[17a - 43 lines; 17b - 48 lines]
1)[line 1]וביובלותB'YOVLOS (YOVEL)
(a)The year after seven Shemitah cycles of seven years each (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 12:26) is called Yovel. Tana'im disagree (Nedarim 61a) as to whether the fiftieth year follows those of the Shemitah cycle and does not count toward the next cycle, or whether it is both the Yovel year as well as the first year of the next Shemitah cycle.
(b)The Halachos of the Shemitah year that prohibit working the land and invest the produce that grows during that year with sanctity apply to the year of Yovel as well. In addition, at the start of the Yovel year, all Eved Ivrim (Jewish slaves; see Background to Erchin 25:10 and 29:2) are set free, and all properties sold since the previous Yovel return to their original owners. On Yom ha'Kipurim of the Yovel Year, a member of the Beis Din blows a Shofar to denote that the time has arrived to set the Avadim free (Vayikra 25:9). Our Gemara refers to Yom ha'Kipurim of a Yovel year, upon which the Berachos of Zichronos and Shofaros are recited during Musaf as they are on Rosh Hashanah.
2)[line 1]ובשעת מלחמהUVE'SHE'AS MILCHAMAH- RASHI states that he is unaware of the source to recite these Berachos at a time of war. The RITVA and RAN state that this is not specific to wartime, but that Zichronos and Shofaros are recited while praying that any other source of distress be removed as well.
3a)[line 5]כתיב ביה תפלהKSIV BEI TEFILAH- ["... gather all of Yisrael to Mitzpah and I will] pray [for them." (Shmuel I 7:5)] is written
b)[line 5]וכתיב ביה צעקהKSIV BEI TZE'AKAH- ["And Shmuel] cried out [to HaSh-m on behalf of Yisrael ..." (Shmuel I 7:5)] is written
4)[line 6]תפלה כתיבTEFILAH KSIV- ["Answer me, HaSh-m, answer me ..." (Melachim I 18:37), which implies] prayer is written
5)[line 7]"ענני ה' ענני" לשון צעקה היא"ANEINI HASH-M ANEINI" LASHON TZE'AKA HI- "Answer me, HaSh-m, answer me ..." (Melachim I 18:37) implies [that] crying out [occurred as well]
6)[line 10]יונה בתר דוד ושלמה הוהYONAH BASAR DAVID U'SHLOMO HAVAH- Yonah lived after Dovid and Shlomo did [as he lived during the reign of Amatzyahu (nine generations and approximately 150 years after Shlomo ha'Melech) (Seder Olam). Eliyahu lived after the times of Dovid and Shlomo as well; the answer of our Gemara answers this question equally (see MAHARSHA.)
7)[line 11]למיחתםL'MEICHTAM- lit. to seal; to conclude the Berachah with
8)[line 13]משפיל הרמיםMASHPIL HA'RAMIM- He who humbles the haughty [through withholding rain]
9)[line 20]תמידTAMID- both [offering Korbanos] during the day and [finishing those Korbanos whose offering had begun during the day, as well as burning certain fats and limbs and rotating the burning blocks of wood atop the Mizbe'ach] overnight
10)[line 21]מכאןMI'KAN- from this [that a Kohen who belongs to the current Mishmar is required to remain sober even though there is only a chance that he may be called upon to perform the Avodah]
11)[line 22]כל כהןKOL KOHEN- any Kohen [alive after the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash]
12)[line 22]ויודע שבתי אבותיו קבועין שםYODE'A SHE'BATEI AVOSAV KEVU'IN SHAM- he knows that his forefathers were among those families of Kohanim who (a) performed the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash; (b) were of pure enough lineage to have performed the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. (When Ezra ha'Sofer returned to Eretz Yisrael to rebuild the Beis ha'Mikdash, only those Kohanim who could prove the purity of their lineage were accepted to perform the Avodah.)
