[9a - 21 lines; 9b - 49 lines]
1)[line 2]מעשר ראשוןMA'ASER RISHON- see Background to 8:25:a-b
2)[line 3]מעשר עניMA'ASER ANI
Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from one's crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).
3)[line 3]המוציא מחבירו עליו הראיהHA'MOTZI ME'CHAVEIRO ALAV HA'RE'AYAH
(a)Whenever there is a dispute over the ownership of an item, the first rule to follow is "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah." This means that the burden of proof is upon he who wishes to extract the object from another, and not upon he who has the item or money in his possession.
(b)In the case of our Gemara, one must separate Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani in case they had not already been separated before the food is permitted. However, unless a given Levi or pauper can prove that it had not been separated previously, one may eat that which he separated himself. Unlike Terumah which may only be consumed by a Kohen, anyone may eat Ma'aser.
4)[line 4]מעשר שניMA'ASER SHENI
(a)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity. The various laws of Ma'aser Sheni are learned from the verses which begin, "Aser Te'aser Eis Kol Tevu'as Zar'echa..." (Devarim 14:22-27).
(b)If it is impractical to bring the actual food to Yerushalayim, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed with money. This money receives the status of Ma'aser Sheni, and is then brought to Yerushalayim. In Yerushalayim the money may be used to buy food items only, which in turn receives the Kedushah of Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim. Once Ma'aser Sheni enters Yerushalayim, it may no longer be redeemed.
(c)If the owner of the Ma'aser Sheni redeems his own Ma'aser, he must add a fifth of the total value onto the money used; if someone else redeems it, he may do so with money equal to the value of the Ma'aser (Vayikra 27:30-31).
5)[line 4]ונסקוV'NASKU- and bring it up
6)[line 6]חובטין אותן כל י"ב חדשCHOVTIN OSO KOL SHNEIM ASAR CHODESH- beat him every year [when they assume the position, and are looking to demonstrate responsibility]
7)[line 8]פורסיPURSEI- officers appointed by the king
8)[line 9]"יִרְאַת ה' תּוֹסִיף יָמִים; וּשְׁנוֹת רְשָׁעִים תִּקְצֹרְנָה""YIR'AS HA'SH-M TOSIF YAMIM; U'SHENOS RESHA'IM TIKTZORNAH"- "The fear of HaSh-m will increase days, but the years of the wicked will be shortened" (Mishlei 10:27).
9)[line 18]שילהSHILOH- the Mishkan built in the city of the same name; it stood for the 369 years immediately following the fourteen years it took to conquer Eretz Yisrael and apportion it amongst Klal Yisrael (SEDER OLAM RABAH 11)
10)[line 19]עלי... בניוELI... BANAV (BNEI ELI)
(a)When Shmuel ha'Navi first arrived at the Mishkan in Shiloh, Eli ha'Kohen was the Kohen Gadol (Shmuel I 1). His two sons, Chofni and Pinchas, were great Tzadikim; this is clear from a number of Midrashim. The Torah records that Avraham Avinu gave seven of his sheep to Avimelech, king of the Pelishtim (Bereishis 21:30). Since he had done so without first asking if HaSh-m if such an action was appropriate, HaSh-m informed him that he would be punished by having seven of his exemplary descendents meet their deaths at the hand of descendents of Avimelech. Chofni and Pinchas were two of these descendants (Bereishis Rabah 54:4). Furthermore, their names were engraved upon two golden stalks rising from a golden bowl containing pure olive oil for the Menoros of the throne of Shlomo ha'Melech (TARGUM SHENI to Megilas Esther). Furthermore, the verses seem to indicate that a highlight of the thrice-yearly visit to the Mishkan was the opportunity to see the Bnei Eli (Shmuel I 1:3).
