[37a - 36 lines; 37b - 41 lines]

1)[line 4]"... , , , , , , ""... TZE'U HA'HAR, V'HAVI'U ALEI ZAYIS, VA'ALEI ETZ SHEMEN, VA'ALEI HADAS, VA'ALEI SEMARIM, VA'ALEI ETZ AVOS, LA'ASOS SUKOS KAKASUV" - "[They then issued a command] that it should be announced and proclaimed in all of their cities and in Yerushalayim saying: "Go to the mountain and bring olive branches, pine branches, branches of myrtle, date-palm branches, and branches that are braided with leaves, to make Sukos as it is written" (Nechemyah 8:15) (EZRA EDUCATES KLAL YISRAEL ABOUT SUKOS)

(a)Following the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash, Klal Yisrael were resettled in Bavel. After seventy years of exile, many returned to Yerushalayim, led by Ezra ha'Sofer.

(b)Ezra first set about rebuilding the walls of Yerushalayim. As the Torah had largely been neglected during the years of exile, the unlearned people then clamored to hear what the Torah said. Ezra gather everyone to the square before the Water Gate of the Beis ha'Mikdash on the first day of Rosh Hashanah and read the section of the Torah pertaining to Rosh Hashanah aloud. The assembled wept as they realized that they had forsaken the teachings of the Torah. Ezra, however, told them to be joyous and celebrate the festival.

(c)On the second day of Rosh Hashanah, Ezra gathered the leaders of the community, along with the Kohanim and the Leviyim. He read to them from the Torah concerning the Mitzvah of Sukos. The first items listed in the Pasuk refer to materials with which to build and cover their Sukos, whereas the last two refer to Lulavim and Hadasim for the Arba Minim. Although "Alei Hadas" and "Etz Avos" both refer to myrtle branches, the former describes a "Hadas Shoteh" - a myrtle branch that is invalid for use as part of the Arba Minim since its leaves do not sprout from the branch in batches of three (this is termed "Meshulash"). The proclamation certainly included a directive to bring Esrogim and Aravos as well (METZUDAS DAVID).

(d)The nation responded enthusiastically, and the Sukos festival was celebrated more fully and with more rejoicing than it had been since the days of Yehoshua bin Nun, who had lived nearly one thousand years earlier.

2)[line 4] ETZ SHEMEN- a) a pine tree (RALBAG to Melachim I 6:23, MEIRI Avodah Zarah 13b, RADAK to Yeshayah 41:19); b) a balsam tree (GEMARA Rosh Hashanah 23a, Bava Basra 80b)

3)[line 6]HANEI- those [olive branches and pine branches]

4)[line 8]NESARIM- boards

5)[line 11]EREZ- cedar [wood]

6)[line 12] ' EIN BA'HEM ARBA'AH TEFACHIM- if [the boards] are [wider than three Tefachim, but] not quite four Tefachim wide (see Daf 14)

7)[line 15] SHE'MENI'ACH PESEL BEINEIHEM U'CHESHEIRAH- that if he places kosher Sechach ("Pesel" refers to the "Pesoles" - that which is left over from the grapes and grain after they have been processed) between them then the Sukah is valid. The Gemara (18a) explains that this applies specifically in a case in which the two widths of kosher Sechach meet in the middle of the Sukah, creating eight Tefachim of kosher Sechach. This meets the minimum requirement for a valid Sukah (seven Tefachim). Additionally, all of the remaining boards must be within four Amos of a wall, so that they are rendered non-Sechach through Dofen Akumah (see Background to 14:16).

8)[line 17] ASARAH MINEI ARAZIM HEN- there are ten species of trees called "Erez." All of these trees share the following characteristics: their central trunk grows straight up, their branches grow straight out, and their leaves point upward. Due to these features, the cedar is a symbol of pride and haughtiness (Ta'anis 20a).

9)[line 18]SHITAH- a) an acacia tree; b) (O.F. pin) a pine tree (RASHI to Rosh Hashanah 23a, RASHBAM to Bava Basra 80b)

10)[line 18]" , , , [ ; , ]""ETEN BA'MIDBAR EREZ, SHITAH, VA'HADAS, [V'ETZ SHAMEN; ASIM BA'ARAVAH B'ROSH, TIDHAR U'SE'ASHUR YACHDAV]" - "I will place cedar trees, acacia trees, myrtle bushes, and pine trees in the desert; I will put cypress trees, fir trees, and box tree together in the plains" (Yeshayah 41:19) (SUCCOR FOR THE RETURNING EXILES)

(a)In describing the state of those who will return to Eretz Yisrael, Yeshayah ha'Navi depicts those who are poor, needy, and desperately thirsty. At that point, HaSh-m will suddenly cause rivers and fountains to flow, and produce pools of water in the desert through which to satisfy their thirst. He will also cause "Erez" trees to grow both to provide them with shade and to serve as future building materials.

