[6a - 34 lines; 6b - 41 lines]

1)[line 4]צאצאי מעיךTZE'ETZA'EI ME'ACHA- lit. the issue of your innards; i.e., your progeny

2)[line 4]שמורהSHE'MORAH- that guides

3)[line 5]להטיח גגותיהןL'HATI'ACH GAGOSEIHEN- to [re]plaster their roofs

4)[line 6]ולעשות כל צרכיהןLA'ASOS KOL TZARCHEIHEN- to do everything necessary [to prepare for the rainy season]

5)[line 7]שמרוהMERAVAH- it saturates

6)[line 7]עד תהוםAD HA'TEHOM- until [the collected waters of] the deep

7)[line 8]"תלמיה רוה...""TELAMEHA RAVEI..."- "You saturate its furrows, comforting its inhabitants; You soften it with fine rain, thereby blessing its growth" (Tehilim 65:11).

8a)[line 9]בנחתB'NACHAS- gently

b)[line 10]בזעףB'ZA'AF- with angry [force]

9a)[line 10]שמשירMESHIR- strip

b)[line 11]ומשטיףMASHTIF- flood

10)[line 13]ומעלה את הסקאיןMA'ALEH ES HA'SAKA'IN- brings the locusts

11)[line 14]"ובני ציון גילו ושמחו בה' א-לקיכם כי נתן לכם את המורה לצדקה; ויורד לכם גשם מורה ומלקוש בראשון""U'VNEI TZIYON GILU V'SIMCHU BA'SH-M EL-KEICHEM, KI NASAN LACHEM ES HA'MOREH LI'TZEDAKAH; VA'YORED LACHEM GESHEM, MOREH U'MALKOSH, BA'RISHON" - "Children of Tziyon, exult and rejoice with HaSh-m, your G-d, for He has given you a guide for righteousness; and He let rain down for you, both the early and late rain, in the first [month]" (Yoel 2:23) (WHEN THE EARLY RAIN FELL IN NISAN TOGETHER WITH THE LATE RAIN)

(a)There had been a terrible famine caused largely by a heavy plague of locusts that had ravaged the land. Yisrael, however, had done Teshuvah, so HaSh-m sent both the early rain and the latter rain in Nisan, and within eleven days their crops had ripened, in good time for the Omer on the sixteenth of Nisan.

(b)Our Gemara interprets "Moreh" ("a guide") to be referring to "Yoreh." From this it is clear that Yoreh carries positive connotations, as it is described as "Tzedakah" (charitable).

12)[line 17]"בעתו""B'ITO"- "in its proper time"(Devarim 11:14) - The proper time for Yoreh is in Marcheshvan, as the Gemara later details (lines 25-27).

13)[line 18]שמל קשיותיהן של ישראלSHE'MAL KASHYOSEIHEN SHEL YISRAEL- which circumcises the stubbornness of KlalYisrael [by forcing them to do Teshuvah when it does not arrive]

14)[line 19]שממלא תבואה בקשיהMEMALEI TEVU'AH B'KASHE'HA- causes grain to fully ripen on its stalk

15a)[line 20]המלילותMELILOS- spikes (consisting of the kernels and chaff) of grain

b)[line 20]הקשיןKASHIN- stalks of grain

16)[line 22]מה מלקוש בעתוMAH MALKOSH B'ITO- just as Malkosh [falls] in its proper time.... This is evident from the Gemara's interpretation of "Malkosh" to be either that which causes grain to fully ripen, or that which falls upon spikes and stalks.

17)[line 25]רביעהREVI'AH- a wave of rain [within the period of Yoreh]

18a)[line 25]הבכירהHA'BECHIRAH- the first [Revi'ah]

b)[line 25]אפילהAFEILAH- the latest [Revi'ah]

19)[line 28]אין היחידים מתעניןEIN HA'YECHIDIM MIS'ANIN- the especially righteous do not fast [due to lack of rain (see Mishnah, 10a)]

20)[line 28]אמר רב חסדא הלכה כרבי (יוסי) [יהודה]AMAR RAV CHISDA HALACHAH K'REBBI (YOSI) [YEHUDAH]- RASHI maintains that the correct Girsa is that Rebbi Yosi agrees with the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, both here and later on the Amud (line 33; in fact, it seems as if Rashi may not have had this line in his Gemara at this point at all; see BACH #5). This is consistent with Rebbi Yosi's opinion quoted later on this Amud, where he rules according to the opinion of Raban Gamliel (line 30).