(b)The verses state that these Tzadikim slept with married women (Shmuel I 2:22). The Gemara (Shabbos 55b) states that one who says that the Bnei Eli committed adultery is mistaken. Rather, the verse means that they did not make themselves as available as they ought to have to offer the Korbanos of Klal Yisrael. This would sometimes lead to a situation in which a woman who wished to become Tahor after birth would be required to wait an extra day to do so, which in turn delayed her coming home to her husband. Had they actually committed adultery, the verse would never have associated them with honorable Kohanim who descended from them, as it proudly does (Shmuel I 14:3).
(c)Another verse seems to state that anyone who did not agree to first give Chofni and Pinchas a portion of the meat of the sacrifices to roast before the sacrifice was completed was threatened with bodily harm (Shmuel I 2:16; see below, entry #14). Although the verses state that it was the servants of the Kohanim ("Na'ar ha'Kohen," "Chatas ha'Ne'arim") who committed the offenses (see METZUDAS DAVID), the Gemara (Sanhedrin 58a) attributes them to the Bnei Eli themselves. This is either an alternate explanation, or an expression of the responsibility of Chofni and Pinchas for their servants. These great individuals certainly did not stoop to such low tactics. Either a slight irreverence for the Korbanos according to their lofty level, or that which they did not keep a close enough eye on the actions of their subordinates, causes the Navi to speak of them harshly.
(d)Aside from being made out as villains in the scandalous report of the verses, Chofni and Pinchas were also punished with death at the hands of the Pelishtim. In addition, a curse was placed upon their descendents such that without special efforts of piety, all of their male descendents were to die as young men (Rosh Hashanah 18a, based upon Shmuel I 2:33, 3:14).
11)[line 20]הצובאותHA'TZOV'OS- who were gathered
12)[line 1]ששהו את קיניהןSHE'SHAHU ES KINEIHEN - they delayed their bird-offerings (KORBAN YOLEDES)
(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:
1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. (Although for most types of Tum'os, one may immerse in a Mikvah on the day that the specified period ends, since once part of the day has passed it is considered as if all of it has (Miktzas ha'Yom k'Kulo), a Yoledes must wait to immerse until after nightfall. This is because the Torah compares her to a Nidah (Vayikra 7:2), and a Nidah may only immerse herself in a Mikvah following nightfall of her final day of Tum'ah.) After the Yoledes has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom - see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.
2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she sees blood during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).
(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(d)The sons of Eli were not always careful to sacrifice all of the Kinim of those Yoldos who were eligible to offer them on that day. This caused to remain for an additional day before they were able to return home to their husbands.
13)[line 2]כאילו שכבוםK'ILU SHACHVUM- as if they had committed adultery
14)[line 2]"גַּם, בְּטֶרֶם יַקְטִרוּן אֶת הַחֵלֶב, וּבָא נַעַר הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר לָאִישׁ הַזֹּבֵחַ, תְּנָה בָשָׂר לִצְלוֹת לַכֹּהֵן; וְלֹא יִקַּח מִמְּךָ בָּשָׂר מְבֻשָּׁל, כִּי אִם חָי. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הָאִישׁ, קַטֵּר יַקְטִירוּן כַּיּוֹם הַחֵלֶב, וְקַח לְךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר תְּאַוֶּה נַפְשֶׁךָ; וְאָמַר (לו כ') לֹא, כִּי עַתָּה תִתֵּן, וְאִם לֹא, לָקַחְתִּי בְחָזְקָה. וַתְּהִי חַטַּאת הַנְּעָרִים גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד אֶת פְּנֵי ה', כִּי נִאֲצוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים אֵת מִנְחַת ה'""GAM B'TEREM..."- "Also, [sometimes] before the fat [of a Korban] was burned [upon the Mizbe'ach], the servant of the Kohen would come and say to he who was offering [the Korban], 'Give meat for the Kohen to roast; and he will only take raw meat, not roasted.' And the man said to them, '[You should first] burn [the Chelev of the Korban] and then take for yourself [a portion of the flesh] as you desire.' And he said to him, '[No,] rather first you give, otherwise I shall take it forcibly.' And the sin of the lads was very great in front of HaSh-m, for the men treated the Minchah of HaSh-m scornfully" (Shmuel I 2:15-16). See above, entry #10.