13)[line 26]אסור לשתות יין לעולםASUR LI'SHTOS YAYIN L'OLAM- no [Kohen] may ever drink wine [since (a) the Mishmaros may be reordered when the Beis ha'Mikdash is rebuilt, similar to the way in which they were at the start of the second Beis ha'Mikdash (RASHI, first explanation); (b) all of the Mishmaros may serve together when the new Beis ha'Mikdash is inaugurated (RASHI, second explanation); (c) he does not know to which Beis Av he belongs (RABEINU CHANANEL); (d) a Kohen who is unaware of his Beis Av may not drink wine when the Beis ha'Mikdash is standing (RABEINU GERSHOM)]
14)[line 27]שתקנתו קלקלתוTAKANASO KALKALASO- his detriment results in his benefit. This means that (a) that which the Beis ha'Mikdash has not been rebuilt for so many years has resulted in that which we no longer need to act as if it will be rebuilt at any moment with regard to this Halachah (RASHI); (b) since he is unaware of his Beis Av, he may drink wine. Even if the Beis ha'Mikdash were to be rebuilt today, he would be unable to perform the Avodah until a Beis Din of Kohanim convenes to assign him to the proper day (RABEINU CHANANEL); (c) that which the Beis ha'Mikdash is destroyed allows him to drink wine (RABEINU GERSHOM).
15)[line 27]כמאן שתו האידנא כהני חמרא?K'MAN SHASU HA'IDNA KAHANI CHAMRA?- According to whose opinion do all Kohanim presently drink wine?
16)[line 30]מנווליןMENUVALIN- unsightly [since they decided to wait until the week of their service to groom themselves]
17)[line 30]מסתפר בכל יוםMISTAPER B'CHOL YOM- [has a Mitzvah to] take a haircut daily
18)[line 32]"מלך ביפיו תחזינה עיניך""MELECH B'YAFYO TECHEZENAH EINECHA"- "Your eyes should behold a king in his magnificence..." (Yeshayah 33:17)
19)[line 33]הואיל ומשמרות מתחדשותHO'IL U'MISHMAROS MISCHADSHOS- since the Mishmaros change [every week (see Background to 12:1), and it is fitting that they should see the Kohen Gadol in his magnificence]
20)[line 34]אתיא פרע פרעASYA PERA PERA (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Gezeirah Shavah, through which two identical words (or two words that share the same root) appearing in two different sections of the Torah teach us that Halachos of one apply to the other and vice versa.
(b)One may apply a Gezeirah Shavah only if he has received a tradition from his teachers that the connection between the two words exists. Once the connection is established, however, then one may apply it to derive Halachos that one did not necessarily receive a tradition for.
(c)A Gezeirah Shavah is unlimited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply to the other connected subject. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah." This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.
(d)There are three possible configurations for a Gezeirah Shavah:
1.MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If both words are seemingly unnecessary and are not used in the derivation of any other teaching, then all of the rules described above apply.
2.MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If the word in only one of the sections is available, some maintain that such a Gezeirah Shavah is no more limited than one that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim. Others rule that Halachos may be derived from such a Gezeirah Shavah only if there is no argument against them. This status is known as "Lemedin u'Meshivin."
3.EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If neither word is free, then those opinions who maintain that a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Tzad Echad is unlimited grant such a Gezeirah Shavah the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin. Those who applied Lemedin u'Meshivin to a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim rule that this one may not be used to determine any Halachos whatsoever.
(e)Regarding the validity of a Gezeirah Shavah between verses from the Torah and Nevi'im or Kesuvim, see Insights here.
(a)One who makes a vow to be a Nazir without stipulating for how long he wishes his Nezirus to last is a Nazir for a period of thirty days. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to: 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21).
(b)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour) which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves his hair and burns it under the pot in which the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18).
22)[line 34]"וראשם לא יגלחו ופרע לא ישלחו""V'ROSHAM LO YEGALEICHU U'FERA LO YESHALEICHU"- "And they may not shave their heads, and they may not grow their hair long..." (Yechezkel 44:20) - This verse appears in Yechezkel, chapter 44, which details those laws unique to Kohanim.
