TA'ANIS 21 (10 Shevat) - Dedicated by Hagaon Rav Yosef Pearlman of London, England, in memory of his father in law, Harav Yeshayah ben Rav David Chaim Goldberg Z"L, who passed away on 10 Shevat 5738.

[21a - 52 lines; 21b - 42 lines]

1)[line 1]בני חילא דמחוזאBNEI CHEILA D'MECHOZA- the poor of Mechoza, a large Jewish trading town on the Tigris River. (Rashi's Girsa is "Bnei Mechoza," the [poor] people of Mechoza. Our Girsa, "BNEI CHEILA," probably has the same meaning, as in "Chel-ka'im" (Tehillim 10:10).)

2)[line 2]דחיקא להו מילתא טובאDECHIKA LEHU MILSA TUVA- they were very poor

3)[line 4]"אפס כי לא יהיה בך אביון...""EFES KI LO YIHEYEH LECHA EVYON" - "Only there shall not be amongst you a poor person; [rather HaSh-m will surely bless you in the land that HaSh-m, your G-d, will give you as an inheritance to possess it.... For poor people will not cease from the midst of the land; therefore I command you, saying, you shall surely open your hand to your brother, to your poor, and to your destitute in your land." (Devarim 15:4, 11) (WILL THERE BE POOR PEOPLE IN THE LAND OR NOT?)

(a)RASHI resolves the apparent discrepancy in the verses by explaining that the former verse refers to when Yisrael performs the will of HaSh-m, and the latter one when they do not.

(b)The Gemara in Bava Metzia (33a), however, deals with the problem differently. Rav Yehudah in the name of Rav interprets the former verse with regard to an individual, who is entitled to prevent his own impoverishment, as his own needs precede those of others. For example, he has the right to search for his own lost article before that of another. (This is also how RASHI interprets the verse here, in DH Ki Lo Yiheyeh.)

4)[line 5]תותי גודא רעיעאTUSEI GUDA RE'I'A- beneath a wall that was in danger of collapse

5)[line 5]הוו קא כרכי ריפתאHAVU KA KARCHEI RIFTA- they were breaking (starting to eat) bread

6)[line 16]איהדרIHADAR- I will go back

7)[line 17]ואוקי בנפשאיV'UKI B'NAFSHA'I- and I will fulfill about myself

8)[line 21]מליך רבי יוחנןMALICH REBBI YOCHANAN- Rebbi Yochanan became the Rosh Yeshiva

9)[line 22]לא הוה מליך מרLO HAVAH MALICH MAR- (a) wouldn't you (Ilfa) have become the Rosh Yeshiva? (TOSFOS DH Amru; first explanation); (b) he (Rebbi Yochanan) would not have become the Rosh Yeshiva (TOSFOS ibid.; second explanation)

10)[line 23]תלא נפשיהTALA NAFSHEI- he suspended himself

11)[line 23]באסקריא דספינתאB'ISKARYA DI'SEFINTA- on the mast of a ship

12)[line 30]נחום איש גם זוNACHUM ISH GAM ZU- Mishnaic sage and mentor of Rebbi Akiva about whom many incredible stories are related here and in Sanhedrin 109a. (According to Hagahos Ya'avetz, he came from the city of Gimzo, mentioned in Divrei ha'Yamim II 28:18. His title, "Ish Gam Zu," was given to him because of his practice to say "Gam Zu l'Tovah" - "This also is for the good" - about any occurrence, no matter how disastrous it seemed at the time. He was given the name "Gam Zu" to allude to his outlook on life. See also Background to Ta'anis 19:22 with regard to Choni ha'Me'agel.)

13)[line 42]מלא סיפטאMELO SIFTA- a chestful

14)[line 42]בתBAS- he slept

15)[line 43]דיוראיDAYURA'EI- innkeepers

16)[line 44]קא מחייכו בי יהודאיKA MECHAICHU BI YEHUDA'EI- the Jews are mocking me

17)[line 45]אדמי ליהIDMI LEI- he appeared to him

18)[line 45]סייפיהSAIFEI- swords (the letter Heh at the end of this word appears to be a printer's error)

19)[line 46]גילי הוו גיריGILEI HAVAH GIREI- [he threw] straw and it became arrows

20)[line 47]עיילו לבי גנזיהAILU L'VEI GINZEI- they went into his treasury

21)[line 47]ביקרא רבהB'YEKARA RABAH- with great honor

22)[line 48]סתרו לדירייהוSASRI L'DIRAIHU- they dismantled their inn

23)[line 51]כפר עכוKEFAR AKO- a town near the port city of Ako (Ptolemais). While many Nochrim lived in Ako, Kefar Ako was a primarily Jewish town.

24)[last line]כפר עמיקוKEFAR AMIKU- a town in the vicinity of Ako, possibly the former Arab village of Kefar Amka, that was situated 12 kilometers northeast of Ako. (There are various Girsa'os in the manuscripts and the Rishonim as to which of these two towns was the larger one.)