(b)The purpose of these miraculous events will be for the nations of the world to realize and appreciate that HaSh-m is the One who has brought about the entire sequence of events.

11)[line 20] YAKIREI YERUSHALAYIM- honorable, wealthy residents of Yerushalayim

12a)[line 23] MEGADLEI HOSHANA- those who bound the Hadasim and Aravos to the Lulav

b)[line 23] D'BEI REISH GALUSA- of the household of the Exilarch, the hereditary position of religious leader of Babylonian Jewry

13)[line 25] BEIS YAD- a place [upon the Lulav, clear of the material used to bind the Hoshana, by which] to grasp it

14)[line 25]CHATZITZAH- an intervening substance (see Insights)

15)[line 26]L'NA'OSO- [whose presence is] in order to beautify the [Lulav]

16)[line 27]LINKIT- hold

17)[line 27]SUDRA- a scarf

18)[line 28] LEKICHAH TAMAH- a perfect taking [of the Arba Minim] (This requirement is a result of the homiletic interpretation of the word "u'Lekachtem" (Vayikra 23:40; see Daf 34b).)


(a)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah (see Background to 13:10:a:1) and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).)

(b)The water and ashes of the Mei Chatas are mixed in a stone trough, since stone cannot become Tamei. The water is first added to the empty vessel, and only then the ashes (Sotah 16b).

(c)During the times of the Beis ha'Mikdash, Kohanim would travel from town to town with hollow reeds filled with spring water and ashes of the Parah Adumah. They would use these to purify any who were Teme'ei Mes. If any Mei Chatas remained, this too was transported in a hollow reed. The Mishnah quoted in our Gemara (Parah 12:1) discusses a situation in which the level of Mei Chatas in the reed was so low that the Ezov branches were unable to reach it.

20)[line 31]MESAPKO- he may extend it

21)[line 31]KUSH- (O.F. fusel) a spindle

22)[line 35]D'CHABREI- he has attached it [to the Ezov]

23)[line 35] K'GUFEI DAMI- it is as if it is an extension of the Ezov [and not that it was grasped through something else]

24)[last line] NAFAL MI'SHEFOFERES- if [the ash of the Parah Adumah] fell [into the spring water] from the hollow reed [in which it was stored]

25)[last line]SHOKES- a trough


26)[line 1] HIPILO HU- if he [intentionally] shook it [into the water]

27)[line 3] LO LADUTZ INISH LULAVA B'HOSHANA- one should not force a Lulav into a bundle of Hadasim and Aravos

28)[line 4] NASREI TARPEI- [Hadas or Aravah] leaves will be stripped off


(a)Certain Mitzvos require that there be no Chatzitzah (intervening substance) between the person performing the Mitzvah and the substance with or in which the action is performed. One example of such a Mitzvah is Tevilah (immersion in a Mikvah), in which the person's skin must be in contact with the water. Another is the Avodah (divine service) performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash, during which no substance may intervene between the Kohen and his Bigdei Kehunah (see Background to 39:57), the Kli Shares (sanctified utensil) which is required to perform the Avodah, or between his bare feet and the sanctified floor of the Azarah. This issue applies to the Mitzvah of Arba Minim as well. One must hold the four species in his hand directly, with no intervening substance between them (see Insights to Sukah 37:2).

(b)A question dealt with by the Amora'im in numerous places is whether or not Min b'Mino (a like item or substance) constitutes a Chatzitzah or not. One such example is one Mizrak (a vessel used to collect the blood of slaughtered offerings) placed inside another. The blood is collected in the inner Mizrak, while the Kohen holds the outer Mizrak. This is the subject of the disagreement between Rabah and Rava in our Gemara. Rabah rules that Min b'Mino Chotzetz, and therefore loose leaves of the Arba Minim serve as a foreign intervention between the Lulav and the Hadasim or Aravos. Rava rules that Min b'Mino Eino Chotzetz; therefore, such leaves do not Halachically come between the Lulav and other branches.

