[9a - 57 lines; 9b - 15 lines]
1)[line 1]בעבודת כוכביםAVODAS KOCHAVIM (SE'IREI AVODAS KOCHAVIM - The Goats Offered by the Supreme Court to Atone for their Mistaken Ruling Permitting Idol Worship)
(a)If the Sanhedrin (Supreme Court) issues a ruling in error, permitting Avodah Zarah (idol worship) punishable by Kares had it been transgressed intentionally, and those in Eretz Yisrael - either the majority of Klal Yisrael or most of the Shevatim - act upon their ruling, then the Sanhedrin must offer a Se'irei Avodas Kochavim to atone for the nation. This Korban consists of a bull offered as a Korban Olah, and a goat offered as a Korban Chatas. Rebbi Meir rules that the Sanhedrin must offer a single bull as a Korban Olah, and a single goat as a Korban Chatas. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that each Shevet (tribe) offers a bull and a goat, for a total of twelve bulls and twelve goats. Rebbi Shimon is of the opinion that both are true, and a total of thirteen bulls and thirteen goats are offered (Mishnah, Horayos 4b) (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
(b)After the goats are slaughtered, their blood is sprinkled seven times in the Heichal in the direction of the Paroches. It is then applied to the Keranos (cubic Tefach posts placed upon the corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores (the smaller altar located in the Heichal upon which incense is burned daily). The Sheyarei ha'Dam (remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach, whereas the Emurim (innards and certain fats) are burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon (outer Mizbe'ach).
(c)The flesh and remaining parts of the goats are burned outside of Yerushalayim (Bamidbar 15:22-26). The clothing of those who carry their carcasses out of the Azarah becomes Tamei. (According to Rebbi Shimon in Yoma 67b, those involved with burning the goats are also Metamei Begadim.)
2)[line 4]יחיד מביא כשבה או שעירהYACHID MEVI KISBAH O SE'IRAH- an individual offers a female sheep or goat; this refers to a Korban Chatas (see Background to 7:18)
3)[line 5]נשיא מביא שעירNASI MEVI SA'IR- a Jewish king offers a male goat (Vayikra 4:22-26)
4)[line 8]"וְנוֹדְעָה הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר חָטְאוּ עָלֶיהָ""V'NOD'AH HA'CHATAS ASHER CHAT'U ALEHA"- "And they become aware of the sin that they had committed...." (Vayikra 4:14) - This verse refers to a Par He'elem Davar (see Background to 8:29).
5)[line 14]"[אִם הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ יֶחֱטָא] לְאַשְׁמַת הָעָם""[IM HA'KOHEN HA'MASHI'ACH YECHETA] L'ASHMAS HA'AM"- "[If the anointed Kohen Gadol sins] it is to the detriment of the nation...." (Vayikra 4:3) - Our Gemara reads this verse as, "If the anointed Kohen Gadol sins it is as if the entire nation did so...."
6)[line 15]אתיא מצות מצותASYA MITZVOS MITZVOS (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH - A Derivation Equating Two Subjects Utilizing a Common Word or Phrase)
(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Gezeirah Shavah, in which two identical words (or two words that share the same root) that appear in two different sections of the Torah reveal that the Halachos applicable to one section apply to the other and vice versa.
(b)One may apply a Gezeirah Shavah only if he has received a tradition from his teachers that such a connection between the two words exists. Once the connection is established, however, then one may derive Halachos that were not specified in the tradition.
(c)A Gezeirah Shavah is unlimited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah." This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.
(d)There are three possible configurations for a Gezeirah Shavah:
1.MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If both words are seemingly unnecessary and are not used in the derivation of any other teaching, then all of the rules described above apply.
2.MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If the word in only one of the sections is available, some maintain that such a Gezeirah Shavah is no more limited than one that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim. Others rule that Halachos may be derived from such a Gezeirah Shavah only if there is no argument against them. This status is known as "Lemedin u'Meshivin."
3.EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If neither word is free, then those opinions who maintain that a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Tzad Echad is unlimited grant such a Gezeirah Shavah the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin. Those who applied Lemedin u'Meshivin to a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim rule that this one may not be used to determine any Halachah whatsoever.
(e)The Beraisa quoted in our Gemara refers to a Gezeirah Shavah that compares the Korban Chatas of a Nasi to a Par He'elem Davar, since both incorporate the phrase "mi'Kol Mitzvos HaSh-m" (Vayikra 4:13 and 22).