15)[line 12]"כִּי קָצַר הַמַּצָּע מֵהִשְׂתָּרֵעַ, וְהַמַּסֵּכָה צָרָה כְּהִתְכַּנֵּס""KI KATZAR HA'MATZA ME'HISTARE'A, VEHA'MASECHAH TZARAH K'HISKANES"- "For the mat will be too short to stretch out, and the cover too narrow to enter" (Yeshayah 28:20).
16)[line 13]מהשתרר עליו שני רעיםME'HISTRARER ALAV SHNEI RE'IM K'ECHAD- for two companions (i.e., HaSh-m and a "companion") to stretch out upon. This is a reference to the idol that the wicked King Menasheh erected in the Beis ha'Mikdash.
17)[line 15]"כֹּנֵס כַּנֵּד, מֵי הַיָּם [נֹתֵן בְּאוֹצָרוֹת תְּהוֹמוֹת]""KONES KA'NED MEI HA'YAM..."- "He assembles as a mound the waters of the sea; [He places the waters of the deep in vaults]" (Tehilim 33:7) - This refers to the splitting of the sea.
18)[line 15]צרהTZARAH- a co-wife (this is a play on the word in the verse, which in context means 'narrow')
19)[line 16]"וַיֹּאמֶר ה', יַעַן כִּי גָבְהוּ בְּנוֹת צִיּוֹן, וַתֵּלַכְנָה נְטוּיוֹת גָּרוֹן, וּמְשַׂקְּרוֹת עֵינָיִם; הָלוֹךְ וְטָפֹף תֵּלַכְנָה, וּבְרַגְלֵיהֶם תְּעַכַּסְנָה""VA'YOMER..."- "And HaSh-m says, 'Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk with head held high, and inquisitive eyes; they float along, and cause anger with their feet" (Yeshayah 3:16).
20)[line 18]ארוכה בצד קצרהARUKAH B'TZAD KETZARAH- a tall woman alongside a short woman. The taller woman desired to stand out in comparison.
21)[line 18]בקומה זקופהB'KOMAH ZEKUFAH- erect of stature (i.e., in a haughty manner, see Rashi to Shabbos 62b)
22)[line 19]כוחלאKUCHALA- a blue eye-tint
23)[line 20]שהיו מהלכות עקב בצד גודלSHE'HAYU MEHALCHOS EKEV B'TZAD GUDAL- that while walking, their ankle would not progress beyond the big toe of the other foot (again, connoting haughtiness)
24a)[line 21]מורMOR- myrrh
b)[line 21]אפרסמוןAFARSEMON- balsam oil (a strong perfume)
25)[line 22]בועטות [בקרקע] ומתיזותBO'ATOS [B'KARKA] U'METIZOS- they would stamp [on the ground] and [cause the scent to] spray
26)[line 22]כארס (בכעוס) דעכנאK'ERES (B'CHA'US) [D'ACHNA]- like the venom of an (excited) serpent (this is a play on the word "T'akasnah" in the verse)
27)[line 23]"וגם דם נקי שפך מנשה הרבה מאד, עד אשר מלא את ירושלם פה לפה; [לבד מחטאתו אשר החטיא את יהודה' לעשות הרע בעיני ה']""V'GAM DAM NAKI SHAFACH MENASHEH HARBEH ME'OD, AD ASHER MILEI ES YERUSHALAYIM PEH LA'FEH..." - "And Menasheh also shed a lot of innocent blood, until he filled Yerushalayim from one end to the other, [besides the sin of causing Yehudah to do evil in the eyes of HaSh-m]" (Melachim II 21:16) (THE WICKED KING MENASHEH)
(a)One of the worst kings of all time, Menasheh spread idolatry throughout Yehudah and even placed a graven image in the Beis ha'Mikdash. This was the major cause for HaSh-m's decision to destroy the Beis ha'Mikdash four generations later.
