[66a - 49 lines; 66b - 50 lines]
1)[line 1]או חלוףO [CHALUF] (CHILUF)- or [I will] switch it around (that is, why not start from the following point of view?)
2)[line 5]"[ויעשו בני ישראל את הפסח] במועדו""[V'YA'ASU VNEI YISRAEL ES HA'PASACH] B'MO'ADO"- "And Bnei Yisrael shall bring the Korban Pesach in its proper time" (Bamidbar 9:2).
3)[line 6]הבא לי מועד לאלוHAVEI LI MO'ED L'ELU- bring me [a source that the Avodos of Harkavaso, Hava'aso mi'Chutz la'Techum, Chatichas Yabalto, and Haza'ah require] "Mo'ed" (a fixed time)
4)[line 11]נתעלמה מבני בתיראNIS'ALMAH MI'BNEI BESEIRA- The children of Beseira were named Rebbi Yehoshua, Rebbi Shimon, and Rebbi Yehudah. All of them were Talmidei Chachamim, and one of them was the Nasi. None of them could recall the Halachah that the offering of the Korban Pesach takes precedence over Shabbos (MAHARSHA).
5)[line 21]והלא הרבה יותר ממאתים פסחים יש...VAHA'LO HARBEH YOSER MI'MASAYIM PESACHIM YESH...- The word "Pesachim" here is non-specific. Hillel wondered at the question of whether or not the offering of a Korban overrides Shabbos - are there not four Korbanos (two sheep for each of the two Temidim, and an additional two for the Korban Musaf) which are offered on each of the fifty (or so) Shabbosos of the year?
6)[line 31]מקנטרן בדבריםMEKANTERAN BI'DEVARIM- to needle them with [his] words [(O.F. contrarier) to vex, to offend]
7)[line 35]שכח ולא הביא סכין מערב שבתSHACHACH V'LO HEVI SAKIN ME'EREV SHABBOS- [if] one forgot to bring a knife [with which to slaughter the Korban Pesach] on Erev Shabbos [when Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos]
8)[line 37]בני נביאים הןBNEI NEVI'IM HEN- they are the sons of prophets; therefore let us observe them in order to see what they do, for such surely must be the Halachah.
9)[line 42]"עולת שבת בשבתו על עולת התמיד ונסכה""OLAS SHABBAS B'SHABBATO, AL OLAS HA'TAMID V'NISKAH"- "The Korban Olah of every Shabbos (should be offered as a Musaf offering) on its own Shabbos, aside from the Korban Olah of the Tamid and its libation" (Bamidbar 28:10).
10a)[line 45]תדירTADIR- offered every day
b)[line 45]וכלילKALIL- completely burned [on the Mizbe'ach] (with the exception of its hide)
11)[line 47]בשלמא גזירה שוה לא גמריתוBI'SHELAMA GEZEIRAH SHAVAH LO GAMRISU- granted that you did not learn such a Gezeirah Shavah (from your teachers)
12)[line 1]והא קא עביד עבודה בקדשים!V'HA KA AVID AVODAH B'KODSHIM!- one may not utilize an animal which has been consecrated to Hekdesh to perform any chore, as the Torah specifies with regard to a Bechor: "Lo Sa'avod bi'Vchor Shorecha" (Devarim 15:19). The prohibition against using all other Korbanos in such a manner is derived from that which is written regarding a Bechor.
13)[line 5]ואין מעריכיןEIN MA'ARICHIN (ERECH)
(a)If one wishes to pledge the value of an individual - whether his own or that of someone else - to Hekdesh, there are two ways to do so. The first is to appraise him based upon how much he would fetch on the slave market. This takes into account factors such as physical strength, trade skills, health, etc. This is known as the Damim - worth - of a person. Every individual also has a Torah value, known as an Erech. The Torah designates a specific value for every person based upon his or her gender and age, as specified in Vayikra 27:1-8. For this value, it is irrespective if the individual is healthy, sick, strong, weak, etc.
(b)If one wishes to pledge the value of an individual - whether his own or that of someone else:
1.For ages 1 month to 5 years - the Erech for males is 5 Shekalim and for females is 3 Shekalim
2.For ages 5 years to 20 years - the Erech for males is 20 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim
3.For ages 20 yrs. to 60 years - the Erech for males is 50 Shekalim and for females is 30 Shekalim
4.For ages 60 years and older - the Erech for males is 15 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim.
14)[line 6]ואין מחרימיןEIN MACHARIMIN (CHEREM)
(a)"Cherem" is a term applied to an object one wishes to consecrate. There are two types of Charamim:
1.Chermei Kohanim, which are given to the Kohanim for their personal use and cannot be redeemed;
2.Chermei Shamayim, which are given to Bedek ha'Bayis and may be redeemed like any other object donated to Bedek ha'Bayis.
