TA'ANIS 19 (3 Av) - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Reb Aharon Dovid ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld (Muncasz/Israel/New York), who passed away on 3 Av 5761, by his daughter, Diane Koenigsberg, and family. May his love for Torah and for Eretz Yisrael be preserved in all of his descendants.

[19a - 48 lines; 19b - 47 lines]

1)[line 4]דברDEVER- a [deathly] plague

2)[line 4]מפולתMAPOLES- the collapse of walls and houses [caused by the wind]

3)[line 7]המוציאה חמש מאות רגליHA'MOTZI'AH CHAMESH ME'OS RAGLI- which produces 500 men [for the army (RABEINU CHANANEL to 21a; this presumably refers to those who are between the ages of twenty and sixty, as per Shemos 12:37)]

4)[line 8]ג' מתים בג' ימים זה אחר זהSHELOSHAH MESIM B'SHELOSHAH YAMIM ZEH ACHAR ZEH- three corpses over three consecutive days, one per day

5a)[line 10]השדפוןSHIDAFON- (a) blight (a disease that affects crops); (b) crops damaged by searing eastern winds

b)[line 10]ירקוןYERAKON- (a) disease [that affects people] (RASHI); (b) mildew [affecting the crops] (RASHI to Devarim 28:22)

6a)[line 11]הארבהARBEH- the Sudanese or desert locust, which reach Eretz Yisrael in large numbers (according to Yemenite tradition, Arbeh refer to a specific red species of locusts)

b)[line 11]החסילCHASIL- an especially destructive species of locust

7)[line 11]החיה רעהCHAYAH RA'AH- [a plague of] wild animals

8)[line 12]החרבHA'CHEREV- lit. the sword; i.e., an invading army

9)[line 12]מכה מהלכתMAKAH MEHALECHES- a calamity that travels from one place to another

10)[line 14]כמלא פי תנורMELO (PI) TANUR- an oven-full

11)[line 15]באשקלוןASHKELON- a city outside of Eretz Yisrael, in Pelishti territory

12)[line 16]זאביםZE'EVIM- wolves

13)[line 16]בעבר הירדןEVER HA'YARDEN- (a) modern-day Jordan; (b) the lowlands and hills surrounding Lod and Beis Choron, on the west bank of the Jordan River (RAMABM Hilchos Shemitah v'Yovel 7:9)

14)[line 18]מתריעיןMASRI'IN- we recite the prayer [beginning with "Aneinu"]

15)[line 18]שהקיפוה נכריםSHE'HIKIFUHA NOCHRIM- that was surrounded by [a marauding] Nochri [army]

16)[line 19]נהרNAHAR- an [overflowing] river [that threatens to submerge fields or houses]

17)[line 19]הספינה המיטרפת ביםSEFINA HA'MITAREFES BA'YAM- a storm-tossed boat

18a)[line 20]לעזרהL'EZRAH- (a) for [human] help; (b) [solitarily in one's home] for [HaSh-m's] help

b)[line 20]לצעקהLI'TZE'AKAH- (a) to cry out [in prayer]; (b) to cry out [in public prayer]

19)[line 21]התימניHA'TIMNI- from Timnas (alt. Timnah). This is the village of Tibnah, located between Beit Shemesh and Yavneh. At the time it was a major city.

20)[line 22]צרה שלא תבאTZARAH SHE'LO SAVO- lit. calamity that will not come; this is a euphemistic term that refers to a calamity that has already occurred

21)[line 23]מרוב גשמיםROV GESHAMIM- an overabundance of rain

22)[line 24]לחוני המעגלCHONI HA'ME'AGEL- (a) Choni the circle-maker (RASHI to Menachos 94b); (b) Some link "ha'Me'agel" with the concept of "Ma'agilin b'Ma'agilah" - "leveling [a roof] with a roller" (Moed Katan 11a, Makos 7a). These commentators explain that Choni was a roof-leveler. It is possible that both of these explanations are true; Chazal may given Choni the title of "ha'Me'agel" since it alluded both to his occupation and the miracle associated with him (see Background to Ta'anis 21:12 regarding Nachum Ish Gamzu).