21)[line 30]שואלין את הגשמיםSHO'ALIN ES HA'GESHAMIM- we recite "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah" [in Barech Aleinu, the ninth Berachah of Shemoneh Esreh]

22)[line 32]אתה מונה בהן רביעה ראשונה ושניה ושלישיתATAH MONEH BA'HEN REVI'AH RISHONAH U'SHENIYAH U'SHELISHIS- one is able to count in them the first and second [wave of rains, or the second] and third wave of rains [of Yoreh]


23)[line 1]הנודר עד הגשמיםHA'NODER AD HA'GESHAMIM- one who vows [to act or not to act in a certain manner] until "the [arrival of the] rains"

24)[line 4]בלקטLEKET

(a)"Leket" refers to stalks of grain that have fallen to the ground while one is cutting or gathering during the harvest. Such stalks may not be retrieved; they are to be left for the poor (Vayikra 19:9-10).

(b)This prohibition applies only to one or two fallen stalks of wheat. Should three stalks fall together, they are not considered Leket.

25a)[line 4]בשכחהSHICHECHAH

If, while harvesting grain, one mistakenly leaves one or two bundles of wheat in the field, they may not be retrieved. Rather, they must be left for the poor (Devarim 24:19).

b)[line 4]ובפאהPE'AH

(a)While harvesting grain, one must leave the corner of his field unharvested for the poor (Vayikra 19:9-10).

(b)The requirement to leave Pe'ah applies to fruit trees (Devarim 24:20), but not to vegetables (Pesachim 56b` see Mishnah Pe'ah 1:4).

26)[line 4]הנמושותNEMUSHOS- those who carefully pick through what was left (the Gemara proceeds to define this term more precisely)

27)[line 5]בפרטPERET

If one or two grapes should fall during the harvest, they may not be retrieved; they are to be left for the poor (Vayikra 19:10).

28)[line 5]ובעוללותOLELOS

"Olelos" are incomplete grape clusters, in which no grape hangs from the tip of the central stem, and the grapes along the smaller branching stems do not lie upon one another. These clusters are left on the vine during the harvest for the poor (Vayikra 19:10).

29)[line 7]סבי דאזלי אתיגראSAVEI D'AZLEI A'TIGRA- old people who walk with a cane [and are therefore able to search carefully as they slowly make their way through the field]

30)[line 8]לקוטי בתר לקוטיLIKUTEI BASAR LIKUTEI- those whose children search more carefully behind them

31)[line 9]כדי להלך בשבילי הרשותKEDEI LA'HALOCH B'SHEVILEI HA'RESHUS- [the reason why the timing of the second Revi'ah is important is] in order to know when one may [no longer] take a shortcut through a field belonging to another. This is because doing so may adversely affect the young crops. One may do so throughout the summer, since it was on this condition that Yehoshua bequeathed Eretz Yisrael to Klal Yisrael.

32)[line 11]לבער פירות שביעיתL'VA'ER PEIROS SHEVI'IS (SHEMITAH: BI'UR)

(a)The Torah requires farmers to desist from working the land every seventh year (Vayikra 25:1-7). Produce which grows during the seventh (Shevi'is) year is holy, which in this context means:

1.It is considered ownerless; anyone may enter a field and pick that which he wishes to eat.

2.The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 40:1).

3.Shevi'is produce may be consumed only in the manner considered normal for that type of food, or burned to provide illumination in the case of oil. It may not be wasted, used for medicinal purposes, fed to animals, etc.

(b)One need not separate Terumah and Ma'asros from produce that grows during the Shemitah year.

(c)Shemitah produce may be stored only so long as that produce is available in the fields to wild animals (derived from Vayikra 25:7). When it is no longer available in the wild, Bi'ur must be performed. What this requires is a subject of disagreement among the Rishonim:

1.The RAMBAM (Hilchos Shemitah 7:1-3) explains that Bi'ur means that the produce must be destroyed (similar in meaning to "Bi'ur Chametz," the destruction of Chametz).

2.TOSFOS (Pesachim 52b DH Misba'arin), the RAMBAN (Vayikra 25:7), and the RASH (Shevi'is 9:8) explain that Bi'ur means removing all of the produce from storage, placing it in a public domain and declaring it Hefker (Halachically ownerless) in front of three Jewish men. These men may be friends of the owner, who will allow him to reclaim his produce from Hefker immediately following his declaration without attempting to claim the produce for themselves.