23)[line 35]"קדוש יהיה גדל פרע שער ראשו""KADOSH YIHEYEH, GADEL PERA SE'AR ROSHO."- "... he shall be holy, and he shall grow the hair of his hair long." (Bamidbar 6:5) - This verse describes a Nazir.
24)[line 37]תלתיןTELASIN- thirty
25)[line 38]לא לירבו כללLO LIRBU KLAL- [Kohanim] may not grow their hair at all [for thirty days; rather, they must cut it on the twenty-ninth day (see Insights)]
26a)[line 39]פרע ליהויPERA LEIHAVEI- he may grow his hair for thirty days
b)[line 40]שלוחי הוא דלא לישלחוSHELUCHEI HU D'LO LI'SHLECHU- he may not allow it to grow [beyond that point]
27)[line 40]האידנאHA'IDNA- nowadays [when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash]
28)[line 40]דומיא דשתויי ייןDUMYA D'SHESUYEI YAYIN- [the Gemara answers: it is] similar to the consumption of wine
29)[line 42]ביאהBI'AH- entering [the Beis ha'Mikdash to perform the Avodah]
30)[line 3]דמספר ועיילMESAPER V'AYIL- he can cut his hair and go up [to the Beis ha'Mikdash immediately after]
31)[line 4]דגני פורתאGANI PURTA- sleep a bit
32)[line 5]דרך מילDERECH MIL- walking the distance of one Mil (two thousand Amos, equal to approximately 960 or 1152 meters [3150 or 3780 feet], depending upon the differing Halachic opinions)
33)[line 6]מפיגין את הייןMEFIGIN ES HA'YAYIN- counteract [the intoxicating effects of] the wine
34)[line 8]שיעור רביעיתSHIUR REVI'IS (measurements of volume)
1 Kur = 30 Se'ah
1 Se'ah = 6 Kav
1 Kav = 4 Log
1 Log = 4 Revi'iyos
1 Beitzah = 2 k'Zeisim
(b)One Revi'is is the equivalent of approximately 75, 86.25, or 150 milliliters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.
35)[line 10]מטרידתוMATRIDASO- confuses him
36)[line 10]רב אשי אמרRAV ASHI AMAR ...- Notwithstanding that which the Gemara deferred part of the question by stating that the effects of any more than a Revi'is of wine cannot be deferred easily, the question still remains regarding a Revi'is of wine.
37)[line 11]דמחלי עבודהD'MECHALEI AVODAH- who invalidate (lit. profane) any Avodah that they perform
38)[line 13]במיתהMISAH (KARES AND MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM: Heavenly Punishment of Untimely Death)
(a)Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death. There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments: Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts, but through divinely administered justice.
(b)One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.
(c)The Tif'eres Yisrael, in his commentary to Sanhedrin 9:6, lists a number of differences between Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and Kares:
1.One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim 2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60 but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)
2.When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children (Yevamos 55a and RASHI there; see, however, RIVA in Tosfos to Yevamos 2a DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be referring to the death of children who are not minors.)
4.In addition to the above, in certain instances a form Kares is prescribed in which the sinner not only dies before his time but is also 'severed' (Nichras) from receiving a portion in the World to Come (see Sanhedrin 64b, 90b).
(d)As stated in the Tosefta at the beginning of Kerisus (cited in Sanhedrin 83a), nine sins are punishable with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim:
1.A Kohen who serves in the Mikdash ...without washing his hands and feet
2....or without wearing the Priestly Garments
3....or while intoxicated
4....or with long hair
5....or while Tamei, or even after immersing in a Mikvah from his Tum'ah but before nightfall (or after nightfall but before bringing the Korbanos he is required to bring - Sanhedrin ibid; however Rambam Bi'as Mikdash 4:4 exempts from Misah in such a case.)
6.A Kohen who is Tamei and eats Terumah that is Tahor
7.A non-Kohen ...who serves in the Mikdash
8....or who eats Terumah (or Bikurim - Mishnah Bikurim 2:1).
