[16a - 49 lines; 16b - 27 lines]
1)[line 5]שחכם גדול היהSHE'CHACHAM GADOL HAYAH- that he was a great scholar [and the Chachamim thought that he was the one who ruled according to the opinion of Beis Shamai]
2)[line 6]ועיניו קמו מלבא לבית המדרשV'EINAV KAMU MI'LAVO L'VEIS HA'MEDRASH- and his eyes [stopped seeing, which] stopped him from coming to the study hall
3)[line 7]ויודיעוV'YODI'O- and let him know [that we disagree with his conclusion and rule according to the opinion of Beis Hillel]
4)[line 11]תפסוTAFSO- he took him
5)[line 12]והושיבהוV'HOSHIVEHU- and sat him down
6)[line 16]"נער הייתי גם זקנתי ולא ראיתי צדיק נעזב וזרעו מבקש לחם""NA'AR HAYISI GAM ZAKANTI V'LO RA'ISI TZADIK NE'EZAV V'ZAR'O MEVAKESH LACHEM"- "I was a young lad, [and] I also grew old; and I did not see a righteous individual deserted, nor his children asking for bread" (Tehilim 37:25).
7)[line 22]מסבבים אותוMESAVEVIM OSO- lit. surrounding him; discussing with him
8a)[line 29]חיי רביCHAYEI REBBI!- by the life of Rebbi! (an oath denoting surprise and affirmation)
b)[line 29]סתם שמענוSTAM SHAMANU- we [indeed] heard it non-specifically (i.e., in the name of "ben Harkinas")
9)[line 30]בכור שטן הואBECHOR SATAN HU- (lit. he is the firstborn of Satan) (a) he is a sharp, unrelenting scholar who acts according to his rulings, even against the majority opinion (RASHI); (b) he comes from a place called Bechor Satan or Bor (or Kur) Satan (TOSFOS YESHANIM; compare Kidushin 72a, Birasa d'Satya); (c) According to the Girsa BECHOR SHANUN or BACHUR SHANUN - he is a sharp Talmid Chacham or a sharp young scholar (RASHI to the Ein Yakov); (d) According to the Girsa BECHOR SHOTEH - he is the firstborn of his mother (but not of his father) (see TANA D'VEI ELIYAHU ZUTA I and YOSEF DA'AS)
10)[line 31]יקפחYEKAPE'ACH- lit. cut off your feet; overwhelm you with his deeper understanding of the Halachah (RASHI to Kidushin 52b DH l'Kapcheni)
11)[line 32]תשובותTESHUVOS- explanations
12)[line 33]מדוכהMEDOCHAH- [inverted] mortar
13)[line 33]חגי הנביאCHAGAI HA'NAVI- the prophet Chagai. He lived toward the beginning of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, and was of the last three Nevi'im to prophesy to Klal Yisrael. He was also a member of the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah (see Background to Shekalim 13:40).
14)[line 34]עמון ומואב מעשרין מעשר עני בשביעיתAMON U'MO'AV ME'ASRIN MA'ASER ANI BI'SHEVI'IS- [those living in the lands originally belonging to the nations of] Amon and Moav must separate Ma'aser Ani during the Shemitah year. These lands are found in Transjordan, and were the inheritance of Reuven, Gad, and half of Menasheh. As the Gemara explains (later on this Amud), they had the status of Eretz Yisrael during the times of the first Beis ha'Mikdash, but not during the second. Therefore the Shemitah year was not in effect in these places at the time of the discussion of our Gemara. Although it should have been unnecessary to separate Terumos and Ma'asros there for the same reason, the Chachamim decreed that they should be separated. Whether those living in Amon and Moav separated Ma'aser Sheni or Ma'aser Ani during the seventh year of a Shemitah cycle is the subject of a disagreement between Tana'im (Yadayim 4:3).
15)[line 35]מעשר עניMA'ASER ANI
(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to one's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). Although the Torah does not specify how much of one's crop must be separated for Terumah, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the yield.
(b)After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi (Bamidbar 18:21). The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26).
(c)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).
(d)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity (Devarim 14:22-27).
One must desist from working the land every seventh year (Vayikra 25:1-7); this year is termed Shemitah or Shevi'is. Produce which grows during the seventh (Shevi'is) year is holy, which in this context means:
1.It is considered ownerless; anyone may enter a field and pick that which he wishes to eat.
2.The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 40:1).
3.Shevi'is produce may be consumed only in the manner considered normal for that type of food, or burned to provide illumination in the case of oil. It may not be wasted, used for medicinal purposes, fed to animals, etc.
