[74a - 52 lines; 74b - 42 lines]
1)[line 1]ונוהגין בשאר שני שבועV'NOHAGIN BI'SHE'AR SHNEI SHAVU'A- and Terumah and Bikurim apply in other years (the third and sixth years of Shemitah) and have no redemption, which do not apply to Ma'aser (Sheni).
2)[line 2]נשתיירו בו ציצין המעכבין את המילהNISHTAYRU BO TZITZIN HA'ME'AKVIN ES HA'MILAH- small strips of the foreskin that invalidate circumcision
3)[line 4]בפסחB'PESACH (KORBAN PESACH)
(a)It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 12:6), "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening." The Pesach is an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year that is roasted in its entirety.
(b)An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable to the Kares punishment.
(c)In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat at least a k'Zayis of the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single Pesach may be split into many Chaburos eating in different places - Pesachim 86a.) No bones of the Pesach are allowed to be broken (Shemos 12:46).
(d)The verses limit the people who are permitted to eat the Korban Pesach. Nochrim, people who are Teme'im and men who are uncircumcised are prohibited from eating the Korban Pesach (Shemos 12:43-44).
4)[line 4]בקדשיםB'KODSHIM- if there were strands left from the Milah, one is not allowed to eat Kodshim
5)[line 5]מעשר דגןMA'ASER DAGAN
(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify an amount that must be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.
(b)Once Terumah is separated from the produce, the first tithe is separated. One tenth of the remaining produce is given to a Levi; this is known as Ma'aser Rishon.
(c)Produce grown in one year may not be mixed with produce of another year for the purposes of Ma'aser. For this purpose, the year begins on the first day of Tishrei (Rosh Hashanah).
6)[line 5]מעשר בהמהMA'ASAR BEHEMAH
(a)Every year, a person must collect all of the kosher animals that were born during that year into a corral. As they leave the corral through a narrow opening, one by one, the owner counts them and marks every tenth one as Ma'asar Behemah. The Mitzvah of Ma'asar Behemah is stated in Vayikra (27:32), "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shevet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-m" - "And all of the herds and flocks shall be tithed as they are counted under the rod, every tenth one being consecrated to HaSh-m."
(b)Ma'asar Behemah is eaten by its owner. If it has no Mum (blemish or defect), it is offered as a Korban on the Mizbe'ach and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. If it has a Mum, the owner may slaughter and eat it anywhere.
7)[line 11]מעשר ראשוןMA'ASER RISHON
(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b)After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.
8)[line 12]דאמר מעשר ראשון אסור לזריםD'AMAR MA'ASER RISHON ASUR L'ZARIM
According to the majority, and Halachic, opinion, Ma'aser Rishon does not have Kedushah. It may be eaten both Tamei and Tahor, and by any person. Rebbi Meir (Yevamos 74a and elsewhere), however, argues and maintains that Ma'aser Rishon does have Kedushah. According to him, Ma'aser Rishon may only be eaten by Leviyim or Kohanim, and even they may not eat it if they are Arelim (uncircumcised). Rebbi Meir agrees, however, that Ma'aser Rishon may be eaten when it is Tamei (TOSFOS Yevamos 86b DH Mi).
9)[line 17]ובפרהUV'PARAH (PARAH)
The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow, is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches, and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning. (Bamidbar 19:1-22)
10)[line 17]טבול יוםTEVUL YOM
A Tevul Yom is a person or utensil that has been immersed in a Mikvah to become Tahor for Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely Tahor with regard to Terumah. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches do not become Teme'im. After the following nightfall, he or it becomes completely Tahor with regard to Terumah.
11)[line 18]מחוסר כפוריםMECHUSAR KIPURIM
(a)There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora:
1.Tevilah (immersing in a Ma'ayan for a Zav, or a Mikvah for the others),
2.He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after the Tevilah) and
(b)The above Teme'im may not eat Terumah until nightfall after the Tevilah. They may not eat Kodshim until they have brought their Korbanos the following morning. A Tamei who has only immersed is called a Tevul Yom until nightfall. After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah until he brings his Korban.