25)[line 2]דרוקרתDEROKRAS- a Babylonia town

26)[line 5]ריחק נגיחותיוRICHEK NEGICHOSAV (SHOR HA'MU'AD)

(a)SHOR HA'MU'AD - An ox that goes two times is referred to as a Tam. The owner only pays half the value of the damages that his ox causes through goring, with a maximum of the full value of the ox that gored. If the ox gored three times and the owner was informed and warned to guard his ox each time, the ox is termed a Mu'ad and from then on the owner has to pay the full value of the damages that his ox causes through goring. He is held more liable since it is now evident that the ox's nature has changed to that of a harmful and injurious animal, and he knows he must watch it well.

(b)RICHEK NEGICHOSAV - There is a an argument among the Tana'im as to whether the three times that the ox gores must be on different days or may even be on the same day. Rebbi Yehudah rules that they must be on separate days, and therefore if an ox gores three times on one day we attribute it to the same circumstance; we do not consider that the nature of the ox has changed. Rebbi Meir contends that if an ox that gores on three separate days is considered a Shor ha'Mu'ad, then all the more so an ox that gores three times in one day.

27)[line 15]"צו את בני ישראל וישלחו מן הנחנה כל צרוע וכל זב וכל טמא לנפש""TZAV ES BENEI YISRAEL VI'YESHALCHU MIN HA'MACHANEH KOL TZARU'A VE'CHOL ZAV VE'CHOL TAMEI LA'NEFESH" - "Command the B'nei Yisrael, and they shall send away from the camp every Tzaru'a, Zav and Tamei Meis" (Bamidbar 5:2) (THE THREE CAMPS)

(a)RASHI explains that this Parshah was said on the day that the Mishkan was set up, creating three camps, and that each of the above was expelled from a different camp.

(b)Within the hangings of the Chatzer of the Mishkan was Machaneh Shechinah, and it was from there that a Tamei Meis was expelled, whereas a Zav had to leave even Machaneh Leviyah (where the Levi'im encamped). Whereas, the encampment of the twelve tribes comprised Machaneh Yisrael, which a Metzora was not permitted to enter.

28)[line 18]דברתאDEVERTA- "Dever," or plague

29)[line 18]בשיבבותיה דרבB'SHIVEVUSEI D'RAV- in the neighborhood of Rav

30)[line 19]איתחזי להו בחילמאISCHAZI LEHU B'CHELMA- [the following] was shown to them in a dream

31)[line 20]דשייל מרא וזבילא לקבורהD'SHAYIL MARA V'ZABILA LI'KEVURAH- who loaned a hoe and shovel for burial (O.F. fossoir - a hoe; O.F. pele - a shovel)

32)[line 21]דליקתאDELEIKTA- a fire

33)[line 24]קמציKAMTZEI- locusts

34)[line 25]זוודא אייתו בהדייהו?ZAVDA AISU BAHADAIHU?- did they bring provisions with them? i.e. they will certainly destroy the crops.

35)[line 25]מותנאMOSNA- an epidemic, pestilence

36)[line 26]מכה משולחת (ממין) [במין] אחדMAKAH MESHULECHES (MI'MIN) [B'MIN] ECHAD- a plague that affects one species

37)[line 27]דדמיין מעייהו לבני אינשיD'DAMYAN MEI'AIHU LI'VNEI INSHEI- their intestines are similar to the intestines of humans

38)[line 28]בי חוזאיBEI CHOZA'EI- a district of Bavel on the caravan road, along the Tigris River and its canals

39)[line 30]גבירהGEVIRAH- mistress (the Land of Israel(

40)[line 30]שפחהSHIFCHAH- maidservant (Bavel(

41)[line 32]שוירתאSHAYARTA- a caravan

42)[line 32]דלווי ואתיא בהדיהD'LAVEI V'ASYA BAHADEI- that it (the plague, i.e. people who are infected with the plague) accompanies it (the caravan(

43)[line 32]אבא אומנא הוהABA UMNA HAVAH- Aba was a blood-letter

44)[line 33]אתי ליה שלמאASI LEI SHELAMA- salutations of peace would come to him

45)[line 33]ממתיבתא דרקיעאMI'MESIVTA D'RAKI'A- from the Heavenly Academy

46)[line 36]דכי הוה עביד מילתאD'CHI HAVAH AVID MILSA- when he let blood

47)[line 36]מחיתMACHIS- he would seat

48)[line 37]קרנאKARNA- the glass blood-letting horn; lancet

49)[line 37]דהוות בזיעא כי כוסילתאD'HAVAS BEZI'A BEI KOSILTA- which was slit at the shoulder (so that he could let blood standing behind a female patient, not having to see her(

50)[line 39]דוכתא דצניעא דשדי ביה פשיטי דשקילDUCHTA D'TZENI'A D'SHADI BEI PESHITEI D'SHAKIL- a concealed place in which people deposited the coins that he took for payment

51)[line 40]לא מיכסיףLO MICHSIF- would not be embarrassed (for not paying(

52)[line 40]אגרא מיניה לא שקילAGRA MINEI LO SHAKIL- he would not take payment from him

53)[line 41]בריא נפשךBARI NAFSHACH- revive yourself

54)[line 41]זוגאZUGA- a pair

55)[last line]ומך להו ביסתרקי בליליאU'MACH LEHU BISTARKEI B'LEILYA- he laid down for them woolen tapestries (O.F. traped or tapid - a carpet) at night