17a)[line 35]הקרדוייןHA'KARDUYIN- the natives of the Cordyne Mountains, located some 200 miles southeast of the Black Sea in Turkey near Mount Ararat (TARGUM ONKELUS)
b)[line 35]התרמודיםHA'TARMODIM- the people of Tarmod (alt. Tadmor), an oasis in the Syrian desert otherwise known as Palmyra
18)[line 36]יצאו בשלשה פתחיםYATZ'U BI'SHELOSHAH PESACHIM- they left through three separate doorways, (a) so as to avoid meeting up with Yonason ben Harkinas, for if they were unable to best him in a Halachic discussion regarding Tzaras ha'Bas they would be forced to rule according to his opinion; (b) so as to find Yonason ben Harkinas and hear his reasoning regarding Tzaras ha'Bas (TOSFOS DH Yatz'u)
19a)[line 36]פגע בו בר''עPAGA BO B'REBBI AKIVA- [Yonasan ben Harkinas] met up with Rebbi Akiva
b)[line 37]אקשי ליה ואוקמיהAKSHI LEI V'UKMEI- he challenged [Rebbi Akiva] and bested him
20)[line 38]שםSHEM- a fine reputation
21)[line 38]ועדיין לא הגעת לרועי בקרV'ADAYIN LO HIGA'TA L'RO'EI BAKAR ...- and you have not yet reached the level of a cattleman
22)[line 40]כרכיםKERACHIM- cities
23)[line 40]כבשוKAVSHU- conquered
24a)[line 40]עולי מצריםOLEI MITZRAYIM- those who ascended [to Eretz Yisrael, led by Yehoshua, following the redemption] from [the exile in] Egypt
b)[line 40]עולי בבלOLEI BAVEL- those who ascended [to Eretz Yisrael, led by Ezra ha'Sofer, following the redemption] from [the seventy-year exile in] Babylonia [following the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash]
25)[line 40]וקדושה ראשונה קדשה לשעתה ולא קדשה לעתיד לבאKEDUSHAH RISHONAH KIDSHAH L'SHA'TAH V'LO KIDSHAH L'ASID LAVO
(a)Eretz Yisrael contains three levels of Kedushah (holiness): that of the land as a whole, that of Yerushalayim, and that of the Beis ha'Mikdash. When Yehoshua led Klal Yisrael into Eretz Yisrael, he sanctified the land through conquest. At that point, those Mitzvos that apply only in Eretz Yisrael (e.g., Terumah, Ma'asros (see above, entry #15), Chalah (see Background to Beitzah 9:2), Shemitah (see above, entry #16), etc.) were put into practice. When Shlomo ha'Melech built the Beis ha'Mikdash in Yerushalayim, he sanctified the remaining two areas. At that point, it became possible to offer Korbanos in the Beis ha'Mikdash, and consume Kodshim Kalim (see Background to Yoma 36:1) and Ma'aser Sheni (see Background to Beitzah 20:1) in Yerushalayim.
(b)There is a difference of opinion among Tana'im as to the nature of these sanctifications. There are those who maintain that they were permanent, and, as such, remained in place even when the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael and Klal Yisrael were sent into exile (Kedushah Rishonah Kidshah l'Shaitah v'Kidshah l'Asid la'Vo). Others understand that these sanctifications were put in place only temporarily; once Klal Yisrael were exiled, they would need to re-sanctify each area when they returned (Kedushah Rishonah Kidshah l'Sha'tah v'Lo Kidshah l'Asid la'Vo). Therefore, when Ezra and those who accompanied him returned to Eretz Yisrael, they once again sanctified the land of Eretz Yisrael, Yerushalayim, and the Beis ha'Mikdash (see also Insights to Megilah 10a and Temurah 21a).
26)[line 41]שיסמכו עליהן עניים בשביעית כדיKEDEI SHE'YISMECHU ALEIHEN ANIYIM BI'SHEVI'IS- so that the poor would be able to rely upon them during Shemitah. This would be possible through indigent individuals hiring themselves out as workers, as well as gathering those Torah-mandated presents for the poor; namely, Leket, Shikchah, and Pe'ah (see Background to Ta'anis 6:24-26). It therefore stands to reason that the Ma'aser required by the Chachamim in such places was Ma'aser Ani.
27)[line 43]הקרתוייםKARTUYIM- natives of Kartu, located in the mountains of Media
28)[line 47]וסביאSAVYA- the name of an Amora
29)[line 48]הכתמיםHA'KESAMIM- the [blood] stains [found upon ladies' undergarments]. If such garments belonged to a Jewish woman, they must be assumed Tamei. The Mishnah (Nidah 56b) quoted in our Gemara discusses whether or not the population of Rekem is presumed Jewish.
30)[line 48]הרקםHA'REKEM- the city of Petra, located in Jordan (JOSEPHUS, TEVU'OS HA'ARETZ). Rekem is synonymous with the Biblical Kadesh (see TARGUM ONKELUS to Bereishis 14:7, 16:14, and 20:1).
31)[last line]וטועיםV'TO'IM- and they have strayed
32)[last line]מבין העובדי כוכבים טהוריםMI'BEIN HA'OVDEI KOCHAVIM, TEHORIN- if they come from places which have [predominantly] Nochri [populations], they are Tahor
33)[last line]והוינן בהV'HAVINAN BAH- and they delved into [the reasoning of this Mishnah]
34)[line 1]קפסיק ותניKA'PASIK V'TANI- the Mishnah categorically teaches
35)[line 4]הלכה כסתם משנהHALACHAH KI'STAM MISHNAH - The Halachah follows an anonymously authored Mishnah
Certain Amora'im - among them Rebbi Yochanan - maintain that the Halachah follows any Mishnah whose teaching is recorded anonymously. The reason for this is that Rebbi, who systematically organized the Mishnayos, deliberately avoided specific attribution of authorship when he agreed with an opinion so that it would appear as the consensus opinion. Since Rebbi - the last of the Tana'im - favored that opinion, it is accepted as Halachah.