12)[line 23]"איש איש [מזרע אהרן והוא צרוע או זב בקדשים לא יאכל עד אשר יטהר והנגע בכל טמא נפש או איש אשר תצא ממנו שכבת זרע]""ISH ISH"- "Any man [from the offspring of Aharon who has Tzara'as or is a Zav, he may not eat that which is holy....]" (Vayikra 22:4) - This verse, too, teaches who may not partake of Terumah.
13)[line 24]תנא דרבי יוסף הבבליTANA D'REBBI YOSEF HA'BAVLI HI- the Tana Rebbi Yosef from Bavel
14)[line 25]שרפת אונן ומחוסר כפורים כשרהSEREIFAS ONEN U'MECHUSAR KIPURIM KESHEIRAH- the burning [of the Parah Adumah] performed by an Onen (see Background to 73:1) or a Mechusar Kaparah (see above, entry #11) is valid
15)[line 32]מופניMUFNEI (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Gezeirah Shavah, in which two identical words (or two words that share the same root) that appear in two different sections of the Torah reveal that the Halachos applicable to one section apply to the other and vice versa.
(b)One may apply a Gezeirah Shavah only if he has received a tradition from his teachers that such a connection between the two words exists. Once the connection is established, however, then one may derive Halachos that were not specified in the tradition.
(c)A Gezeirah Shavah is unlimited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah." This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.
(d)There are three possible configurations for a Gezeirah Shavah:
1.MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If both words are seemingly unnecessary and are not used in the derivation of any other teaching, then all of the rules described above apply.
2.MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If the word in only one of the sections is available, some maintain that such a Gezeirah Shavah is no more limited than one that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim. Others rule that Halachos may be derived from such a Gezeirah Shavah only if there is no argument against them. This status is known as "Lemedin u'Meshivin."
3.EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If neither word is free, then those opinions who maintain that a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Tzad Echad is unlimited grant such a Gezeirah Shavah the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin. Those who applied Lemedin u'Meshivin to a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim rule that this one may not be used to determine any Halachos whatsoever.
See Background to 70:27.
See Background to 70:28.
18)[line 34]וטמאV'TAMEI (TUM'AS HA'GUF)
See Background to 70:29.
19)[line 34]לאייLAYEI- indeed
20)[line 35]תלתא ממנו כתיבי בפסחTELASA MIMENU KESIVEI B'PESACH- three words "Mimenu" are written with regard to the Korban Pesach.
21)[line 36]לגזירה שוהLI'GEZEIRAH SHAVAH- [it is used] for the Gezeirah Shavah. (In order to expound a Gezeirah Shavah between two words, the words must be free and not be teaching anything else. If they are being used to teach something, then no Gezeirah Shavah may be expounded.)
22)[line 37]בא הכתוב ליתן לך עשה אחר לא תעשהBA HA'KASUV LI'TEN LECHA ASEH ACHAR LO SA'ASEH- the verse comes to teach you that this Aseh to burn Nosar exempts the Lav (not to leave it over) from lashes
23)[line 38]ליתן לו בקר שני לשריפתוLI'TEN LO BOKER SHENI LI'SEREIFASO- the verse mandates waiting another morning before burning it (and since the Torah needed to say "until morning," it also says "Mimenu")
24)[line 39]תלתא ממנו כתיבי במעשרTELASA MIMENU KESIVEI B'MA'ASER- three words "Mimenu" are written with regard to Ma'aser
25)[line 40]לדרבי אבהו א''ר יוחנןLID'REBBI AVAHU AMAR REBBI YOCHANAN- one is required for the deduction which Rebbi Avahu made in the name of Rebbi Yochanan (which permits the burning of Tamei oil of Terumah for lighting purposes)
26)[line 41]לסוכוL'SUCHO- for anointing
27)[line 41]"[לא אכלתי באני ממנו ולא בערתי ממנו בטמא] ולא נתתי ממנו למת...""[LO ACHALTI V'ONI MIMENU, V'LO VI'ARTI MIMENU B'TAMEI,] V'LO NASATI MIMENU L'MES"- "[I have not eaten of it (Ma'aser Sheni) while I was an Onen, neither have I consumed any of it while Tamei,] nor given any of it for the dead...." (Devarim 26:14)
28)[line 43]ליקח לו ארון ותכריכיםLIKACH LO ARON V'TACHRICHIM- perhaps the verse forbids buying a coffin or shrouds with Ma'aser Sheni!
