[8a - 40 lines; 8b - 31 lines]

1)[line 1]אזכרהAZKARAH- name of HaSh-m

2a)[line 7]נפקא ליה מ"על מצחו"NAFKA LEI MEAL MITZCHO- he derives it from the words "Al Metzcho" [at the end of the verse; see Background to 7:14)]

b)[line 12]נפקא ליה ממצח מצחוNAFKA LEI MI'METZACH MITZCHO- he derives it from [that which the Torah could have written the word] "Metzach" ["the forehead," and instead chose to write] "Mitzcho" ["his forehead," which requires an extra "Yud"]

3)[line 14]אחד זה ואחד זהECHAD ZEH V'ECHAD ZEH- both the Kohen Gadol prior to Yom Kipur and the Kohen who is to burn the Parah Adumah

4)[line 15]מזיןMAZIN (MEI CHAT'AS)

(a)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah (see Background to 2:6) and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

5)[line 15]מכל חטאות שהיו שםMI'KOL CHATA'OS SHE'HAYU SHAM- from the ashes of all of the Paros Adumos (see Background to 2:6) which were in the Beis ha'Mikdash. There were either seven or nine Paros Adumos in history (see Mishnayos Parah 3:5), and ashes remained from every one of them - even the one burned by Moshe Rabeinu in the desert.

6a)[line 21]ר"מ סבר טומאה דחויה היא בציבורREBBI MEIR SAVAR TUM'AH DECHUYAH HI B'TZIBOR- Rebbi Meir is of the opinion that Tum'ah is only begrudgingly allowed in a Korban Tzibor [and therefore we must make every effort to be Metaher the Kohen Gadol before Yom Kipur. Since the first three days may all possibly be the third day following that when he may have contracted Tum'as Mes, and the fifth, sixth, and seventh may all possibly be the seventh day, he is sprinkled with Mei Chatas on all of them.]

b)[line 22]ור' יוסי סבר טומאה היתר היא בציבורV'REBBI YOSI SAVAR TUM'AH HETER HI B'TZIBOR- And Rebbi Yosi is of the opinion that Tum'ah is permitted in a Korban Tzibor [and therefore the sprinkling of Mei Chatas is simply an added sanctity instituted by the Chachamim]

7)[line 27]טבילה בזמנה מצוה / טבילה בזמנה לאו מצוהTEVILAH BI'ZEMANAH MITZVAH / TEVILAH BI'ZEMANAH LAV MITZVAH

(a)There are many different types of Tum'ah. According to Torah law, those who become Tamei must immerse themselves in a Mikvah as part of their purification process.

(b)When one may first immerse oneself depends on the type of Tum'ah that he or she is Tamei with. Some Teme'im, such as a Ba'al Keri (see Background to 6:12), may immerse in a Mikvah immediately. Others, such as a Zavah Ketanah (see Background to 6:19), must wait until the next day. A Zavah Gedolah (see Background to 6:19) must wait until the seventh day following the end of her bleeding. A Nidah (see Background to 6:7) must wait a complete seven days from the onset of her bleeding, and may then immerse herself at night.

(c)There are Tana'im who derive from Devarim 23:12 that immersing oneself at the first opportunity to do so is a Torah commandment. This is termed Tevilah bi'Zemanah Mitzvah. Other Tana'im disagree and maintain that it is merely a recommended practice; they use the above-mentioned verse for an alternate derivation.

8)[line 29]שםSHEM- name [of HaSh-m]

9)[line 30]יסוךYASUCH- anoint himself with oil

10)[line 30]מקום הטנופתMAKOM HA'TINOFES- a filthy place

11)[line 31]גמיGEMI- a reed

12)[line 32]ישפשףYESHAFSHEF- rub it

13)[line 33]ורבי יוסי סבר אמרינן טבילה בזמנה מצוהV'REBBI YOSI SAVAR AMRINAN TEVILAH BI'ZEMANAH MITZVAH- and Rebbi Yosi is of the opinion that Tevilah in its proper time is a Mitzvah [and therefore one need not tie a reed around the Shem, for fear that he may not have one handy and therefore push off his Tevilah]

14)[line 39]מעלה בעלמאMA'ALAH B'ALMA- is an extra degree of sanctity instituted by the Chachamim. (The reason why they instituted this measure for the Kohen Gadol before Yom Kipur was in recognition of his impending entry into the Holy of Holies.)