3.The RA'AVAD (Hilchos Shemitah 7:3) maintains that Bi'ur involves elements of both of the aforementioned opinions. When fruit of Shevi'is is no longer available where one lives, he must declare any fruit of Shevi'is in his possession to be Hefker or turn it over to Beis Din to distribute. When it is no longer available in that entire region of Eretz Yisrael - either Yehudah, Ever ha'Yarden, or Galil - then it must be destroyed (see Insights to Pesachim 52:3).

33)[line 14]"ולבהמתך ולחיה אשר בארצך [תהיה כל תבואתה לאכל]""VELI'VEHEMTECHA VELA'CHAYAH ASHER B'ARTZECHA [TIHYEH CHOL TEVU'ASAH LE'ECHOL]"- "And [all of its (the Shemitah year's) produce shall be available] for your domesticated animals and the wild animals that are in your land [to eat]" (Vayikra 25:7).

34a)[line 16]כָּלָה לחיה מן השדהKALAH L'CHAYAH MIN HA'SADEH- once it is no longer available in the field to a wild animal

b)[line 16]כַּלֵּה לבהמתך מן הביתKALEI LI'VHEMTECHA MIN HA'BAYIS- make it unavailable in your house to your domesticated animal

35)[line 17]שרובעROVE'A- copulate with (from the male perspective)

36)[line 18]מיטרא בעלה דארעא הואMITRA BA'ALAH D'AR'A HU- rain is the husband of the earth

37)[line 19]הרוהHIRVAH- saturate

38)[line 19]"והולידה והצמיחה...""V'HOLIDAH V'HITZMICHAH..."- "... and causes it to give birth and bring forth plant life..." (Yeshayah 55:10).

39)[line 20]כדי שתרד בקרקע טפחKEDEI SHE'TERED BA'KARKA TEFACH- [is considered to have occurred in an ideal fashion] when it has saturated the earth to a depth of one Tefach (approximately 8 cm. (3.15 in.) or 9.6 cm (3.78 in.), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions)

40)[line 21]כדי לגוף בה פי חביתKEDEI LA'GUF BAH PI CHAVIS- when [it has produced muddy enough conditions that] one can [use that mud to] seal a cover onto a barrel

41)[line 22]אין בהן משום "ועצר"EIN BAHEM MISHUM "V'ATZAR"- [the curse of] "v'Atzar [Es ha'Shamayim v'Lo Yiheyeh Matar...]" - "and He shall seal [the heaven and there will be no rain...]" (Devarim 11:17) no longer applies to [the winter in which] they [fall]

42)[line 22]קודם ועצרKODEM "V'ATZAR"- before [the time to recite Shema, which includes the verse of "v'Atzar"]

43a)[line 23]קודם ועצר דאורתאKODEM "V'ATZAR" D'URTA- before the time to read Shema at night (i.e., the rain fell during the day)

b)[line 23]קודם ועצר דצפראKODEM "V'ATZAR" D'TZAFRA- before the time to read Shema during the day (i.e., the rain fell at night)

44)[line 25]לית בהו מששאLEIS BE'HU MESHASHA- there is no substance to them

45)[line 25]"מה אעשה לך אפרים מה אעשה לך יהודה וחסדכם כענן בקר [וכטל משכים הלך]""MAH E'ESEH LECHA, EFRAYIM; MAH E'ESEH LECHA, YEHUDAH; V'CHASDECHEM KA'ANAN BOKER, [VECHA'TAL MASHKIM HOLECH]"- "What shall I do for you, Efrayim; what shall I do for you, Yehudah? For your kindness is like a morning cloud, [and as the dew that is quick to dissipate]" (Hoshea 6:4). In this verse, the Navi characterizes Klal Yisrael's attempts at Teshuvah as brief and quickly abandoned.