29)[line 46]למדין ואין משיבין... למדין ומשיביןLEMEDIN V'EIN MESHIVIN... LEMEDIN U'MESHIVIN- we use the words unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah even though we may have a logical argument against learning the Gezeirah Shavah
30)[line 48]"ואני הנה נתתי לך את משמרת תרומותי""VA'ANI HINEI NASATI LECHA ES MISHMERES TERUMOSAI..."- "And I, behold, I have given you the charge of my elevated gifts" (Bamidbar 18:8) - The word "Terumosai" (my elevated gifts) is plural, indicating two types of Terumos.
31)[line 50]להסקה תחת תבשילךL'HASIKAH TACHAS TAVSHILCHA- to use it as fuel to cook your food
32)[line 2]בחזה ושוקCHAZEH V'SHOK
The chest and the hind leg of the Shelamim (peace offering) are waved in a prescribed manner and then given as a gift to the Kohanim, as described in Vayikra (7:28-36). They may not be eaten by non-Kohanim, but they may be eaten by both male and female Kohanim. Once a female Kohanim becomes married to non-Kohen, however, she may no longer eat from the Chazeh v'Shok. Even after her husband dies or divorces her, she may not eat from the Chazeh v'Shok.
33)[line 2]אינה בחוזרתEINAH B'CHOZERES- Chazeh v'Shok may not be eaten by a female Kohen who was once married to a non-Kohen, even if she is no longer married to him. [Therefore, it would not be appropriate to call the Chazeh v'Shok "an article that may be eaten by any Kohen, male or female."]
34)[line 6]בזב בעל שתי ראיותB'ZAV BA'AL SHTEI RE'IYOS (BA'AL SHTEI RE'IYOS)
(a)A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Pesachim 66:16 for a discussion of the Tum'ah of the Zav), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are:
1.eating too much;
2.drinking too much;
4.being sick; etc. (see Zavim 2:2).
(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah.
35)[line 6]ובמצורע מוסגרUV'METZORA MUSGAR / METZORA MUCHLAT
(a)When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen tentatively pronounces him Tamei for one or two weeks, making him a Metzora Musgar. The Kohen returns after a week to see what changes, if any, occurred to the mark. If the Kohen confirms the Tum'ah of the Metzora due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away.
(b)The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora are
1.Baheres, which is the color of snow;
2.Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool;
3.Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash;
4.Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.
(c)On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.
(d)The Metzora next shaves all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see above, entry #11). For a description of the order of the Korbanos of the Metzora, see Background to Yevamos 5:4.
36)[line 8]בר כפרהBAR KAPARAH- one who needs to bring a Korban to acquire atonement
37)[line 20]מחפ''זMaCHPaZ- See Background to Yevamos 73:20.
38)[line 21]הד''ס ט''בHaDaS TaV- These words are a mnemonic device listing five things that apply to Ma'aser Sheni that make it more stringent than Terumah:
1.Hava'ah (Hava'as Makom - it must to be brought to and eaten in Yerushalayim);
3.ASur l'Onen (it may not be eaten by an Onen;
4.Tum'ah (one may not cook with it when it is Tamei or use it's oil in a lamp. If someone eats it when it is Tamei he receives lashes);
(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:
1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom - see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.
2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).
(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
40)[line 27]"בכל קדש לא תגע ועל המקדש לא תבא עד מלאת ימי טהרה""B'CHOL KODESH LO SIGA V'EL HA'MIKDASH LO SAVO AD MELOS YEMEI TAHORAH"- "... she shall touch no consecrated thing, nor come into the sanctuary, until the days of her purity are fulfilled." (Vayikra 12:4)
41)[line 31]פנקעכ''סPaNK'AKaS- This is a mnemonic. See Background to Yevamos 73:17.
42)[line 34]מכלל שהיא טמאהMI'CHLAL SHE'HI TEME'AH- this implies that until now she has been Teme'ah [with regard to eating Kodshim]
43)[line 37]ומי מצית אמרת תרומה כתיבא הכאU'MI MATZIS AMRAT TERUMAH KESIVAH HACHA- is it really necessary to prove that the verse "v'Chiper Aleha" is not discussing Terumah? It is self-evident that it is not discussing Terumah!