(b)When the verse speaks about the murders perpetrated by Menasheh, it includes the murder of his own grandfather, Yeshayah ha'Navi. (See Background to Sanhedrin 101:29.)
28)[line 27]רשעים היוRESHA'IM HAYU- [those who lived during the first Beis ha'Mikdash] were wicked
29)[line 27]תלו בטחונם בהקב"הTALU BITCHONAM B'HAKADOSH BARUCH HU- they placed their trust in HaSh-m
30)[line 28]"רָאשֶׁיהָ בְּשֹׁחַד יִשְׁפֹּטוּ, וְכֹהֲנֶיהָ בִּמְחִיר יוֹרוּ, וּנְבִיאֶיהָ בְּכֶסֶף יִקְסֹמוּ; וְעַל ה' יִשָּׁעֵנוּ לֵאמֹר, הֲלוֹא ה' בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ, לֹא תָבוֹא עָלֵינוּ רָעָה""RASHEHA B'SHOCHAD YISHPOTU..."- "Her leaders judged based on bribery, her Kohanim taught for a price, and her prophets [falsely] prophesied for money; and upon HaSh-m they relied, saying, 'HaSh-m is within our midst; no harm will befall us!'" (Michah 3:11).
31)[line 31]"לָכֵן, בִּגְלַלְכֶם צִיּוֹן שָׂדֶה תֵחָרֵשׁ, וִירוּשָׁלִַם עִיִּין תִּהְיֶה, וְהַר הַבַּיִת לְבָמוֹת יָעַר""LACHEN BI'GLALCHEM..."- "Therefore, because of you, Zion shall be plowed over like a field, and Yerushalayim shall be made into heaps of rubble, and the Beis ha'Mikdash shall be made like high places in the forest" (Michah 3:12).
32)[line 32]"[זְעַק וְהֵילֵל, בֶּן אָדָם, כִּי הִיא הָיְתָה בְעַמִּי, הִיא בְּכָל נְשִׂיאֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל;] מְגוּרֵי אֶל חֶרֶב הָיוּ אֶת עַמִּי, לָכֵן סְפֹק אֶל יָרֵךְ""[Z'AK V'HEILEL BEN ADAM KI HI HAYESAH V'AMI, HI B'CHOL NESI'EI YISRAEL;] MEGUREI EL CHEREV..."- "[Cry out and wail, son of man, for it happened to my people, to all the princes of Yisrael;] an assemblage with swords came against my people, therefore, clap [your hand] against [your] thigh [in mourning]" (Yechezkel 21:17) - This is part of a prophecy warning Bnei Yisrael of impending doom and destruction toward the end of the period of the first Beis ha'Mikdash.
33)[line 33]דוקריןDOKRIM- run through
34)[line 34]"זְעַק וְהֵילֵל, בֶּן אָדָם, כִּי הִיא הָיְתָה בְעַמִּי, הִיא בְּכָל נְשִׂיאֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל...""ZA'AK V'HEILEL BEN ADAM..."- see above, entry #32
35a)[line 36]נתגלה עונםNISGALEH AVONAM- their sin was revealed (a) since they sinned in public (RASHI); (b) since the Torah revealed it in the verses quoted above (TOSFOS HA'ROSH); (c) as they were conscious of the fact that they were sinning (NETZIV)
b)[line 36]נתגלה קצםNISGALEH KITZAM- the end [of their exile] was revealed [beforehand to be following seventy years of exile]
36)[line 38]שעבוד מלכיותSHIBUD MALCHIYOS- subjugation to the foreign empires [of Persia, Greece, and Rome]
37)[line 38]בירהBIRAH- the Beis ha'Mikdash
38a)[line 37]צפורנןTZIPORNAN- the fingernails of
b)[line 37]כריסוKEREISO- the stomach of
39)[line 40]עידיכםEIDEICHEM- your witness
40)[line 40]הוי סחי בירדנאHAVEI SACHI B'YARDENA- was bathing in the Jordan River
41)[line 41]א"לAMAR LEI- Reish Lakish said to Rabah bar bar Chanah
42)[line 41]א-לקא סנינא לכוE-LAKA SANINA LECHU- HaSh-m hates you (plural, referring to the residents of Bavel)
43)[line 41]"אִם חוֹמָה הִיא, נִבְנֶה עָלֶיהָ טִירַת כָּסֶף; וְאִם דֶּלֶת הִיא, נָצוּר עָלֶיהָ לוּחַ אָרֶז""IM CHOMAH HI..."- "If she is a wall, we will build upon her a turret of silver; if she is a door, we will encircle her with a panel of cedar" (Shir ha'Shirim 8:9).