15)[line 6]ואין מגביהין תרומה ומעשרותEIN NAGBIHIN TERUMOS U'MA'ASROS (TERUMAH; MA'ASER RISHON; MA'ASER SHENI; MA'ASER ANI)
(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). Although the Torah does not specify an amount that must be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.
(b)After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi (Bamidbar 18:21). The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26).
(c)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor Ma'aser Ani (Devarim 14:28-29).
(d)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity. The various laws of Ma'aser Sheni are learned from the verses which begin, "Aser Te'aser Eis Kol Tevu'as Zar'echa..." (Devarim 14:22-27).
16)[line 9]בחובות שקבוע להן זמןCHOVOS HA'KAVU'A LA'HEN ZMAN- obligatory (Korbanos) which have a set time [on that day]
One may not lead a laden animal on Shabbos, even by simply calling to it from a distance. This is understood from the verses, "Lema'an Yanu'ach Shorcha va'Chamorecha" (Shemos 23:12), and "v'Shorcha va'Chamorcha v'Chol Behemtecha" (Devarim 5:14) (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 20:1-2, 6), which require a person to ensure that his animal not perform Melachah on Shabbos.
18)[line 12]כלאחר ידKIL'ACHAR YAD
(a)If a Melachah is performed on Shabbos in an abnormal fashion, the transgressor is not liable to receive the punishment ascribed by the Torah. This is referred to as a Melachah performed kil'Achar Yad (lit. using the back of the hand).
(b)Sticking an object into the wool of an animal or between its horns is an abnormal way for the animal to carry something, and is therefore considered a Melachah performed kil'Achar Yad.
19)[line 19]כל המתיהרKOL HA'MISYAHER- one who acts haughtily
20)[line 25]"חדלו פרזון בישראל חדלו; עד שקמתי דבורה, שקמתי אם בישראל""CHADLU FERAZON B'YISRAEL, CHADELU; AD SHA'KAMTI DEVORAH, SHA'KAMTI EM B'YISRAEL"- "The inhabitants of the unfortified cities ceased in Israel, they ceased [to live in them]; until I, Devorah, arose; I arose, a mother of Israel" (Shoftim 5:7).
21)[line 27]"עורי עורי דבורה, עורי עורי דברי שיר; [קום ברק ושבה שביך בן אבינועם]""URI URI DEVORAH, URI URI DABRI SHIR; [KUM BARAK, U'SHAVEH SHEVYECHA BEN AVINO'AM]"- "Awaken, awaken, Devorah; awaken, awaken, utter a song; [arise, Barak; and seize your captives, son of Avino'am]" (Shoftim 5:12). From that which Devorah ha'Nevi'ah urged herself to "Awaken," it is apparent that she had lost her prophetic inspiration.
22)[line 32]"ויקצוף משה על פקודי החיל [שרי האלפים ושרי המאות הבאים מצבא המלחמה]""VA'YIKTZOF MOSHE AL PEKUDEI HE'CHAYIL; [SAREI HA'ALAFIM V'SAREI HA'ME'OS HA'BA'IM MI'TZEVA HA'MILCHAMAH]"- "And Moshe became angry with the officers of the army; [the commanders of thousands and the commanders of hundreds who were returning from the military campaign]" (Bamidbar 31:14).
23)[line 35]איעלם מיניהI'ALAM MINEI- it was concealed from him
24)[line 37]"[ויאמר אלישע חי ה' צבקות אשר עמדתי לפניך כי] לולי פני יהושפט מלך יהודה אני נשא אם אביט אליך ואם אראך. ועתה קחו לי מנגן והיה כנגן המנגן ותהי עליו יד ה'""[VA'YOMER ELISHA, 'CHAI HASH-M TZEVA'KOS ASHER AMADTI LEFANAV, KI] LULEI PNEI YEHOSHAFAT MELECH YEHUDAH ANI NOSEI, IM ABIT ELECHA V'IM ER'EKA. V'ATAH KECHU LI MENAGEN, V'HAYAH K'NAGEN HA'MENAGEN VA'TEHI ALAV YAD HASH-M" - "[And Elisha said, 'I swear by HaSh-m of Hosts, before whom I stood, that] if I did not favor Yehoshafat, I would not look you in the face. And now, take for me a musician; and as the musician played, the hand of HaSh-m came upon him" (Melachim II 3:14-15) (ELISHA AND YEHORAM, THE SON OF ACHAV)
(a)King Yehoram, who followed the ways of his wicked father Achav, joined forces with the king of Edom and with his brother-in-law, the righteous Yehoshafat, and set out to attack Meisha, the king of Mo'av. Mo'av, a vassal state of Yisrael, had been paying a heavy annual tax. However, upon the death of Achav, Meisha broke away from Yisrael and ceased paying the tax.