15a)[line 1]שזה פרישתו לקדושהSHE'ZEH PERISHASO L'KEDUSHAH- for the Kohen Gadol is separated before Yom Kipur in order to out him in the proper solemn state of mind beforehand

b)[line 2]וזה פרישתו לטהרהV'ZEH PERISHASO L'TAHARAH- and the Kohen who burns the Parah Adumah is separated beforehand in order to keep him Tahor [as a counterbalance to the decision of the Chachamim to deliberately be Metamei him the day that he burned it (see 2a, line 15)]

16)[line 11]שבותSHEVUS

(a)A Shvus is an action prohibited on Shabbos mid'Rabanan. The Torah states "...uva'Yom ha'Shevi'i Tishbos" - "...and you shall rest on the seventh day." (Shemos 23:12). The Rabanan understood this to apply even to actions that are not Melachos, and as a result they prohibited actions which are permitted mid'Oraisa (see Shabbos 114b). The term "Shvus" is derived from the word "Tishbos" in the Pasuk.

17)[line 16]קביעא דירחאKEVI'A D'YARCHA- the calendar set by the moon

18)[line 17]מתרמיMISRAMI- occurs

19a)[line 26]פרהדריןPARHEDRIN- officers appointed by the king

b)[line 23]בלווטיBALVATI- ministers

20)[line 24]בתחלהBI'TECHILAH- in the times of Shimon ha'Tzadik, who served as Kohen Gadol for eighty years at the beginning of the period of the second Beis ha'Mikdash

21)[line 25]שנותנין עליו ממון לכהונהSHE'NOSNIN ALAV MAMON L'KEHUNAH- that they purchased the office of the Kehunah Gedolah

22)[line 25]מחליפין אותה כל שנים עשר חודשMACHLIFIN OSO KAL SHNEIM ASAR CHODESH- they would change it (the room) every twelve months [since each successive Kohen Gadol would refurbish it to make it even more impressive than it was under his predecessor]

23)[line 29]נחתומיןNACHTUMIN- bakers [who purchase wheat from Amei ha'Aretz (see next entry)]

24)[line 30]להפרישL'HAFRISH (DEMAI)

(a)Produce originating from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who may be lax in his Torah observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" - "what is this?").

(b)Terumas Ma'aser (see next entry) and Ma'aser Sheni (see Background to Shekalim 19:7) must be separated from such produce, since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz are not careful to separate these tithes from their produce. One may assume, however, that Terumah Gedolah (see below, entry #27) has been separated, since even an Am ha'Aretz is careful with Terumah due to its stringency. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani (see Background to Shekalim 22:14) are separated from the produce, but may be eaten by the owner in keeping with the principle of "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah" - "the burden of proof falls upon he who wishes to take away".

(c)The Rabanan did not require one to separate Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni from Demai prior to feeding it to a poor person.

25)[line 30]תרומת מעשרTERUMAS MA'ASER

(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify an amount that must be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.

(b)Once Terumah is separated from the produce, the first tithe must be separated. One tenth of the remaining produce is given to a Levi; this is known as Ma'aser Rishon. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon and give it to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26. This is called Terumas Ma'aser.

(c)The Levi may not eat this produce until both Terumos have been removed. One who intentionally consumes such Tevel receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.

26)[line 30]חלהCHALAH

(a)With regard to the Mitzvah of Chalah, the verses state, "...b'Vo'achem El ha'Aretz...Reishis Arisoseichem Chalah Tarimu Serumah..." - "[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them,] 'When you come into the land [where I shall bring you, when you eat of the bread of the land, you shall separate a Terumah (tithe) to HaSh-m.] You shall separate the first of your dough for a Terumah; [as you do with the Terumah separated from the grain of the threshing floor, so, too, shall you present this [to the Kohanim.]" (Bamidbar 15:18-20).

(b)When a person makes dough from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion which must be given to the Kohen before he may eat from the dough. This portion is called Chalah. (The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah applies to a volume of dough made with at least 43.2 Beitzim of flour [about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters]. One who makes a dough that is at least approximately half of that size must separate Chalah without a Berachah.) A professional baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while one baking bread for his or her own household must separate 1/24. If one did not separate Chalah from his dough before it was baked, it must be separated after it is baked before the bread may be consumed. Before Chalah is separated, the dough is called "Tavul l'Chalah," and anyone who eats it b'Mezid (intentionally) is liable to receive the punishments of Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Makos 13a).

(c)Chalah has the same status of Terumah; it may be eaten by Kohanim and their households while they are Tehorim. A non-Kohen who eats Chalah b'Mezid is liable to receive Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 5:14 and Hilchos Terumah 6:6).

27)[last line]תרומה גדולהTERUMAH GEDOLAH- see above, entry #25a and c