once part of the day has passed it is considered as if all of it has (Miktzas ha'Yom k'Kulo), a Yoledes must wait to immerse until after nightfall. This is because the Torah compares her to a Nidah (Vayikra 7:2), and a Nidah may only immerse herself in a Mikvah following nightfall of her final day of Tum'ah.) After the Yoledes has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom - see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.

2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she sees blood during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).

(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(d)The sons of Eli were not always careful to sacrifice all of the Kinim of those Yoldos who were eligible to offer them on that day. This caused to remain for an additional day before they were able to return home to their husbands.

13)[line 2] K'ILU SHACHVUM- as if they had committed adultery

14)[line 2]", , , ; , . , , ; ( ') , , , . ', '""GAM B'TEREM..."- "Also, [sometimes] before the fat [of a Korban] was burned [upon the Mizbe'ach], the servant of the Kohen would come and say to he who was offering [the Korban], 'Give meat for the Kohen to roast; and he will only take raw meat, not roasted.' And the man said to them, '[You should first] burn [the Chelev of the Korban] and then take for yourself [a portion of the flesh] as you desire.' And he said to him, '[No,] rather first you give, otherwise I shall take it forcibly.' And the sin of the lads was very great in front of HaSh-m, for the men treated the Minchah of HaSh-m scornfully" (Shmuel I 2:15-16). See above, entry #10.

15)[line 12]" , ""KI KATZAR HA'MATZA ME'HISTARE'A, VEHA'MASECHAH TZARAH K'HISKANES"- "For the mat will be too short to stretch out, and the cover too narrow to enter" (Yeshayah 28:20).

16)[line 13] ME'HISTRARER ALAV SHNEI RE'IM K'ECHAD- for two companions (i.e., HaSh-m and a "companion") to stretch out upon. This is a reference to the idol that the wicked King Menasheh erected in the Beis ha'Mikdash.

17)[line 15]" , [ ]""KONES KA'NED MEI HA'YAM..."- "He assembles as a mound the waters of the sea; [He places the waters of the deep in vaults]" (Tehilim 33:7) - This refers to the splitting of the sea.

18)[line 15]TZARAH- a co-wife (this is a play on the word in the verse, which in context means 'narrow')

19)[line 16]" ', , , ; , ""VA'YOMER..."- "And HaSh-m says, 'Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk with head held high, and inquisitive eyes; they float along, and cause anger with their feet" (Yeshayah 3:16).

20)[line 18] ARUKAH B'TZAD KETZARAH- a tall woman alongside a short woman. The taller woman desired to stand out in comparison.

21)[line 18] B'KOMAH ZEKUFAH- erect of stature (i.e., in a haughty manner, see Rashi to Shabbos 62b)

22)[line 19]KUCHALA- a blue eye-tint

23)[line 20] SHE'HAYU MEHALCHOS EKEV B'TZAD GUDAL- that while walking, their ankle would not progress beyond the big toe of the other foot (again, connoting haughtiness)

24a)[line 21]MOR- myrrh

b)[line 21]AFARSEMON- balsam oil (a strong perfume)

25)[line 22] [] BO'ATOS [B'KARKA] U'METIZOS- they would stamp [on the ground] and [cause the scent to] spray

26)[line 22] () K'ERES (B'CHA'US) [D'ACHNA]- like the venom of an (excited) serpent (this is a play on the word "T'akasnah" in the verse)

27)[line 23]" , ; [ ' ']""V'GAM DAM NAKI SHAFACH MENASHEH HARBEH ME'OD, AD ASHER MILEI ES YERUSHALAYIM PEH LA'FEH..." - "And Menasheh also shed a lot of innocent blood, until he filled Yerushalayim from one end to the other, [besides the sin of causing Yehudah to do evil in the eyes of HaSh-m]" (Melachim II 21:16) (THE WICKED KING MENASHEH)

(a)One of the worst kings of all time, Menasheh spread idolatry throughout Yehudah and even placed a graven image in the Beis ha'Mikdash. This was the major cause for HaSh-m's decision to destroy the Beis ha'Mikdash four generations later.

(b)When the verse speaks about the murders perpetrated by Menasheh, it includes the murder of his own grandfather, Yeshayah ha'Navi. (See Background to Sanhedrin 101:29.)

28)[line 27] RESHA'IM HAYU- [those who lived during the first Beis ha'Mikdash] were wicked

29)[line 27] "TALU BITCHONAM B'HAKADOSH BARUCH HU- they placed their trust in HaSh-m

30)[line 28]" , , ; ' , ' , ""RASHEHA B'SHOCHAD YISHPOTU..."- "Her leaders judged based on bribery, her Kohanim taught for a price, and her prophets [falsely] prophesied for money; and upon HaSh-m they relied, saying, 'HaSh-m is within our midst; no harm will befall us!'" (Michah 3:11).

31)[line 31]", , , ""LACHEN BI'GLALCHEM..."- "Therefore, because of you, Zion shall be plowed over like a field, and Yerushalayim shall be made into heaps of rubble, and the Beis ha'Mikdash shall be made like high places in the forest" (Michah 3:12).