46a)[line 26]במפתח בבי מיטראB'MIFTACH BAVEI MITRA- [if you see] rain when you open the door [in the morning]

b)[line 27]בר חמרא מוך שקך וגניBAR CHAMARA, MOCH SAKEICH V'GANEI- donkey driver [who makes a living out of selling wheat], fold up your sack and go [back] to sleep [since the year's crop will be bountiful and (a) no one will require your services (RASHI); (b) you will be able to acquire wheat cheaply where you are and you need not travel in order to purchase stock (RASHI to Berachos 59a)]

47a)[line 27]דקטיר בעיבאD'KATIR B'EIVA- that [the skies] are knotted with thick [clouds]

b)[line 28]דקטיר בענניD'KATIR B'ANANEI- that [the skies] are knotted with wispy [clouds]

48)[line 28]טבא לשתא דטבת ארמלתאTAVA L'SHATA D'TEVES ARMALTA- it is a good year in which the month of Teves receives no rain (lit. is widowed)

49)[line 29]דלא ביירי תרביציD'LO BAIREI TARBITZEI- (a) so that those places in which Torah is disseminated are not empty [of Torah scholars, since the roadways can be traversed] (RASHI, first explanation); (b) so that [those] gardens [in which vegetables that grow well upon irrigation as opposed to rainfall] are not empty [of produce] (RASHI, second explanation, TOSFOS DH Ika)

50)[line 29]דלא שקיל שודפנאD'LO SHAKIL SHUDFANA- so that blight not take hold [among the crops]

51)[line 30]מנוולתאMENAVALTA- disgusting[ly muddy]

52)[line 30]הא דאתא מיטרא מעיקראHA D'ASA MITRA ME'IKARA- when rain fell beforehand is the case [in which (a) it is not welcome should rain fall in Teves, since it is not necessary; (b) it is welcome should rain fall in Teves, since then Teves is disgustingly muddy]

53)[line 31]הא דאתא מיטרא מעיקראHA DLO ASA MITRA ME'IKARA- when rain did not fall beforehand is the case [in which (a) it is not welcome should rain fall in Teves, since then Teves is not disgustingly muddy; (b) it is welcome should rain fall in Teves, since it is then necessary]

54)[line 34]"וגם אנכי מנעתי מכם את הגשם בעוד שלשה חדשים לקציר, והמטרתי על עיר אחת ועל עיר אחת לא אמטיר; חלקה אחת תמטר, [חלקה אשר לא תמטיר עליה תיבש]""V'GAM ANOCHI MANA'TI MI'KEM ES HA'GESHEM B'OD SHELOSHAH CHODASHIM LA'KATZIR, V'HIMTARTI AL IR ECHAS, V'AL IR ACHAS LO AMTIR; CHELKAH ACHAS TIMATER, [V'CHELKAH ASHER LO SAMTIR ALEHA TIVASH]"- "And I will also withhold rain from you three months prior to the harvest; and I will deposit rain upon one city, and on another city I will not deposit rain; upon one portion it shall rain, [and the portion upon which it shall not rain will dry out]" (Amos 4:7) - In order to demonstrate that the withholding of rain was a Heavenly wake-up call, HaSh-m brought about an unnatural rainfall.

55)[line 35]שתיהן לקללהSHTEIHEN LI'KELALAH- both [those areas that received rain as well as those that did not] were affected negatively [since too much rain is as bad as too little]

56a)[line 35]הא דאתא טובאHA D'ASA TUVA- that [which partial rain is detrimental] is when too much falls

b)[line 35]הא דאתא כדמבעי ליהHA D'ASA KED'MIBA'EI LEI- that [which partial rain is beneficial] is when the proper amount falls [in which case the crops grow and can be sold to the inhabitants of the areas which received no rain]

57)[line 37]משיצא חתן לקראת כלהMISHE'YETZEI CHASAN LIKRAS KALAH- lit. when the groom comes out to meet the bride; i.e., when rain falls forcefully enough that (a) raindrops splashing into puddles cause drops to rise and meet those drops that are falling; (b) multiple rivulets of water flow into each other in the marketplace

58a)[line 39]אילו פינו מלא שירה כיםILU FINU MALEI SHIRAH KA'YAM- if only our mouths were as filled with song as the sea [is filled with water]

b)[line 39]ולשוננו רנה כהמון גליוUL'SHONEINU RINAH KA'HAMON GALAV...- and our tongues praises as the numerous waves.... This is the beginning of a section of praises to HaSh-m that we recite in the "Nishmas" prayer at the end of Pesukei d'Zimrah of Shabbos and Yom Tov.

59)[line 39]אל יעזבונו רחמיךAL YA'AZVUNU RACHAMECHA- may your acts of kindness not desert us

60a)[line 40]רוב ההודאותROV HA'HODA'OS- [for you give us] many [reasons to] thank you

b)[last line]קל ההודאותKEL HA'HODA'OS- Master of [all that there is to be] thankful [for]