36)[line 7]עבדי שלמהAVDEI SHLOMO- the [Nochri] slaves of Shlomo [ha'Melech, who were able to convince Jewish women that they themselves were Jewish due to their wealth]
37a)[line 13]תריסר אלפי גבריTREISAR ALFEI GAVREI- twelve thousand foot soldiers
b)[line 14]ושיתא אלפי קשתוייV'SHISA ALFEI KASHTUYEI- and six thousand archers
38)[line 16]להיכלL'HEICHAL- to the Sanctuary of the Beis ha'Mikdash [at the time of the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash]
39)[line 16]נפנוNIFNU- they turned [their attention]
40)[line 17]"נשים בציון ענו בתולות בערי יהודה""NASHIM B'TZIYON INU, BESULOS B'AREI YEHUDAH"- "Women were violated in Yerushalayim, virgins in the cities of Yehudah (the southern part of Eretz Yisrael)" (Eichah 5:11).
41)[line 18]שר העולםSAR HA'OLAM- the name of a specific Mal'ach (angel)
42)[line 19]קשישKASHISH- old
43)[line 21]"ידו פרש צר על כל מחמדיה""YADO PARAS TZAR AL KOL MACHAMADEHA..."- "The enemy stretched his hand upon all of her treasures" (Eichah 1:10).
44)[line 23]"לא יבא עמוני ומואבי בקהל ה'... [עד עולם]""LO YAVO AMONI U'MO'AVI BI'KEHAL HASH-M... [AD OLAM]"- "A member of the Amonite or Moabite nations may not enter into the congregation of HaSh-m… [forever]" (Devarim 23:4).
45)[line 23]"צוה ה' ליעקב סביביו צריו""TZIVAH HASH-M L'YAKOV SEVIVAV TZARAV"- "... regarding Yakov (i.e. Klal Yisrael), HaSh-m commanded his oppressors surrounding him..." (Eichah 1:17).
46a)[line 24]הומניאHUMANYA- a town in Bavel [with Nochri inhabitants]
b)[line 24]לפום נהראL'FUM NAHARA- [who acted with hostility] toward [the impoverished Jewish inhabitants of] Pum Nahara, a city located at the mouth (Pum) of a river (river)
47)[line 25]שקידשSHE'KIDESH- that he betrothed
48)[line 25]מעשרת השבטיםME'ASERES HA'SHEVATIM- from the Ten Tribes [of Reuven, Shimon, Yissachar, Zevulun, Dan, Naftali, Gad, Asher, Menasheh, and Efrayim, who were exiled by Sancheriv, king of Assyria, and whose whereabouts are currently unknown]
49)[line 26]כל דפריש מרובא פרישKOL D'PARISH ME'RUBA PARISH (ROV V'KAVU'A)
(a)When in doubt as to the nature of an object, one may assume that it carries the same Halachic status of the majority of such items. This is known as Halech Achar ha'Rov - follow the majority. For instance, if a piece of meat is found lying on the street (or in the hands of a non-Jew in the street), and most of the meat in that town is Kosher, one may safely assume that the meat is Kosher (Shemos 23:2, Chulin 11a).
(b)This is only true, however, if the item in question has been separated from its place of origination. If the doubt arose while the object was still in its proper "place" (Kavu'a), then one may not follow the Rov. Rather, the status of the item remains in doubt. For instance, if one purchases meat and then cannot recall if he did so from a Kosher or non-Kosher store, he may not assume that the meat is Kosher simply because most of the stores in that town sell Kosher meat. Since the doubt regarding its status hearkens back to while it was still in its proper place (i.e. the store), one may not assume that it is Kosher any more than he must assume that it is non-Kosher. This rule is termed Kol Kavu'a k'Mechtza Al Mechtza Dami.
50)[line 26]בדוכתא דקביעיB'DUCHTA D'KEVI'I- [that which one must suspect the betrothal of a presumed Nochri to be valid is only] in those places where [the Ten Tribes] are known to have been
51)[last line]"[ויגל מלך אשור את ישראל אשורה;] וינחם בחלח ובחבור נהר גוזן וערי מדי""[VA'YEGEL MELECH ASHUR ES YISRA'EL ASHURAH;] VA'YANCHEM BA'CHLACH UV'CHAVOR NEHAR GOZAN V'ARI MADAI"- "[And the king of Assyria exiled [the Ten Tribes of] Yisrael to Assyria;] and he placed them in Chelach, in Chavor, near the Gozan River, and the cities of Media" (Melachim II 18:11).
52)[last line]חלזוןCHILAZON- the city of Chalvan (alt. Holvan), located in Assyria