23)[line 25]תנורי פסחיםTANUREI PESACHIM- ovens in the doorway [constructed from clay, which is not waterproof]

24)[line 26]ימוקוYIMOKU- disintegrate

25)[line 26]עג עוגהAG UGAH- he drew a circle [in the ground]

26a)[line 29]מנטפיןMENATFIN- to drip

b)[line 30]בזעףB'ZA'AF- with angry [force]

27a)[line 30]רצוןRATZON- willingly provided

b)[line 30]ונדבהNEDAVAH- generous

28)[line 33]נמחית אבן הטועיןNIMCHEIS EVEN HA'TO'IN- the Even ha'To'in has been covered with water. The Even ha'To'in was a large flat stone located in Yerushalayim. Anyone who either lost or found an object would congregate there; the finders would publicize their finds, and the losers would claim their objects after providing Simanim (identifying characteristics) (Bava Metzia 28b). The Even ha'To'in was so high that it would not lie underwater unless a deluge came to the world; in effect, Choni ha'Me'agel was stating that he refused to pray that the rain let up (BARTENURA).

29)[line 33]אלמלאILMALEI- if not for

30)[line 34]נידוי(NIDUY) [L'NADOS]- to be excommunicated

31)[line 34]מתחטאMISCHATEI- (a) (O.F. forfais) act incorrectly (RASHI here); (b) visit often (RASHI to Menachos 66a and Bechoros 57b); (c) long for (BARTENURA); (d) are pampered (ARUCH) e) plead (RABEINU GERSHOM)

32)[line 34]לפני המקום[LI'FNEI HA'MAKOM]- in front of HaSh-m

33)[line 36]"ישמח אביך ואמך ותגל יולדתך""YISMACH AVICHA V'IMECHA, V'SAGEL YOLADTECHA."- "Your father and mother shall rejoice, and your forebears shall exult" (Mishlei 23:25) - The Maharsha explains that "Avicha" refers to HaSh-m, "Imecha" to Klal Yisrael, and "Yoladtecha" to one's biological parents.

34)[line 37]הנץ החמהHANETZ HA'CHAMAH- sunrise

35)[line 37]לא ישלימוLO YASHLIMU- they should not complete the fast

36)[line 40]הלל הגדולHALEL HA'GADOL- Tehilim 136. This chapter is called "The Great Praise" due to the mention of the following central principle: "He gives sustenance to all flesh, for his kindness is forever" (136:25).

37)[line 45]יבשו לאYAVSHU, LO- if the grain has dried out, then (a) [we] do not [declare fast days, since the grain is beyond the point from which it can be saved]; (b) [there is] no need [to declare fast days, since the grain will recover on its own]

38)[line 46]דאקוןD'[HADAR] AKUN- (a) that it rose a bit in its stalk [after having dried out]; (b) that it [already] rose a bit in its stalk [before drying out]

39)[line 46]אקנתא מילתא היאAKANTA MILSA HI- (a) that which it rose a bit in its stalk is [a] significant [indication that it is still salvageable]; (b) that which it rose a bit in its stalk is [a] significant [indication that if it does not soon receive water it will be beyond recovery]

40a)[last line]נהרא אנהראNAHARA A'NAHARA- (a) [when there is no grain in one city, but it is possible to easily transport large amounts of it from a neighboring city by ship] from one river to another; (b) [if] one river['s source dries up and one needs to wait for] another [to overflow or divert another in order to water his fields]

b)[last line]בצורתאBETZORSA- it is [only] a drought


41a)[line 1]מדינתא אמדינתאMEDINSA A'MEDINSA- (a) [if one needs to transport by land from] one country to another; (b) [if all of the rivers in a certain city have dried up and one needs to transport grain from] another city to this one

b)[line 1]כפנאKAFNA- it is a famine

42)[line 2]סאה בסלע ושכיחאSE'AH B'SELA U'SHECHICHA- if four Se'ah of wheat sell for a Sela (which is expensive)

43a)[line 4]שהמעות בזולHA'MA'OS B'ZOL- money is easy to come by

b)[line 4]ופירות ביוקרPEIROS B'YOKER- there is a shortage of produce

44)[line 6]נהירנאNEHIRNA- I remember

45a)[line 7]והוו נפישי נפיחי כפןHAVU NEFISHEI NEFICHEI CHAFAN- there were many bloated from hunger

b)[line 7]מדלית איסרMID'LEIS ISAR- due to a lack of money (An Isar was a small Roman coin equal to 1/24 of a Dinar, or 6-8 Perutos)

46a)[line 9]ניחאNEYACHA- gently

b)[line 310]רזיאRAZYA- with angry [force]

47)[line 12]טובאTUVA- much

48)[line 13]בשפיכותאSHEFICHUSA- (a) a heavy downpour [of such magnitude that it damages even trees]; (b) steady, light rain [that is too thin to be beneficial for trees and is so abundant that it drowns the crops]

49)[line 14]על האילנותAL HA'ILANOS- [that rain beneficial] for the trees [should fall]