(b)They decided to travel the route of the desert of Edom, but on the way they ran out of water and found themselves without a drop for the soldiers or for the animals. Yehoram began to lament that HaSh-m had gathered these three kings together in order to deliver them into the hands of Mo'av, but Yehoshafat asked whether there was a Navi in the vicinity. When one of the servants of the king of Yisrael mentioned Elisha, he persuaded Yehoram to consult him for advice.
(c)The Navi was duly summoned. Initially, he asked Yehoram why he did not rather consult the prophets of his evil father Achav and of his evil mother Izevel (the prophets of Ba'al). When the king reiterated his earlier fears, Elisha replied with the above verse. After asking for a minstrel to play music to dispel his anger (because prophecy requires Simchah), Elisha promised him salvation. The valley before them would bring forth pools of water, sufficient to supply his entire army as well as the animals.
(d)See Background to Pesachim 68:14.
25)[line 38]המנגןMENAGEN- a musician (to soothe Elisha following the incident where he became angry at Yehoram)
26)[line 40]"ויאמר ה' אל שמואל אל תבט אל מראהו ואל גבה קומתו כי מאסתיהו [כי לא אשר יראה האדם כי האדם יראה לעינים וה' יראה ללבב. ויקרא ישי אל אבינדב ויעברהו לפני שמואל ויאמר גם בזה לא בחר ה']""VA'YOMER HASH-M EL SHMUEL: AL TABET EL MAR'EIHU V'EL GEVOHAH KOMASO, KI ME'ASTIHU [KI LO ASHER YIR'EH HA'ADAM; KI HA'ADAM YIR'EH LA'EINAYIM, VA'HASH-M YIR'EH LA'LEVAV. VA'YIKRA YISHAI EL AVINADAV, VA'YA'AVIREHU LIFNEI SHMUEL, VA'YOMER, 'GAM BA'ZEH LO BACHAR HASH-M.' VAYA'AVER YISHAI GAM SHAMAH, VA'YOMER, 'GAM BA'ZEH LO BACHAR HASH-M'"] - "And HaSh-m said to Shmuel: Do not look at his appearance and at his tall stature, for I have rejected him, [since it is not as man sees; because man sees with the eyes, but HaSh-m sees into the heart. And Yishai called Avinadav, whom he passed before Shmuel but he said, 'Also him HaSh-m did not choose'" (Shmuel I 16:7-8) (THE REJECTION OF YISHAI'S OTHER SONS)
(a)Following HaSh-m's rejection of King Shaul, He sent Shmuel to Yishai's house, to anoint one of his sons as King of Israel. When Yishai brought his oldest son Eli'av before him, Shmuel, impressed by his regal appearance, declared that he must be HaSh-m's anointed one. HaSh-m informed him that He rejected him - on the basis of the Midah of anger, which may have lain dormant at this point in time, but which would materialize later when David came to visit his brothers in their barracks.
(b)One by one, HaSh-m rejected all of Yishai's sons, until the only one that remained was his youngest son, the shepherd David. For reasons not specified in the verse, David was an outcast, and so it did not even enter Yishai's mind to present David as a possible candidate for the throne. It was Shmuel who insisted that he had the youth brought before him. After praising his appearance, the verse concludes with HaSh-m's instructions, "Arise and anoint him...." Shmuel promptly took out the horn with oil and anointed David, and returned to his home in Ramah.
(c)From that moment on, the spirit of HaSh-m enveloped David, even as it departed from Shaul ha'Melech, leaving him with a Ru'ach Ra'ah (an evil spirit) in its place.
27)[line 42]לממשחינהוL'MIMSHECHINHU- to anoint them (Shmuel was unaware which of the sons of Yishai he was to anoint before he arrived)
28)[line 44]מאסתיהוME'ASTIHU- rejected him
29)[line 44]רחיםRACHIM- desired
30)[line 45]דדחו טומאה מנא לןD'DACHU TUM'AH MINA LAN- see next entry, #31(c)
31)[line 47]לפסח שניPESACH SHENI
(a)The Torah states, "Any man who is Tamei Mes, or who is far away... [who wishes to] make a Pesach for Hash-m. In the second month, on the fourteenth day in the afternoon they shall make it; together with Matzah and Maror they shall eat it" (Bamidbar 9:10-11).
