[18a - 43 lines; 18b - 41 lines]
1)[line 3]בעשרים ותשעה נמיB'ESRIM V'TISH'A NAMI- regarding the twenty-ninth [day of Adar] as well, [on which, our Gemara earlier explained, it is forbidden to fast since it is the day prior to Rosh Chodesh Nisan]
2a)[line 4]דמקמיMIKAMEI- prior to
b)[line 6]דבתרBASAR- following
3a)[line 7]אתת בשורתא טבתא ליהודאיASAS BESORTA TAVTA LI'YEHUDA'EI- good tidings arrived for the Jews
b)[line 7]דלא יעידון מן אורייתאD'LO YE'IDUN MIN ORAISA- that they would no longer be [forcibly] separated from the Torah
4)[line 11]ונטלו עצה ממטרוניתא אחתNATLU EITZAH MI'MATRONISA ACHAS- they took advice from a certain aristocratic Roman matron
5)[line 13]והפגינוHIFGINU- cry out publicly
6)[line 14]אי שמיםEI, SHAMAYIM!- woe, Heavens! This preface indicated that the true purpose of the gathering was to beseech HaSh-m for mercy, even though their words were seemingly addressing the Romans who passed the decree.
7)[line 14]לא אחים אנחנוLO ACHIM ANACHNU?- are we not your brothers [as we are descended from Yakov and you from Esav)?
8)[line 19]לחדש מעוברCHODESH ME'UBAR- (a) the [second] month [of Adar] in a leap year [when the first had twenty-nine days and the second thirty, in which case the day before Rosh Chodesh Nisan and the day after the twenty-eighth if Adar are not the same]; (b) a month [of Adar] which has thirty days [due to that which witnesses did not come until the twenty-ninth, in which case the day before Rosh Chodesh Nisan and the day after the twenty-eighth of Adar are not the same]
9)[line 20]כל שלאחריוKOL SHEL'ACHARAV- any [day] following [a festival listed in Megilas Ta'anis]
10a)[line 27]דאילו מקלע (ליה) מילתאD'ILU MIKLA (LEI) MILSA- if something [calamitous] would occur
b)[line 28]ובטליניה לשבעהU'VATLINEI L'SHIV'AH- and we would nullify the [status of the first] seven [days of Nisan as a festival]
11)[line 30]השתא דאתית להכיHASHTA D'ASIS L'HACHI- now that you have come to this [explanation]
12)[line 36]בהון בהון שתי פעמיםB'HON B'HON TREI ZIMNEI- the word "b'Hon" ("upon them") that is repeated [in the introductory statement of Megilas Ta'anis (quoted on 17b)]. Rebbi Shimon ben Gamliel understands that the word "b'Hon" is an exclusion.
13)[line 39]אמר הלכה כרבי מאירAMAR HALACHAH K'REBBI MEIR- Since the festivals listed in Megilas Ta'anis are Rabbinic in nature, Shmuel saw no reason to rule stringently regarding them.
14)[line 40]באליBALI- the name of an Amora
15)[line 41]אסברא לךASBERA LACH- I will explain it to you
16)[line 42]אדלא להתענאהAD'LO L'HIS'ANA'AH- referring [only] to [those dates listed in Megilas Ta'anis] upon which one may not fast. [Regarding dates upon which one may not even eulogize, he ruled similarly that one may not fast only on the preceding day, according to the opinion of Rebbi Meir.]
17)[last line]הלכה כסתם משנהHALACHAH K'STAM MISHNAH
Certain Amora'im, among them Rebbi Yochanan, maintain that whenever a Mishnah records an anonymous opinion, the Halachah follows that opinion. The reason for this is that Rebbi, who systematically organized the Mishnayos, presented it anonymously so that it appears as the consensus opinion. Since Rebbi, the last of the Tana'im, favored that opinion, we accept it as the Halachah.
18)[last line]מקדימין ולא מאחריןMAKDIMIN V'LO ME'ACHARIM
(a)There is a Mitzvah d'Rabanan to publicly read Megilas Esther, the account of how the Jews of Persia were saved from the wicked Haman's evil plans, on Purim. Purim occurs on the fourteenth of Adar in most cities, and on the fifteenth of Adar in cities surrounded by a wall from the days of Yehoshua bin Nun. The reason for this distinction is that the Jews of Persia successfully defended themselves on the fourteenth, whereas they had an extra day to do so in the walled capital of Shushan. In order to commemorate both miraculous events, Mordechai and Esther decreed that walled cities should celebrate "Shushan Purim."