50a)[line 14]בפרוס הפסחBI'FROS HA'PESACH- [beginning from] the festival of Pesach

b)[line 14]בפרוס החגBI'FROS HA'CHAG- [beginning from] the festival of Sukos

51)[line 16]באפרכיאIPARCHEYA- province; duchy

52)[line 17]ואסכראASKERA- (O.F. bon malant) choking; quinsy, a painful pus-filled inflammation of the tonsils and surrounding area (RASHI to Berachos 40a)

53a)[line 18]הגובאיGOVAI- an uncommon, especially destructive species of locust

b)[line 19]החגבCHAGAV- a small white species of locust (according to Yemenite tradition)

54)[line 19]בשאר שני שבוע... בשביעיתSHE'AR SHNEI SHAVU'A... SHEVI'IS

(a)The Torah requires farmers to desist from working the land every seventh year (Vayikra 25:1-7). Produce which grows during the seventh (Shevi'is) year is holy, which in this context means:

1.It is considered ownerless; anyone may enter a field and pick that which he wishes to eat.

2.The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 40:1).

3.Shevi'is produce may be consumed only in the manner considered normal for that type of food, or burned to provide illumination in the case of oil. It may not be wasted, used for medicinal purposes, fed to animals, etc.

(b)A Shemitah cycle is termed a "Shavu'a"; the six years of the cycle between years of Shevi'is are called "the other years of the Shavu'a."

55)[line 23]הספיחיןSEFICHIN

(a)Sefichim refers to that which grows of its own accord during the Shemitah year (see previous entry), and there are Sefichim which may not be eaten during Shevi'is. There is a difference of opinion among the Rishonim as to why this is so. According to RASHI, the Torah forbids the consumption of Sefichim after the Zman ha'Bi'ur (see Background to 6:33). TOSFOS contends that this is true only according to the opinion of Rebbi Akiva. The Chachamim maintain that Sefichim are permitted mid'Oraisa. The Rabanan, however, decreed that one may not eat Sefichim of vegetables and grains (even before Zman ha'Bi'ur), for fear that people may sow such crops and then claim that the produce grew by itself (Pesachim 51b).

(b)According to Rashi, our Gemara discusses Sefichim prior to Zman ha'Bi'ur, which are permitted. Tosfos presumably agrees that the Rabanan never prohibited the poor from partaking of Sefichim.

56)[line 25]צימוקיןTZIMUKIM- (a) shriveled (i.e., they fall only with difficulty) (RASHI); (b) According to the Girsa SEKIMIYON - undependable and irregular (Sekimiyon is the gift or donation of a king or host, which may or may not be granted and is of an indefinite value) (ARUCH)

57)[line 28]פרנסתוPARNASASO- his wages

58)[line 28]נמצאת עיסה נאפית כתיקנהNIMTZES ISAH NE'EFIS K'TIKNAH- it then follows that [he has enough time for] dough to be properly baked

59a)[line 31]ריחים טוחנות מן הכור מה שטוחנות מן הקבREICHAYIM TOCHANOS MIN HA'KOR MAH SHE'TOCHANOS MIN HA'KAV- When one grinds grain with millstones [and some of the flour is lost in the machinery], the same amount is lost whether a large amount (1 Kor = 180 Kav) or a small amount (1 Kav) is ground at one time.

b)[line 32]עיסה אוכלת מן הכור כמו שאוכלת מן הקבISAH OCHELES MIN HA'KOR KEMO OCHELES MIN HA'KAV- the [bowl for mixing] dough traps [as much dough] in its crevices when one mixes a Kor [in one sitting] as it does when one mixes just a Kav.

60)[line 36]שמגבל את הטיטMEGABEL ES HA'TIT- mixing [earth with water to form] mortar

61)[line 37]כליןKALIN- finish

62)[line 39]נקדימון בן גוריוןNAKDIMON BEN GURYON- an extremely wealthy and righteous individual who lived at the end of the period of the second Beis ha'Mikdash

63)[line 39](אדון) [הגמון](ADON) [HEGMON]- Roman nobleman

64)[line 40]לעולי רגליםOLEI REGALIM (ALIYAH L'REGEL)

(a)Every Jewish male is commanded to visit the Beis ha'Mikdash three times a year, on the festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos (Shemos 23:17).

(b)Nakdimon ben Guryon wished to insure that there would be enough water for all those travelling to Yerushalayim to drink.

65)[line 41]ככר כסףKIKAR KESEF- talents of silver

66)[line 43]שגרSHAGER- send

67)[line 45]שהותSHAHUS- time

68)[last line]לגלגLIGLEG- derided