44)[line 42]נמשלתם ככסף שאין רקב שולט בוNIMSHALTEM KA'KESEF SHE'EIN REKEV SHOLET BO- you will be compared to silver which does not decay
45)[line 43]כדלתותK'DELASOS- like [double] doors [one of which is open and the other shut; i.e., many stayed behind in Bavel instead ascending to Eretz Yisrael with Ezra]
46)[line 43]ססמגורSASMAGOR- a type of worm that inhabits rotting wood
47)[line 43]מאי ססמגור?MAI SASMAGOR?- [in] what [way were Bnei Yisrael at the time of Bayis Sheni lacking, that they were compared to] wormy [wood]?
48)[line 44]בת קולBAS KOL
One of the lower forms of prophecy is referred to as a Bas Kol (lit. echo), wherein individuals on a high spiritual level are able to discern a heavenly voice. The Gemara cites numerous instances in which a Bas Kol was heard to relay information from heaven to earth. Regarding Halachic rulings, the message of a Bas Kol is not taken into account when it contradicts the majority opinion of earthly Sages (Bava Metzia 59b).
49)[line 44]חגי זכריה ומלאכיCHAGAI ZECHARYAH U'MALACHI- these were the last three prophets whose writings were preserved for the ages. They were members of the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah (see Background to Shekalim 13:40).
50)[line 44]נסתלקהNISTALKAH- departed
51)[line 45]משתעיMISHTA'I- [begin] to converse
52)[line 46]מרא דארעא דישראלMARA D'ERETZ YISRAEL- the greatest Halachic expert of Eretz Yisrael
53a)[line 47]עיסקאISKA- merchandise [to invest in business propositions]
b)[line 47]סהדיSAHADEI- witnesses
54)[line 47]שדי גברא בינייהוSHADI GAVRA BEINAIHU- lit. throw a man between them; one of the two individuals quoted in this story must have been someone else
55)[line 48]וזעיריU'ZE'IRI- and [the one who gave him a hand was] Ze'iri
56)[line 48]כי אתאKI ASA- when Reish Lakish came
57)[last line]שריאSHARYA- dwelled
58)[last line]"יפת א-לקים ליפת וישכן באהלי שם""YAFT ELOKIM L'YEFES, V'YISHKON B'OHALEI SHEM" - "HaSh-m will use the beauty of Yefes, but He will only dwell in the tents of Shem" (Bereishis 9:27) (THE BLESSING OF YEFES)
(a)This verse follows the episode that occurred after the flood, when Cham, son of Noach, abused his father, and it was Shem and Yefes (primarily Shem) who saved their father's dignity by covering him in a modest way. When Noach woke up from his stupor he became aware of what happened, and he promptly cursed Cham, and blessed Shem and Yefes. This was the blessing that he gave to Yefes (and part of the blessing that he gave to Shem).
(b)Chazal learn from the blessing given to Yefes, son of Noach, that a Sefer Torah written in Greek is valid (the Greeks descended from Yefes), but also that the Shechinah will dwell only in the first Beis ha'Mikdash, which would be built by a descendant of Shem (Shlomo ha'Melech) but not in the second Beis ha'Mikdash, which would be built by a descendant of Yefes (as it was Koresh, king of Persia, who commissioned the building of the second Beis ha'Mikdash).