7)[line 18]מעיני מעיניM'EINEI ME'EINEI- both a Par He'elem Davar and Se'irei Avodas Kochavim incorporate the word "me'Einei" - "from the eyes of" (Vayikra 4:13 and Bamidbar 15:22).
8)[line 19]"וְאִם-נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת [תֶּחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה ...]""V'IM NEFESH ACHAS [TECHETA VI'SHEGAGAH ...]"- "And if one person [sins unintentionally....]" (Bamidbar 15:27) - This verse refers to the Korban Chatas of one who has worshipped an idol.
9)[line 20]וי''ו מוסיף על ענין ראשוןVAV MOSIF AL INYAN RISHON- the "Vav" [at the beginning of the word "v'Im"] connects [the subject of an individual who has worshipped an idol] to that [of the majority of Klal Yisrael who have worshipped an idol] which is written immediately prior [to it]
10)[line 22]מקרי ליהMAKRI LEI- read to him
11)[line 23]"[הָאֶזְרָח בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם;] תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָכֶם, לָעֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁגָגָה. וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר-תַּעֲשֶׂה בְּיָד רָמָה [מִן-הָאֶזְרָח וּמִן-הַגֵּר, אֶת-ה' הוּא מְגַדֵּף, וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּהּ.]""... TORAH ACHAS YIHEYEH LA'HEM, LA'OSEH BI'SHEGAGAH. VEHA'NEFESH ASHER TA'ASEH B'YAD RAMAH [... V'NICHRESAH...]"- "[For the resident in Bnei Yisrael, and the convert who dwells among them;] one law shall be for them, for he who sins unintentionally. And he who acts high-handedly (i.e., intentionally) [from the residents or the converts has angered HaSh-m, and that soul shall be cut off from among its nation.]" (Bamidbar 15:29-30) - This verse refers to an individual who committed a sin of idol worship.
12a)[line 34]יחידיםYECHIDIM- individuals who have worshipped an idol
b)[line 35]מרוביםMERUBIN (IR HA'NIDACHAS - A City that has Strayed to Idol Worship)
If an entire city has strayed (Nidach) to the extent that most of its inhabitants practice idolatry, it must be eradicated. All those who worshipped idols are put to death by the sword, while the buildings of the city are razed and its possessions burned (Devarim 13:13-19). Those righteous individuals who did not sin are allowed to remain alive, but they must leave the city bereft of all possessions.
13)[line 35]סקילה... סייףSEKILAH... SAYIF- stoning... death by the sword; see Background to 6:18
14a)[line 35]ממונן פלטMAMONAM PALAT- their possessions are spared [and fall to their heirs]
b)[line 36]ממונן אבדMAMONAM AVAD- their possessions are lost [and do not fall to their heirs]
15)[line 40]מאי לייתו?MAI LEISU?- what [different animal] should they offer [as a Korban Chatas]?
16)[line 40]צבור בשאר מצות הוא דמייתו!TZIBUR BI'SHE'AR MITZVOS HU D'LEISU!- that is already offered as a Par He'elem Davar! (See Insights.)
