1)

WAS CHADASH PERMITTED WHEN BNEI YISRAEL ENTERED THE LAND? (Yerushalmi Chalah Perek 2 Halachah 1 Daf 10b)

ר' יונה בעא קומי ר' ירמיה בשעה שנכנסו ישראל לארץ ומצא קמה לחה מהו שתהא אסורה משום חדש.

(a)

Question (R. Yonah, to R. Yirmeyah): When [Bnei Yisrael] entered the land and found moist flour (surely it is from this year), was it forbidden due to Chadash?

א"ל למה לא.

(b)

Answer (R. Yirmeyah): (Surely it was!) Why should it not [be forbidden? TUREI EVEN (Rosh Hashanah 13a) asks, when they entered, even flanks of pork were permitted! He answers that the Heter was only after the manna ceased, or it did not apply to what can become permitted (e.g. through the Omer).

עד כדון לחה אפילו יבישה.

(c)

Question (R. Yonah): This is for moist. Was even dry (fully ripened attached grain, forbidden due to Chadash)?

א"ל אפילו יבישה אפי' קצורה.

(d)

Answer (R. Yirmeyah): Even dry, and even harvested [grain were forbidden].

מעתה אפילו חיטין בעלייה.

(e)

Question (R. Yonah): If so, even wheat in the attic (presumably, it is from last year, for the custom was to let grain dry outside in the summer! We explained this like SHA'AGAS ARYEH Dinei Chadash 3.)

כך אני אומר לא (יאכלו) [צ"ל אכלו - ר"ש סיריליו, הגר"א] ישראל מצה בלילי הפסח.

(f)

Answer (R. Yirmeyah): (Yes!) So I say, Yisrael did not eat Matzah on Pesach night [due to the Isur of Chadash].

א"ר יונה מן דנפקות תהית דלא אמרת ליה. שנייא היא שמצות עשה דוחה למצות לא תעשה.

(g)

R. Yonah: After I left [R. Yirmeyah], I regretted that I did not say that [Achilas Matzah] is different, for a Mitzvas Aseh is Docheh a Lo Sa'aseh!

1.

Note: Presumably, R. Yirmeyah would answer that the Aseh of Matzah is not Docheh the Aseh and Lo Sa'aseh of Chadash! Above (Sof 3a), R. Yirmeyah said that according to R. Yochanan, there is a Torah Isur of Chadash [even] on the 16th before the Omer is offered, just there is no Lav. This must be an Aseh. Chizkiyah argued with R. Yochanan about the Lav, but there is no source to say that they argue about the Aseh! Above, R. Yonah and R. Yosi disagreed, and said that R. Yochanan forbids only mid'Rabanan; there is no Aseh. Presumably, Rabanan had not decreed yet, for they decreed very little before Shlomo ha'Melech (Yevamos 21a). Also, they would not decree to be Mevatel the Mitzvah the first year! (PF)

על דעתי' דרבי יונה דו אמר מצות עשה דוחה (בלא) [צ"ל לא - ר"ש סיריליו] תעשה אף על פי שאינה כתובה בצידה ניחא.

(h)

Question: According to R. Yonah, who says that a Mitzvas Aseh overrides a Mitzvas Lo Sa'aseh even if it is not written b'Tzidah, this is fine (they were permitted to eat Matzah, even though it was Chadash);

על דעתיה דרבי יוסי דו אמר אין מצות עשה דוחה למצות (בלא) [צ"ל לא - ר"ש סיריליו] תעשה אלא אם כן היתה כתובה בצידה.

1.

According to R. Yosi, who says that a Mitzvas Aseh overrides a Mitzvas Lo Sa'aseh only if it is written b'Tzidah (R. SHIMSHON on our Mishnah, b'Sof - 'b'Tzidah' means near it. Alternatively, we were commanded at different times; we were commanded about Matzah in Mitzrayim, and about Chadash when we entered Eretz Yisrael, how did they eat Matzah? It is not Docheh the Lav of Chadash!)

(מה) [צ"ל ממה] שיהיו תגרי גוים מוכרין להם

(i)

Answer #1: [They ate] from what Nochri merchants sold to them.

וכרבי ישמעאל. דרבי ישמעאל אמר כל ביאות שנאמרו בתורה לאחר ארבע עשרה שנה נאמרו שבע שכיבשו ושבע [דף יא עמוד א] שחילקו.

(j)

Answer #2: According to R. Yishmael [it is not difficult at all,] for R. Yishmael said, every "Bi'ah" said in the Torah (when you will come to Eretz Yisrael) discusses after 14 years - seven in which [Bnei Yisrael] conquered [Eretz Yisrael], and seven in which they divided it (among the Shevatim. We explained this like MAHARA FULDA, GRA.)

התיב רבי בון בר כהנא והכתיב [יהושע ה יא] ויאכלו מעבור הארץ ממחרת הפסח. לא בששה עשר.

(k)

Question (R. Bun bar Kahana): It says "v'Achlu me'Avur ha'Aretz mi'Macharas ha'Pesach" - is not [the day after Pesach] on the 16th?

התיב ר' לעזר בי רבי יוסי קומי ר' יוסי והכתיב [במדבר לג ג] ממחרת הפסח יצאו בני ישראל ביד רמה לעיני כל מצרים. לא בחמשה עשר

(l)

Answer (R. Lazar bei R. Yosi, to R. Yosi): It says "mi'Macharas ha'Pesach Yatz'u Vnei Yisrael b'Yad Ramah l'Einei Kol Mitzrayim" - was it not on the 15th [the day after Shechitas Pesach?! Also in the above verse, mi'Macharas ha'Pesach is the 15th.]

יצאו מיכן. (ושם) [צ"ל לשם - פני משה] ר' אליעזר מחייב ור' עקיבה פוטר

(m)

(Mishnah): If [Peros] went from here (Eretz Yisrael) to there (Chutz la'Aretz), R. Eliezer obligates and R. Akiva exempts.

[צ"ל הוי בעיי מימר מה דאמר תמן חייב אוף הכא חייב. מה דאמר תמן פטור אוף הכא פטור - מיכל המים]

(n)

Assumption: The one (R. Eliezer) who said there Chayav, also here (Peros went from Chutz la'Aretz to Eretz Yisrael, they are) Chayav. The one (R. Akiva) who said that there exempt, also here, they are exempt.

[צ"ל אפילו כמאן דאמר תמן פטור הכא חייב. כיון שנכנסו נתחייבו - מיכל המים]

(o)

Rebuttal: Even the one who said that there exempt, here, they are Chayav. Since they entered [Eretz Yisrael], they became obligated.

א"ר ליעזר מן אתריה ורבי עקיבה מן אתריה ר' ליעזר מן אתריה מ"ט דר' ליעזר [שם טו יט] לחם הארץ בכל מקום שהוא.

(p)

R. Eliezer [learns] from his source [for the Reisha] and R. Akiva from his source. R. Eliezer [learns] from his source. What is R. Eliezer's source? "Lechem ha'Aretz" - wherever it is.

ר' עקיבה מן אתריה מ"ט דר' עקיבה [שם יח] אל הארץ אשר אני מביא אתכם שמה. שמה אתם חייבין ואין אתם חייבין חוץ לארץ.

(q)

R. Akiva [learns] from his source. What is R. Akiva's source? "El ha'Aretz Asher Ani Mevi Eschem Shamah" - there you are obligated [even for Peros of Chutz la'Aretz], but you are not obligated [at all] in Chutz la'Aretz.

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