32)[line 32]"[ , , , ;] , ""[Z'AK V'HEILEL BEN ADAM KI HI HAYESAH V'AMI, HI B'CHOL NESI'EI YISRAEL;] MEGUREI EL CHEREV..."- "[Cry out and wail, son of man, for it happened to my people, to all the princes of Yisrael;] an assemblage with swords came against my people, therefore, clap [your hand] against [your] thigh [in mourning]" (Yechezkel 21:17) - This is part of a prophecy warning Bnei Yisrael of impending doom and destruction toward the end of the period of the first Beis ha'Mikdash.

33)[line 33]DOKRIM- run through

34)[line 34]" , , , ...""ZA'AK V'HEILEL BEN ADAM..."- see above, entry #32

35a)[line 36] NISGALEH AVONAM- their sin was revealed (a) since they sinned in public (RASHI); (b) since the Torah revealed it in the verses quoted above (TOSFOS HA'ROSH); (c) as they were conscious of the fact that they were sinning (NETZIV)

b)[line 36] NISGALEH KITZAM- the end [of their exile] was revealed [beforehand to be following seventy years of exile]

36)[line 38] SHIBUD MALCHIYOS- subjugation to the foreign empires [of Persia, Greece, and Rome]

37)[line 38]BIRAH- the Beis ha'Mikdash

38a)[line 37]TZIPORNAN- the fingernails of

b)[line 37]KEREISO- the stomach of

39)[line 40]EIDEICHEM- your witness

40)[line 40] HAVEI SACHI B'YARDENA- was bathing in the Jordan River

41)[line 41]"AMAR LEI- Reish Lakish said to Rabah bar bar Chanah

42)[line 41]- E-LAKA SANINA LECHU- HaSh-m hates you (plural, referring to the residents of Bavel)

43)[line 41]" , ; , ""IM CHOMAH HI..."- "If she is a wall, we will build upon her a turret of silver; if she is a door, we will encircle her with a panel of cedar" (Shir ha'Shirim 8:9).

44)[line 42] NIMSHALTEM KA'KESEF SHE'EIN REKEV SHOLET BO- you will be compared to silver which does not decay

45)[line 43]K'DELASOS- like [double] doors [one of which is open and the other shut; i.e., many stayed behind in Bavel instead ascending to Eretz Yisrael with Ezra]

46)[line 43]SASMAGOR- a type of worm that inhabits rotting wood

47)[line 43] ?MAI SASMAGOR?- [in] what [way were Bnei Yisrael at the time of Bayis Sheni lacking, that they were compared to] wormy [wood]?

48)[line 44] BAS KOL

One of the lower forms of prophecy is referred to as a Bas Kol (lit. echo), wherein individuals on a high spiritual level are able to discern a heavenly voice. The Gemara cites numerous instances in which a Bas Kol was heard to relay information from heaven to earth. Regarding Halachic rulings, the message of a Bas Kol is not taken into account when it contradicts the majority opinion of earthly Sages (Bava Metzia 59b).

49)[line 44] CHAGAI ZECHARYAH U'MALACHI- these were the last three prophets whose writings were preserved for the ages. They were members of the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah (see Background to Shekalim 13:40).

50)[line 44]NISTALKAH- departed

51)[line 45]MISHTA'I- [begin] to converse

52)[line 46] MARA D'ERETZ YISRAEL- the greatest Halachic expert of Eretz Yisrael

53a)[line 47]ISKA- merchandise [to invest in business propositions]

b)[line 47]SAHADEI- witnesses

54)[line 47] SHADI GAVRA BEINAIHU- lit. throw a man between them; one of the two individuals quoted in this story must have been someone else

55)[line 48]U'ZE'IRI- and [the one who gave him a hand was] Ze'iri

56)[line 48] KI ASA- when Reish Lakish came

57)[last line]SHARYA- dwelled

58)[last line]" - ""YAFT ELOKIM L'YEFES, V'YISHKON B'OHALEI SHEM" - "HaSh-m will use the beauty of Yefes, but He will only dwell in the tents of Shem" (Bereishis 9:27) (THE BLESSING OF YEFES)

(a)This verse follows the episode that occurred after the flood, when Cham, son of Noach, abused his father, and it was Shem and Yefes (primarily Shem) who saved their father's dignity by covering him in a modest way. When Noach woke up from his stupor he became aware of what happened, and he promptly cursed Cham, and blessed Shem and Yefes. This was the blessing that he gave to Yefes (and part of the blessing that he gave to Shem).

(b)Chazal learn from the blessing given to Yefes, son of Noach, that a Sefer Torah written in Greek is valid (the Greeks descended from Yefes), but also that the Shechinah will dwell only in the first Beis ha'Mikdash, which would be built by a descendant of Shem (Shlomo ha'Melech) but not in the second Beis ha'Mikdash, which would be built by a descendant of Yefes (as it was Koresh, king of Persia, who commissioned the building of the second Beis ha'Mikdash).

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