(b)If residents of a small village have no one to read the Megilah for them or no available kosher Megilah on the proper day, they may hear the Megilah read on the preceding market day of either Monday or Thursday in a larger neighboring city. Should Purim occur on a Tuesday or Friday, this falls upon the thirteenth of Adar. If Purim occurs on Wednesday, this falls upon the twelfth of Adar. If Purim occurs on Sunday, this falls upon the eleventh of Adar (Mishnah Megilah 2a).
19a)[line 2]בני חמיסרBNEI CHAMEISAR- those [who are to read the Megilah] on the fifteenth [of Adar]
b)[line 2]בארביסרARBEISAR- the fourteenth [of Adar]
c)[line 7]בתליסרTELEISAR- the thirteenth [of Adar]
d)[line 8]בתריסרTEREISAR- the twelfth [of Adar]
e)[line 10]בחדיסרCHADEISAR- the eleventh [of Adar]
20)[line 4]יומי פוריא אינוןYOMEI PURAYA INUN- these days of Purim
21)[line 6]לאסור את של זה בזהLE'ESOR ES SHEL ZEH B'ZEH- to forbid those for whom Purim is on the fifteenth [from fasting or eulogizing] on the fourteenth
22a)[line 7]יום ניקנורYOM NIKANOR- the festival of Nikanor, who served as general under the Greek king Antiochus. He was defeated and slain by Yehudah ha'Maccabi. Our Gemara proceeds to explain the reason for this celebration.
b)[line 9]יום טוריינוסYOM TURYANOS- the festival of Trajan, Emperor of Rome from 98-117 CE. Our Gemara proceeds to explain the reason for this celebration.
23)[line 12]שמעיה ואחיה אחיוSHEMAIYAH V'ACHYAH ACHIV- Shemayah and his brother Achyah. RASHI comments that we do not know any further information about these two righteous individuals; see, however, Insights at the end of the Gemara's discussion regarding Yom Turyanos.
24)[line 15]משום יום ניקנור ניקום ונגזרMISHUM YOM NIKANOR NEIKOM V'NIGZAR?- will we then decree [that fasting is forbidden] due to [that which it falls upon the day preceding] Yom Nikanor?
25)[line 16]מאפרכי יווניםIPARCHEI YEVANIM- (O.F. dukos - commander) the administrator of a province; a duke
26)[line 17]מניףMENIF- wave
27)[line 17]וארמסנהERMESENAH- I will trample it
28)[line 18]מלכות בית חשמונאיMALCHUS BEIS CHASHMONA'I
(a)When the Yevanim (Syrian-Greeks) infiltrated Eretz Yisrael and attempted to defile all that was holy, the members of the Chashmona'i (Hasmonean) family of Kohanim were prepared to sacrifice their lives and fight for the honor of HaSh-m. In response, HaSh-m granted them success in their battles and miraculously saved them from their enemies.
(b)The Yevanim had succeeded in breaching the Beis ha'Mikdash and wreaking havoc there. When the Chashmona'im returned to this holiest of places, they found that the Mizbe'ach had been made Tamei, and that all of the pure olive oil stored for lighting the Menorah had been defiled. Miraculously, one sealed jar of oil was discovered. Although eight days were required to manufacture new olive oil and the oil found was enough for only one day, it was decided to light the Menorah for that one day. HaSh-m responded with yet another miracle, and the oil burned for eight full days. These events resulted in the institution of the holiday of Chanukah.
(c)Following the period of Chanukah, the members of this priestly family ruled the nation, taking for themselves the title of "prince." This was because only members of the Shevet of Yehudah may rule as "kings." Eventually, descendants of the Chashmona'im who were not as fiercely loyal to HaSh-m as their ancestors seized the kingship. Before the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, Hordus (Herod), slave of the Chashmona'im, rebelled. He murdered every member of the family, and declared himself king. Thus the Chashmona'i family has no surviving members.