(b)The Gemara explains that this verse refers not only to one who was Tamei with Tum'as Mes, but also to one who cannot eat a Korban Pesach due to Tum'ah of any kind. The Gemara defines one who is "far away" as one who is more than fifteen Mil away from the walls of Yerushalayim on midday of Erev Pesach. The Gemara concludes that the Halachah of Pesach Sheni applies to almost anyone who is unable to offer the Korban Pesach on Pesach Rishon (the fourteenth of Nisan; see Pesachim 93a-b).
(c)If all of the Kohanim, the Klei Shares (vessels in the Beis ha'Mikdash), or the majority of the Jewish people are Teme'ei Mes on the fourteenth day of Nisan, then the Korban Pesach is offered in its proper time b'Tum'ah. If there are Kohanim Tehorim and vessels available and only a minority of Klal Yisrael are Tamei, then those who are Tahor offer it b'Taharah while those who are Tamei offer their Korban on Pesach Sheni.
(d)As the verse states, the Korban Pesach Sheni is offered on the fourteenth of Iyar. There is discussion among the commentaries whether the Pesach Sheni should be offered specifically after the afternoon Korban Tamid, or whether it may be offered even before the Korban Tamid. (See Tosfos to Yoma 29a, DH Ela, and Sha'ar ha'Melech 3:9).
(a)If one develops a white patch on his skin the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) which appears to be Tzara'as, he must go to a Kohen, as the status of Tzara'as can only be determined by the pronouncement of a Kohen. If the Kohen ascertains that the whiteness of the patch is indeed the hue of a Nega Tzara'as, then the status of the individual depends on its appearance. If there are Simanei Tum'ah, which include the spreading of the patch, unaffected skin in the middle of the patch, or two white hairs growing in the patch, then the Kohen immediately declares him to be a Metzora. Such an individual is known as a Metzora Muchlat. If the Kohen does not find any Simanei Tum'ah, then he pronounces him Tamei for one week. At this point the person in question is known as a Metzora Musgar. After the week passes, the Kohen returns to see if the appearance of the patch has developed Simanei Tum'ah. If it has, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. If it has not, the individual is once again a Metzora Musgar for the duration of a week. At the end of this second week, if no Simanei Tum'ah appear, the Metzora becomes Tahor. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah disappear. At that point - after a Kohen determines that the Tzara'as has indeed departed - he is Tahor once pronounced so by the Kohen.
(b)The four shades of white considered Tzara'as are:
1.Baheres, which is the color of snow;
2.Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool;
3.Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash;
4.Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.
(c)No Metzora is allowed into "Machaneh Yisrael," i.e. any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.
(a)A man who emits Zov at least twice, whether this occurs over the course of one day or two or consecutive days, is called a Zav. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg (in contrast to semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white). Zov also may be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid component of barley dough or soft barley batter. A Zav has the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah and may not enter "Machaneh Leviyah" (see Background to Pesachim 67:6).
(b)A woman who has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah becomes a Zavah Gedolah. She, too, has the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah.
(c)Similar to a Nidah and a Yoledes, a Zav and a Zavah cause objects underneath them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether or not they come into contact with them. The status of such an object is that of a Tamei Midras (lit. that which is treaded upon), also known as a Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav/Zavah, or the "Tachton" of a Zav or Zavah. An object beneath a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it is designed for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot receive Tum'as Midras.
(d)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras of a Zav/Zavah or a Zav or Zavah themselves, gains the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah. Not only the person himself, but even the clothes he is wearing and any other utensil (with the exception of earthenware utensils) that he is in contact with at the time, become a Rishon l'Tum'ah.
(e)Utensils or clothing lying above a Zav or Zavah also become a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether or not they come into contact with the Zav/Zavah. Such objects are referred to as the "Elyon" of a Zav/Zavah.
(f)A Tahor person or object moved (or outweighed on a balance scale) by a Zav or Zavah becomes a Rishon Tum'ah. This is called Tum'as Heset, and is an application of Tum'as Masa (see above, #d). Only a Zav, Zavah, Nidah, or Yoledes can be Metamei people or objects in this manner.
(g)A Zav or Zavah must count seven "clean" days during which they experience no discharge in order to start their purification process. On the seventh day or following, they immerse themselves in a Mikvah during the daytime (a Zav requires immersion in a Ma'ayan, a natural spring). At nightfall they become Tahor (assuming that they continue to experience no emissions; Zavim 2:2).
(h)A man who emits Zov does not gain the full status of a Zov if his emission is due to an external factor (b'Ones). If the discharge came about b'Ones, he is only Tamei until nightfall. Some examples of Ones are:
34)[last line]זבין ומצורעין לא כל שכןZAVIN U'METZORA'IN LO KOL SHE'KEN?- The Gemara (67a-b) discusses in what ways certain Tum'os are considered more stringent than others.