17)[line 46]הוראהHORA'AH- a [mistaken] ruling [regarding idol worship]
18)[line 47]איפכאIPCHA- the opposite (i.e., a bull as a Korban Chatas and a goat as a Korban Olah)
19)[line 48]צריך ואין לו תקנהTZARICH V'EIN LO TAKANAH- he must [offer a Korban Chatas in order to achieve atonement], but he is unable to do so [since there are no animals available for such a Korban]
20)[line 49]כמדומה לי שאין לו מוח בקדקדוKI'MEDUMAH LI SHE'EIN LO MO'ACH B'KODKODO- it appears to me that he has no brain in his cranium
21)[line 50]אמו אנוסת אביוIMO ANUSAS AVIV- his mother who had not been married to his father
22)[line 51]פלוגתא דרבי יהודה ורבנןPELUGTA D'REBBI YEHUDAH V'RABANAN HI- it is the subject of a dispute between Rebbi Yehudah [who rules that she may not marry the sons of he who had relations with her] and the Rabanan [who allow her to] (see 4a)
23a)[line 53]איסור מצוהISUR MITZVAH- those whom one is prohibited from marrying due to a Rabbinical injunction
b)[line 53]איסור קדושהISUR KEDUSHAH- those whom one is prohibited from marrying due to a Torah injunction, although doing so is not punishable by Kares (e.g. a divorcee to a Kohen or a Mamzeres (girl born to those whose union is punishable by Kares) to a Yisrael)
24)[line 53]פליגי רבי עקיבא ורבנןPELIGI REBBI AKIVA V'RABANAN- about which Rebbi Akiva [who maintains that their co-wives require neither Yibum nor Chalitzah] and the Rabanan [who maintain that they do] disagree
25)[line 54]בפרקין קא אמרינןB'PIRKIN KA AMRINAN- [when suggesting that the reason why Rebbi disagreed with the suggestion of Levi was because our Mishnah is not dealing with matters of dispute] we [only] intended [that such a limitation applies] in our [first] Perek [of Yevamos]
26)[line 56]בית שמאי במקום בית הלל אינה משנהBEIS SHAMAI B'MAKOM BEIS HILLEL EINO MISHNAH- whenever Beis Hillel advances an opinion, that of Beis Shamai is considered so insignificant that it is as if it has not been quoted in the Mishnah
27)[line 1]דפליגי ר"ש ורבנןD'PELIGI REBBI SHIMON V'RABANAN- about which Rebbi Shimon and the Rabanan disagree. The Rabanan maintain that any brother born after the death of his brother is prohibited from marrying his dead brother's wife under any circumstances. Therefore, neither Yibum nor Chalitzah is necessary should she fall to him from a second brother. Rebbi Shimon maintains that this limitation exists only in a specific set of circumstances; see next entry.
28)[line 1]נולד ולבסוף ייבםNOLAD ULEB'SOF YIBEM- [when a brother is] born [after the death of his brother] but before [any of the other brothers perform] Yibum. (If he was born after one of his remaining brothers had already performed Yibum, however, he would then be permitted to perform Yibum with her should that second brother die childless.)
29)[line 3]אף בראשונהAF BA'RISHONAH- even in the case of Nolad uleb'Sof Yibem
30)[line 3]איתותבITOSAV- disproved
31a)[line 5]בכולן אני קורא בהןB'CHULAN ANI KOREI BA'HEN- I can apply to all [fifteen women who exempt their co-wives from Yibum and Chalitzah mentioned in our Mishnah]
b)[line 5]האסורה לזה מותרת לזה והאסורה לזה מותרת לזה ואחותה שהיא יבמתה חולצת או מתייבמתHA'ASURAH LA'ZEH MUTERES LA'ZEH, VEHA'ASURAH LA'ZEH MUTERES LA'ZEH, V'ACHOSAH SHE'HI YEVIMTAH CHOLETZES O MISYABEMES- a case in which two sisters married to two brothers fall to two remaining brothers, and yet each may marry one of the brothers through Yibum. Normally, only Chalitzah is possible in such a case. This is because Zikah - the relationship binding a Yavam to his Yevamah/os - is similar to Kidushin (betrothal). Were one to perform Yibum with one of these two sisters, he would be, in a sense, married to two sisters, which is forbidden (Vayikra 18:18). However, if one of the sisters is an Ervah to one brother, and the other to the other, then they are not sisters in Zikah - as neither is involved in the Zikah of the other. Rav and Rebbi Chiya maintain that it is possible to find such a case in which the Ervah prohibiting each sister is identical - for every one of the fifteen types of women delineated in our Mishnah (see Chart).
32)[line 8]מתרגם מחמותו ואילךMETARGEM ME'CHAMOSO V'EILACH- explained [that this statement only applies to the last nine cases of our Mishnah,] from that of "his mother-in-law" and on
33)[line 8]שיתא בביSHISA BAVEI- six cases
34)[line 9]בתו באונסין משכחתBITO B'ONSIN MISHKACHAS LAH- it is only possible to find a case in which the daughters of each of the two remaining brothers fall to them if the brothers had not been married to the mothers of these daughters. This is because the only possible way for the daughters of two brothers to be sisters is if they share a mother. However, it is impossible for one woman to marry two brothers (as long as both are alive). The case therefore must be one in which the brothers carried on an extra-marital affair with the same woman.
35)[line 13]לר''ש הוא דמשכחת להL'REBBI SHIMON HU D'MISHKACHAS LAH- one can [only] find a case [in which each Yevamah is prohibited to one and only one brother due to Eshes Achiv she'Lo Hayah ba'Olamo] according to the opinion of Rebbi Shimon; see Background to 10:2