29)[line 18]ונצחוםNITZCHUM- they were victorious over him
30)[line 18]קצצו בהונות ידיו ורגליו[CHATCHU ES ROSHO] KATZETZU BEHONOS YADAV V'RAGLAV- they cut off [his head,] his thumbs, and his big toes
31)[line 20]לולינוס ופפוס אחיו בלודקיאLULYANUS V'PAPUS ACHIV B'LUDKIYA- Lulyanus and his brother Papus, from the city of Lod (Laodicea ad Lycum, in Lydia, a district of Asia Minor). These two righteous individuals are referred to elsewhere in Shas as "the Martyrs of Lod." See Insights for details regarding this story and their history.
32)[line 21]חנניה מישאל ועזריהCHANANYAH, MISHA'EL, V'AZARYAH
(a)Nevuchadnetzar, king of Babylonia, had decreed that anyone who did not bow down to a certain golden statue would be thrown into a fiery furnace. Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah were righteous Jews who refused to do so.
(b)HaSh-m responded to their self-sacrifice by sending the angel Gavriel to save them. Gavriel not only cooled the furnace so that Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah remained unharmed, but he caused the area outside of it to become overheated such that those who threw them in were consumed by fire (Daniel 3).
(c)See Background to Megilah 13:1.
33)[line 24]ואותו רשעOSO RASHA- that wicked one; Lulyanus and Papus were referring to Trajan himself in the third person
34)[line 25]נתחייבנו (כליה) [הריגה] למקוםNISCHAYAVNU (KELAYAH) [HARIGAH] LA'MAKOM- we have [committed sins] against HaSh-m that [would have rendered us liable to] receive the death penalty [from Beis Din had there been witnesses and a proper warning]
35a)[line 26]דוביןDUBIN- bears
b)[line 27]ואריותARAYOS- lions
36)[line 28]ליפרע דמינוLI'PARA DAMEINU- to avenge our blood
37)[line 29]דיופליDEYUPLEI- (a) two ministers (RASHI); (b) two messengers (ARUCH); (c) high ranking officers who receive a double wage (MUSAF HA'ARUCH)
38)[line 29]ופצעו את מוחו בגיזריןPATZ'U ES MOCHO B'GIZRIN- they crushed his skull with truncheons (clubs)
PEREK #3 SEDER TA'ANIYOS ELU
39)[line 36]ברביעה ראשונהREVI'AH RISHONAH- the first wave of rain (at this point, this is assumed to be referring to the earliest rains of Yoreh, which ideally fall upon the 17th of Cheshvan)
40)[line 36]צמחים ששנוTZEMACHIM SHE'SHANU- if plants grew unnaturally [such as thorns in place of wheat kernels]
41)[line 37]מתריעין עליהן מידMASRI'IN ALEIHEN MI'YAD- we blow [the Shofar and fast (TOSFOS DH Halachah)] over them [along with all of the stringencies associated with the final seven fasts established during a drought] immediately
42)[line 38]בצורתBATZORES- drought
43)[line 38]לצמחיןTZEMACHIN- annual plants [such as wheat]
44a)[line 39]לבורותBOROS- round wells
b)[line 39]לשיחיןSHICHIN- elongated ditches [used for water storage]
c)[line 40]ולמערותME'AROS- caves [used for water storage]
45)[last line]"[וגם אנכי מנעתי מכם את הגשם בעוד שלשה חרשים לקציר] והמטרתי על עיר אחת ועל עיר אחת לא אמטיר חלקה אחת תמטר [וחלקה אשר לא תמטיר עליה תיבש]""... V'HIMTARTI AL IR ECHAS, V'AL IR ACHAS LO AMTIR; CHELKAH ACHAS TIMATER [V'CHELKAH ASHER LO SAMTIR ALEHA TIVASH]"- "[And I will also withhold rain from you three months prior to the harvest;] and I will deposit rain upon one city, and on another city I will not deposit rain; upon one portion it shall rain, [and the portion upon which it shall not rain will dry out.]" (Amos 4:7) - In order to demonstrate that the withholding of rain was a Heavenly wake-up call, HaSh-m brought about an unnatural rainfall.