30)[line 6] LO LIGOZ INISH LULAVA B'HOSHANA- one should not trim the bottom of a Lulav while it is in a bundle with Hadasim and Aravos

31)[line 7] MISHTAIRI HUTZA- for [unconnected] leaves remain [stuck in the bundle]

32)[line 10] L'REICHA KA'I- it is primarily used for its fragrance

33)[line 11]AKTZEYEI- it is designated [for use in the Mitzvah of Arba Minim exclusively]

34)[line 13] MUTAR L'HARI'ACH BO- it is permissible to smell [on any Shabbos]

35)[line 22]MENA'AN'IN- shake [the Lulav]

36)[line 23] TECHILAH VA'SOF- at the beginning and end [of Tehilim 118, which comprises the latter half of Halel]

37)[line 25] TZOFEH HAYISI- I would watch

38)[line 26] HAYU MENA'AN'IN ES LULVEIHEN- would shake their Lulavim [while saying, "Ana HaSh-m Hatzlichah Na"]

39a)[line 28] ?MAN D'CHAR SHMEI?- who ever mentioned it [that out Mishnah should begin by asking when it occurs]?

b)[line 29] HASAM KA'I- it is referring to there (an earlier Mishnah)

40)[line 31] SHTEI HA'LECHEM

(a)On Shavu'os, a communal Korban known as the Shtei ha'Lechem is offered. It consists of two loaves of Chametz bread baked from Chadash (grain that began to take root after the Korban ha'Omer was offered on the second day of Pesach of the previous year; Vayikra 23:17). One loaf is given to the Kohen Gadol, and the other is divided among the rest of the Kohanim who are in the Mikdash at that time. They may be eaten on the day of Shavu'os as well as until midnight of the following night (RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:11).

(b)Along with the Shtei ha'Lechem, seven sheep, one bull, and two rams are offered as Olos, a goat as a Korban Chatas, and an additional two sheep are offered as Korbenos Shelamim (these last two are known as Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur [see next entry]; Vayikra 23:18-19).

(c)Chadash refers to grain that begins to take root after the Korban ha'Omer is brought on the second day of Pesach. Following the offering of the Shtei ha'Lechem, Chadash may be used even in Menachos (see Background to Menachos 2:1).


(a)On Shavu'os, two sheep with the status of Korbenos Shelamim (see Background to Yoma 62:32) are offered in conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem. These sheep are the only Shelamim offered by the Tzibur, and are therefore the only Shelamim with the status of Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Yoma 36:1).

42)[line 33]MENIF (TENUFAH)

(a)Certain Korbanos and Minchah offerings (see Background to Menachos 2:1), as well as Bikurim (see Background to Pesachim 53:16), are waved by a Kohen. This process, called Tenufah, involves the waving of the offering in the four directions of the compass, upward, and downward. (RASHI Menachos 62a DH Molich). TOSFOS here DH Kedei discusses whether all Tenufos are performed in this fashion, or if certain Tenufos require only upward and downward motions.

43)[line 33] , MOLICH U'MEVI, MA'ALEH U'MORID- he moves them outward and inward, upward and downward

44)[line 34]"... ""... ASHER HUNAF VA'ASHER HURAM" (EIL HA'MILU'IM)

(a)The first seven days during which the Avodah was performed in the Mishkan were called the "Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im." The word "Milu'im" means "filling," and refers to the fact that during these days the position of Divine servants was finally "filled" by the Kohanim (RASHI to Vayikra 8:22). These seven days began on the 23rd of Adar and lasted until Rosh Chodesh Nisan, which was the eighth day.

(b)During the Yemei ha'Milu'im, the Kohanim along with all of the components and utensils of the Mishkan were anointed with Shemen ha'Mishchah (see above, entry #4). On each day of the Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im, the following Korbanos were offered : a bull offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf, a ram offered as an Olah, another ram offered as a Korban Shelamim, and three types of Matzah: Chalos Matzos, Chalos Lechem Shemen, and Rekikim (Vayikra 8:14-36, Menachos 78a). Moshe Rabeinu officiated as the Kohen Gadol, demonstrating the Avodah to Aharon and his sons. On each day, Moshe assembled and dissembled the Mishkan, until the eighth day, on which he left it standing. On that day, Aharon was officially appointed as the Kohen Gadol and the Shechinah descended to dwell permanently in the Mishkan (RASHI ibid. 9:23).

(c)On the eighth day, Aharon and his sons began to offer the Korbanos, beginning with the special Korbanos listed in Parshas Shemini (Vayikra 9).

(d)The ram offered as a Korban Shelamim during the "Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im" was called the Eil ha'Milu'im (Shemos 29:22). The verse refers to the breast and thigh of this Ayil, "which were waved (from side to side) and lifted" (Shemos 29:27). The manner of all other Tenufos (wavings) referred to in the Torah is learned from this description.

45)[line 35] L'MI SHEHA'ARBA RUCHOS SHE'LO- to [demonstrate that this Mitzvah is performed in order to fulfill the will of] He to Whom [everything in] the four directions of the compass belongs

46)[line 39] K'DEI LA'ATZOR RUCHOS RA'OS- in order to ward off harmful winds

47)[line 40] TELALIM RA'IM- harmful