9.A person who eats Tevel (food that has not been tithed properly).
10.Rebbi (ibid.) adds two more sins that are punishable with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim:
i.A Kohen who serves in the Mikdash with a Mum
ii.A person who intentionally exploits Hekdesh for personal use.
(e)Additional sins punishable with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim are:
1.One who does not heed - or does not transmit - a prophetic command (Sanhedrin 89a).
2.According to some, a Levi or a Kohen who performs service in the Mikdash that has not been assigned to him (Erchin 11a according to Abaye; however Rambam in Sefer ha'Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh #72 and Klei ha'Mikdash 3:11 exempts a Kohen from Misah b'Yedei Shamayim).
39)[line 19]ואיתקושISKUSH (HEKESH)
(a)One of the methods employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah is "Hekesh." A Hekesh entails comparing two subjects that are mentioned together in one verse or neighboring verses.
(b)A Hekesh is a powerful way of determining Halachah. When two subjects are compared through a Hekesh, all possible parallels are drawn between them, unless a different Derashah teaches us otherwise ("Ein Hekesh l'Mechetzah"). Additionally, Pirchos (logical differences) that would impede a Kal va'Chomer or a Gezeirah Shavah do not stand in the way of learning one subject from another through a Hekesh ("Ein Meshivin Al ha'Hekesh").
40)[line 25]מקמי דאתא יחזקאל מאן אמרה?MEKAMEI D'ASI YECHEZKEL MAN AMRA?- who said this Halachah before Yechezkel? (It is not mentioned in the Torah, and there does not seem to be any reason for a Rabbinic decree!)
41)[line 28]"כל בן נכר ערל לב וערל בשר לא יבוא אל מקדשי...""KOL BEN NECHAR EREL LEV V'EREL BASAR LO YAVO EL MIKDASHI..."- "... any Nochri, wicked person, or uncircumcised individual [due to that which his brothers died as a result of circumcision] may not come to my Temple..." (Yechezkel 44:9)
42)[line 30]גמרא גמיר להGEMARA GEMIRI LAH- we learned as a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai
43)[line 33]כי גמירי הלכה(KI GEMIRI HALACHAH...)- These words answer the question posed by the Gemara earlier on the Amud; RASHI says that they belong in place of the parenthetical "Lo, Ki Iskush ..." above.
44a)[line 36]אלין יומיא דלא להתענאה בהוןILEIN YOMAYA D'LO L'HIS'ANA'AH B'HON- these are the days upon which one may not fast
b)[line 37]ומקצתהון דלא למיספד בהוןU'MIKTZAS'HON D'LO L'MISPED B'HON- and upon some of them, one may not even deliver a eulogy (this is a quote from the beginning of Megilas Ta'anis)
45)[line 37]מריש ירחאME'RESH YARCHA- from Rosh Chodesh
46)[line 37]תמניאTEMANYA- the eighth
47)[line 38]איתוקם תמידאITOKAM TEMIDA (BAITUSIM)
(a)The Tzedukim were students of Tzadok, and the Baitusim were students of Baitus. Both of these individuals rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).
(b)The Baitusim maintained that the Korban Tamid may be offered by an individual. Over the course of the first eight days of Nisan, the Chachamim proved to the Baitusim that the Korban Tamid could only be offered from communal funds such that they were forced to capitulate. These days were established as a Yom Tov recorded in Megilas Ta'anis.
48)[line 38]מועדאMO'ADA- the festival [of Pesach]
49)[line 38]איתותב חגא דשבועיאITOSAV CHAGA D'SHAVU'AYA- The Baitusim maintained that Shavuos must always occur on a Sunday. From the eighth of Nisan through Pesach, the Chachamim proved to the Baitusim that Shavuos always falls on the fiftieth day after the second day of Pesach, in such a way that they were forced to capitulate. These days were established as a Yom Tov recorded in Megilas Ta'anis.